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Mk3 jetta and passat new owner/buyer's checklist (1996-1997 passat TDI, 1996-1999 jetta TDI) Congratulations! You just bought a VW Jetta TDI or VW Passat TDI or are looking to buy one. Here is a maintenance checklist to bring your car up to good running order, list of common problems, and other things to know. You can view a full list of how to repair instructions for the mk3 TDI at: , this page is organized to show new owner issues and info. Mk3 or mkIII means mark 3 or 3rd generation VW and includes the years of Jetta and Passat listed above. A3 is the 3rd generation jetta. B4 is the 4th passat and is also a mk3 car. For immediate inspection Check for any error codes Autozone and many other auto parts stores give free error code scans. See if there are any error codes in the car computer's memory. This will let you know of any problems. If you plan on working on the car yourself, get the VW/Audi specific VCDS ross tech car diagnostic cable. It used to be called VAG-COM. Do you have constant low power or rev limiter or the car suddenly loses power? See or . Vacuum hoses: The ECU (car computer) has a vacuum hose inside that will need replacement. All mk3 VW TDI have had or will have this problem. If you have a check engine light and an error code showing 65535 - Internal Control Module Memory Error this is an indication that the ecu hose or another vacuum hose is leaking. Since ECU failure is rare, most bad ECU can be fixed by replacing this hose. See for this procedure. The vacuum hose ends get dried out, rub through, or crack, causing running problems. They're mostly 3.5mm and 4mm hoses which you can buy silicone hose at Mcmaster. Timing belt replacement interval = 60,000 mile replacement - this must be serviced immediately if there is no recent record of changing it. If this part fails, the cylinder head will be damaged and in severe cases you will need a new engine. This is because the TDI is an interference engine. If the timing belt or timing belt roller/tensioner fails, the valves will hit the pistons and cause damage. Mk4 cars can use a long life timing belt, the Mk3 must stick to the 60,000 mile maximum replacement interval. See for more details. Note - if you just purchased this car, many sellers will have the timing belt changed to add value to the car. Many don't know how to properly index the tight tolerances that a diesel engine needs or the procedures for replacing the timing belt on a TDI or have a mechanic who is used to gasoline cars and then does the work on a TDI engine. At least remove the timing belt cover and inspect the parts to see if they look new as some sellers will outright lie or be lied to by a 3rd party. If you have any doubt about the timing belt, have it changed as soon as possible not as soon as practical! Engine oil change: = 10,000 mile change w/filter if you are using synthetic diesel engine oil. See for a list of oils you can use in this TDI. Note that it is normal for the oil to be black, even when new. It is also normal for the engine to consume a little oil between engine oil changes. See the engine oil list for more details. Plastic belly splash shield present? - While you are under the hood, see if the plastic belly pan is there. It's a black plastic splash shield with sound absorbing squares in it. It keeps water and dirt off the bottom of the engine and belts, reduces sound, and improves aerodynamics. If you can see the ground through the engine bay, it's not there - replacement is suggested. Tire air pressure = as specified by the manufacturer. There is a sticker inside the fuel door, on the inside of the driver's side door, or in the trunk which will specify an appropriate cold tire air pressure. Check the pressure only when the tire is cool or you haven't driven the car in at least 5 hours. A generic tire pressure you can use is 32 psi, never exceed the cold tire pressure listed on the side of the tire. Engine coolant = lifetime coolant should be changed as necessary. VW/Audi G12 (G12+) or Pentosin coolant is red, pink, or purple. Do not mix G12/G12+ or any VW compatible coolant with other colors (green, blue, orange) otherwise it will damage the coolant. If it has to be topped off, use distilled water. See to see a how to article on this. Note that the Jetta came with G12, some early Passat came from the factory with blue colored G11 which is not compatible with G12/G12+/G12++. Diesel fuel filter change: = 10,000 mile drain water, 20,000 mile replacement. If you plan on using high percentages of biodiesel, you should change it as soon as practical because biodiesel can loosen up deposits. See for more details. See for more info on biodiesel. Diesel injection pump leaks: Due to age and fuel issues, the seals on the injection pump can leak. The diesel fuel will corrode the timing belt and coolant hoses and even a small leak should be cleaned up ASAP. The top cover, middle quantity adjuster section, and head o-ring can be replaced on the car, most of the other seals should ideally be done off the car and might need a rebuild with all new seals. The pump should not be totally removed without locking the timing belt with VW timing belt tools. See for more details on top seal replacement. Warning: only the top cover seal can be easily replaced, the other seals require a VAG-COM and/or at least basic mechanical sense. See for more details on removal. Replace relay 109: Some cars have a relay 109 that can fail, shutting the engine off without explanation. Relay 109 controls the ECU and since the ECU controls fueling, failure of relay 109 causes the engine to suddenly shut off. The old relay is black and marked 109 and is under the dashboard in the relay box. The redesigned relay to fix this problem is gray and is also marked 109 . If you have a black relay 109, get it replaced ASAP with a gray relay 109. A common symptom is the glow plug light not turning on. Sometimes the relay will cool down, letting you start the car a few minutes after suddenly shutting off. If the engine ever suddenly races and accelerates on its own, it may be having a runaway. An engine malfunction could cause the engine to eat its own engine oil. Since diesels are throttled by fuel and not air, this causes a feedback cycle where the engine races higher and higher. If the car is in gear it will also accelerate. Read more about a diesel engine runaway at Service areas that can wait and common problems You may have noticed a that gets worse on cold days. and misc. electrical load will help reduce this tendency but a likely solution is to replace the harmonic balancer/crankshaft pulley and maybe the serpentine belt tensioner. If you have a Jetta, the chirping noise could also be the one-way clutch on the alternator pulley slipping (not used on the Passat). The alternator pulley clutch is designed to increase the life of the alternator by letting it freewheel in one direction. The instrument cluster on Passat often burn out and need to be replaced. Be wary of a Passat with low mileage because it may have a replacement instrument cluster which will not reflect the true mileage. If you take off some of the instrument panel trim, there's red paint on the original screws holding the instrument cluster. If the paint is disturbed the cluster may not be original. The problem comes from cranking the engine with low battery. The voltage drop from using the starter discharges the memory in the dashboard - extended starting attempts can cause permanent damage. If you drain the battery down, do not try to start it without fully charging the battery! If you play with the ignition key, hear a buzzing sound from the dashboard, and the trip meter resets to zero, this means that you are in the danger zone. If you have a low battery, STOP and get it fully charged. Passat odometers reset back to 0 at 300,000 so if the car shows unusually low mileage it's possible that the odometer has flipped over. (Jetta don't have this issue) There's a fuse on the firewall next to the coolant tank that is commonly burnt out. This is the coolant glow plug fuse. The coolant glow plugs are separate from the engine cylinder glow plugs. Coolant glow plugs heat up the coolant and should help in faster engine warm up. Unlike the cylinder glow plugs, it won't affect engine starting. Clean the contacts of corrosion to help prevent future damage and replace the fuse. Check the fuel injection quantity through VCDS. Some cars tend to have running problems or smoke due to poorly calibrated fuel injection quantity. See for more details. The door handles tend to stick or become hard to open with wear. If the back doors open easily but the driver's side is hard, it can be easily adjusted. See . Apply the parking brake when parking! It's good practice with any car but it is important on VWs because this sets the rear caliper self adjusters. It's best to apply the brake before going into park (auto trans) or first/reverse gear (manual trans) to put stress on the brake instead of the transmission internals. After scanning with a VCDS you may notice airbag error codes. The Mk3 airbag sensors are sensitive and will often set off a false alarm code. Clear the code and see if it comes back, it is very common due to overly sensitive sensors. If the code comes back soon, there is probably a real problem. Check the heater core for leaks, as it can leak coolant onto the electrical connectors below it and corrode the system. Also note that the Mk4 cars had a problem with VCDS damaging the airbag controller, this does not apply to mk3 cars. The car might go into limp mode due to a broken vacuum line or sticking solenoid. If you are applying power and all of a sudden it feels like you hit a huge headwind and power is taken away, this is limp mode. See for some easy fixes. Due to age, mileage, and possibly the switch to ultra low sulfur fuel, some people experience leaking seals on the fuel injection pump. This may also be caused by heavy biodiesel use and then switching to petrol diesel. This will cause a no or hard start condition due to the fuel pump losing it's prime. The dealership will not fix it, their only option is to replace the entire pump at great expense. It's easy to change a few of the seals on the car as long as you have the right tools. Do NOT remove the center section, the quantity adjuster, without first indexing it with a VCDS. The diesel fuel injection pump can have the fuel temperature sensor malfunction, if you go to the dealership, they will try to sell you a new injection pump. Are you using biodiesel? Make sure the fuel is water free! The center console HVAC light often burns out. Just pull the center knob straight out to reveal the light bulb. Misc VW quirks and maintenance, non priority The ignition switch replacement should be done on all mk3 TDI. It was an extended warranty item for the 1996-1997 jetta/passat but only for 8 years and 100,000 miles so the coverage is probably worthless now (worth it to ask the dealer for a discount anyways). A bad ignition switch can cause the car to have flaky electrical symptoms, shut off the car, or result in a no/hard start. If the car starts when you jiggle the key up, down, in, out, etc., while holding it to start, the ignition switch is causing the issue. It's normal for the speedometer to read slightly higher than actual speed. German cars tend to have fast speedometers to account for car variations and so that they don't read lower than actual speed. The odometer reading should be correct and is a separate display from the speedometer. Jetta odometers reset at 300,000 miles to 0. Don't add a cold air intake filter because it already has a cold air intake and it won't be effective. If you want effective power upgrades, get a chip tune or chip tune + nozzle upgrade. Further upgrades would include a bigger turbo and a supporting mod like a stronger clutch. Check out for chip tuning for TDI engines. Also see the basic power upgrades article in the FAQ for more details. Holding the door key in unlock will open the power windows. If this happens even when you're not holding it in unlock, the microswitch inside the door handle is faulty and is making the ignition switch think you are holding the key to unlock. The mk3 TDI were usually sold in base trim so the car probably doesn't have remote keyless entry. See for the procedure. The power door locks are vacuum actuated. Some Audi did this too because it moves the door locks smoothly instead of an electric solenoid thunking them up and down. The problem is that a faulty door microswitch, vacuum leak due to a worn line in the door hinges, and other issues can cause problems. See . It's common for the valve cover or EGR to seep oil. None of these will affect engine function but it can cause smoke and a big oily mess. The valve cover seal can be easily replaced but the EGR is part of the intake manifold and has to be replaced as one piece. Stepping on the brake and accelerator at the same time will cause the drive by wire throttle to reduce power. The Audi R8 exotic sports car also does it too; it's a byproduct of drive by wire. You can add an aspherical driver's side mirror to give a wider field of view. The part number is VW# 1h1 857 521 c. There is no writeup for this exact model but see to see pictures and a description of this on a similar VW. Is there wax like tar dripping from the bottom of the doors? It is the wax sealant that VW uses to prevent corrosion. It helps to prevent rust but it melts, coming out of the door vents. Just use Goo Gone or some other paint-safe solvent and wipe clean with a microfiber towel and lots of water. Why microfiber instead of a paper towel? Microfiber is non-scratch and paper towels will scratch the paint. The tar also has lots of dirt stuck to it so using a microfiber towel will help avoid scratches. Follow up with soap and water, then wax. Get the car detailed. You will be amazed at what a good paint polish and interior cleaning can do. See for more tips. The front fenders will rust due to soundproofing that VW put between the metal fender and plastic wheel well liner. You can prevent this from occurring by removing the plastic wheel well liner and trimming the foam. There'll also be a lot of dirt behind the wheel well liners - clean it out to prevent moisture from building there. Also check for rust in general. You may also notice that the headlight plastic is oxidized. Polish and seal the headlights as seen in The VW Jetta TDI have glass headlights so they are not prone to this problem but Passat are old enough so that they will need a good polish. Passat TDI headlights are also pretty dim and dark. You can modify brighter bulbs to fit, see for details, but make sure the headlights are cleared or else it will just create glare. If you don't open the driver's side door within 30 seconds of unlocking the car, it will relock itself. If the car does it even if you open the door, the door module, handle, or wiring may be bad. Brake and clutch fluid should be changed every 2 years with DOT 4 fluid. See for some tips. Refer to your owner's manual for the general maintenance schedule. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system lets in exhaust which mixes with the oily crankcase vapors. It forms a carbon buildup which will clog the intake. The intake must be removed from the car for cleaning or replacement, do NOT try to clean it while it's still attached to the engine. See for the procedure. Some people suggest turning down the EGR with a VCDS but the ECU will adapt and the result is lower fuel economy. The EGR solenoid or valve can also leak or stick. This is due to broken vacuum lines or a bad solenoid. The EGR can also leak oil out the outside of the valve. This causes an oily mess but it can also be a fire hazard if the leak is bad and a lot of oil gets onto the exhaust. Your TDIs has the EGR and intake manifold as one piece, the mk4 cars have the EGR and intake manifold as two separate pieces. EGR/intake manifold replacement or diverting the leak is suggested. See the above paragraph for the removal procedure and parts lists. The parking brake cables may freeze the rear calipers in the engaged position in freezing moist weather. If the rear wheels stick on cold freezing mornings, that is the most likely cause of the problem. The boots crack due to age and let water in. If the shifter is difficult getting into 1st gear, it may be because of a worn shifter linkage or it may need a simple adjustment. See for details. New gear oil may also help. Most 1996 passat have a metal ECU case that was replaced under a recall. Those which were not replaced had black plastic case. If the 5th fuel injector (only for emissions) has not been disabled (it doesn't work anyways, wastes fuel, and creates unnecessary smoke), fix it now. I think it might have been a recall item. See for more details and a how to . The heater door uses a foam covered door. If the foam breaks up you'll only get a little bit of heat. If you see bits of grey foam coming out of the air vents you know it's falling apart. You can use any adhesive foam to repair the blend door. Clean the engine air filter (for all) and change the cabin air filter (for Passat only). The snowscreen for the air intake should also be cleaned. See that procedure at service. Do the front strut mounts have a lot of play between the mount and it's seat? Does the strut top stick up and does the strut fall down a little when you raise the car? This is normal because some play is needed to allow the front wheels to turn. As the suspension ages, this gap may get larger because the weight of the car and use/age has caused the springs to sag and bushings to compress. The Passat center console glove box has a weak door hinge and tends to break. It costs $75 for a replacement, available from the dealership.

mk4 buying guide for Jetta TDI (1999.5-2005), Golf and New Beetle TDI (1998-2006) new owner, buyer's guide, and common issue checklist Introduction If you're thinking about buying a mk4 (mark 4, mkiv, 4th generation) Volkswagen TDI or just bought a new car (at least new to you), here's a maintenance checklist to bring your car up to good running order, list of common problems, FAQ, and other things to know when buying. A full list of how to is linked above. A general TDI FAQ, more buying checklists, and technical index can be found at 1000q: FAQ and how to , the blue button on the upper right. Register for the forums linked at the top to ask any questions about this article. Why would you want an older TDI instead of a brand new TDI? The 1998-2003 TDI get the best fuel economy amongst TDI sold in North America because the cars were lighter, the engine very efficient, and have lighter emissions standards than new cars. Later TDI sacrificed fuel efficiency to meet emissions and grew in size/weight/features/power (which could also be the reason why you want a newer TDI). This body style/generation had two engine types, pumpe duse and regular direct injection. For North America, 1998-2003 mk4 VW TDI are regular direct injection using a Bosch VE distributor fuel injection pump. 2004-2006 are pumpe duse injection. See 1000q: mk4 Jetta cosmetic differences and for more details. 2004-2005 VW Passat TDI are also pumpe duse but since they use a different engine and body, see 1000q: Passat TDI new owner checklist for information on those. There were two basic trim levels. GL = basic trim. Generally speaking, GLS = power windows, sunroof, alloy wheels. There were some trim changes over the years so early cars typically don't have stability control or traction control. While you can retrofit traction control (brakes the wheels at low speeds to help get you moving), it's nearly impossible to add stability control (yaw control at higher speeds to straighten out a slide). Some other options were leather, monsoon radio w/6cd changer, automatic transmission, and sunroof. 1999: Beetle adds side turn signal behind front fender. ABS standard on new beetle 2000: anti-theft device in key standard, some models receive clear side marker lights, trunk entrapment inside release latch added, brake wear indicator light on dashboard mid 2001: side airbags standard in Jetta, head curtain airbags optional in Jetta, standard in Golf, trunk entrapment latch standard 2002: Jetta available as TDI wagon, new 2 din stereo system with optional cd changer option, monsoon stereo is also changed, cd player standard on GLS, Golf GL now available in 4 door 2002-2003: ESP stability control becomes an option on all models 2003: New wheel styles introduced, base GL now includes power windows/locks, cd player, and cruise control standard (all base cars), GLS now includes alloy wheels and moonroof standard. 2004: Pumpe duse engine introduced (click here to see the differences between direct injection and pumpe duse), Passat now available with diesel engine in the US, Passat wagon now available as TDI (auto transmission only), side head curtain airbags standard, Auto transmission now 5 speed instead of 4 speed (the 5 speed is much more reliable), Jetta is slightly restyled (click here to see the differences), Monsoon premium stereo standard on GLS 2006: ESP stability control standard on US Volkswagens For immediate inspection and priority service on VW TDI Do the car have constant low power, is rev limited, or suddenly loses power? See and . Check for any error codes: Autozone or your local auto parts store give free error code scans. See if there are any error codes in the car computer's memory. Not all errors will set off the check engine light (CEL) or malfunction indicator light (MIL). This will give you a hint of any major problems. If you plan on working on the car yourself, get the VW/Audi specific VCDS ross tech car diagnostic cable. It used to be called vag-com. Caution: early VCDS software causes a conflict with the airbag module in 2000-2001 mk4 and possibly other years as well. If you have a VAG-COM, upgrade it to the latest version. Refer to the ross tech website for the final word on the airbag problem, more details at . If you autoscan or try to scan the airbag module with earlier software, it could cause the airbag module to show an error and light the check airbag warning light on the dashboard permanently! When using a cable, make sure the green LED on the cable shows up to confirm hardware compatibility if equipped with an aftermarket radio. Some common codes are related to worn vacuum lines or the glow plugs. If the glow plug harness has a bad connection this will set off the CEL. Check for corrosion on the wires or breaks. Note: glow plug number is opposite the cylinder number because it goes in closest to the harness. Cylinder 1 has glow plug #4, cylinder 2 has glow plug #3, etc. Only 2002 and newer differentiated glow plugs, older cars only recognized all or none. Timing belt Varies according to the year/engine so check your owner's manual for the change interval. Early cars with the lower 60,000 miles or less timing belt parts can have the 100,000 mile timing belt retrofitted. (You must also change the tensioner, rollers, and water pump.) If this part fails, the cylinder head will be damaged and in severe cases you will need a new engine. All interference engines which use a timing belt will have engine damage if the timing belt or timing belt roller/tensioner fails because the valves will hit the pistons. For 1998-2003 TDI ALH engines, see for a detailed procedure. The automatic transmission cars have lower timing belt change intervals for some years because the larger injection pump puts more stress on the timing belt. For 2004-2006 BEW pumpe duse engines, see . If you just purchased this car, many sellers will have the timing belt changed to add value to the car. Many don't know how to properly index the tolerances that a diesel engine needs or the procedures for replacing the timing belt on a TDI. Some have used a mechanic who is familiar with gasoline cars and messes up the TDI engine. At least remove the timing belt cover and inspect the parts to see if they look new as some sellers will outright lie. If you have any doubt about the timing belt, have it changed as soon as possible not as soon as practical ! Engine oil change 10,000 mile change w/filter if you are using synthetic engine oil for diesels. See 1000q: diesel engine oil for a list of direct injection (non pumpe duse) engine oils. See 1000q: pumpe duse engine oil for a list of oils approved by VW for pumpe duse engines. Generally speaking, long oil change intervals are good for the engine assuming that you use the correct engine oil. It's normal for the oil to be black, even when new. See the engine oil lists for more details. See for the DIY procedure. Plastic lower engine bay cover aka splash shield present? While you are under the hood, see if the splash shield is there - it's a black plastic shield that covers the bottom of the engine bay. If you can see the ground through the engine bay, someone lost it. It should be replaced to keep water and dirt off the bottom of the engine and belts. Exposure will shorten their life, lower mpg by increasing drag, and make rust worse. If you see a metal shield, someone. Tire air pressure: as specified by the manufacturer. There is a sticker inside the fuel door, on the inside of the driver's side door, or in the trunk which will specify an appropriate cold tire air pressure. Check tire pressure when the tire is cool or you haven't driven the car in at least 5 hours. A generic tire pressure for an average weight passenger car is 32 psi. Never exceed the cold tire pressure listed on the side of the tire. Engine coolant: lifetime coolant should be changed as necessary. VW/Audi G12 (G12+) or Pentosin coolant is red, pink, or purple. Do NOT mix G12 with other colors (green, blue, orange) otherwise it will sludge the coolant. If it has to be topped off, use distilled water. If you are topping it off more than once, first figure out where the coolant is disappearing. See for more details and pictures. Fuel filter 10,000 mile drain water, 20,000 mile replacement. If you plan on using high percentages of biodiesel, you should change it as soon as practical because biodiesel can loosen up deposits. See for more details. See for more info on biodiesel. Check for coolant migration This is a rare but bizarre condition where coolant will seep into the wiring harness due to a faulty coolant tank, traveling throughout the wiring harness and damaging electrical components. This can total your car because in extreme cases, coolant can seep all the way back to the taillights and corrode all the electrical contacts! See for more details. It only takes 5 seconds to check and is a rare condition. Replace your relay 109 (1998-2003 only) 98-03 cars had a relay marked 109 which commonly overheats and fails, shutting the engine off suddenly without any notice. Relay 109 powers the ECU (car's computer), so no ECU = no fuel and sudden engine shut off. The old relay is black, marked 109 (601 if you're upside down), and is under the dashboard in the relay box. The redesigned relay marked 109 is gray and fixes the problem. If you have a black relay 109, get it replaced ASAP with a gray relay 109. An indicator of a bad relay 109 is the engine suddenly shutting off and the glow plug not coming on during failed restarts. Sometimes the relay will cool down, letting you start the car after a few minutes. Diesel injection pump leaks (1998-2003 only) - Due to age and fuel issues, the seals on the injection pump can leak. Leaking diesel fuel can corrode the timing belt and coolant hoses so even a small leak should be cleaned up asap. The top cover, middle quantity adjuster section, and head o-ring can be replaced on the car but most of the other seals should ideally be done off the car. The pump should not be removed without locking the timing belt with VW timing belt tools since it's on the timing belt drive. See for more details on top seal replacement. Warning: only the top cover seal can be easily replaced, the other seals require a VCDS and at least basic mechanical sense and the proper tools. Tandem pump leaks (2004-2006 only) - The tandem pump is a dual fuel and vacuum pump on the driver's side of the engine head. It carries fuel to the pumpe duse injectors and is found on 2004-2005 mk4 cars (also used on mk5 cars) The earlier cars' fuel pump was for vacuum only. There was a recall on the tandem pump seal leaking. If diesel fuel leaks onto the rubber parts, it will corrode the rubber hoses. Brake and clutch fluid Should be changed every 2 years regardless of mileage with DOT 4 fluid. See for some tips. Runaway engine (all diesel engines) If the engine ever suddenly races and accelerates on its own, it may be having a runaway. All diesel engines could experience an engine malfunction which causes the engine to eat its own engine oil. Since diesels are throttled by fuel and not air, this causes a feedback cycle in which the engine races higher and higher. If the car is in gear it will also accelerate. The first priority is to keep control of the car and shut off the ignition as soon as it's safe and practical. Take it to a mechanic before starting it again. Read more about a diesel engine runaway and some causes at . All ALH engines have an anti-shudder valve which cuts off air to the engine. Some people remove it and put in aftermarket race pipes to increase power. I don't use them because it removes the emergency engine shut off feature. Glow plug recall (2004-2006 mk4 TDI only) - VW switched to ceramic glow plugs starting with the 2004 TDI. In 2009 they issued a recall which replaced the ceramic glow plugs with steel but didn't do sufficient testing on the computer flash for the new glow plugs. This can result in significant cold start problems if the car is started in near freezing temperatures or even a no start condition. If you had the recall done VW will fix their mistake with an update, if not they won't. See for more details. Service areas that can wait and common problems If you are thinking of buying a 2004-2006 TDI, do a camshaft inspection. See for a detailed procedure. This is not something that most mechanics would inspect so it isn't included in the immediate checks. But before doing the next timing belt service (2004-2006 cars only), remove the valve cover and inspect the camshaft. The camshaft on 2004-2006 ( pumpe duse engines) have narrow camshaft lobes because some space is taken up by the extra injector lobes. VW also specified too thin engine oil. Many engines have experienced excess wear on the camshaft lobes or the lifters which will cause running problems and in extreme cases, cause the timing belt to seize and skip. Look for flattening of the lobes or cratering of the lifters. Again, this is for the pumpe duse engine only found in the 2004-2006 engines. On 1998-2003 cars, check the fuel injection quantity through VCDS. Some cars tend to have running problems or smoke due to poorly calibrated fuel injection quantity. See for more details. This can also fix a shudder when revs drop (like when shifting into neutral). The center console HVAC light often burns out. Just pull out the center knob straight out to reveal the light bulb. The knob and the bulb are shown to the right. Due to age and possibly the switch to ultra low sulfur fuel, some people experience leaking seals on the fuel injection pump (only for 1998-2003 models). This will cause a no or hard start condition due to the fuel pump losing it's prime. The dealership will not fix it, their only option is to replace the entire pump at great expense. It's easy to change a few of the seals on the car as long as you have the right tools and basic mechanical skill. Always apply the parking brake when parking! It's good practice with any car but it's important on VW because this sets the rear caliper self adjusters. It's best to apply the brake before going into park (auto trans) or first/reverse gear (manual trans) to put stress on the brake instead of the transmission internals. While you're there, jack up a rear wheel and spin it. You may notice the brake pads touching the rotors and a little scraping but any more contact means misadjusted or dragging parking brake. Rusted parking brake cables can also freeze the rear calipers in cold moist weather. If the rear brakes smell like hot and burning brakes it is probably the rear caliper sticking or a damaged wheel bearing. The sunroof water drains can get clogged and leak water into the car. Open the sunroof and pour water into the water drains at the corners. It should easily flow out of the drains at the door hinges. See for more details. VW issued a recall to help open the drains. You may want to exchange the plastic splash shield (the black plastic cover under the engine) for a metal skidplate. The oil pan is aluminum and it will crack if it gets hit from a speedbump, pothole bottoming out the car, or a tow truck driver's yoke hitting it. If you hit a bump and notice the engine oil light turn on, STOP as soon as practical and check for oil leaks and the oil level. There is a stronger steel bottomed oil pan available from VW. See for more details. A contributing factor to damaged oil pans is a worn suspension. Replacement of the struts, strut mounts, and front anti-roll/sway bar bushings is recommended if your car has over 100,000 miles or as needed. If your struts are worn out, the oil pan is more likely to bottom out on hard bounces and get damaged. Also, people generally don't notice the mechanical condition of a used car but they do notice how it rides. A good ride can make an old car feel new. Lastly, refreshing a few components makes a big difference in restoring lost handling and adds safety in the event of an emergency maneuver. See for more details. The in tank low pressure electric fuel pump (lift pump, only for 2004+ TDI) can fail and cause low power or engine stalling depending on the model of lift pump. It's not a common problem but if it does happen you know. The EGR (exhaust gas recirculation cooler) tended to leak on 2004-2006 models. If doors don't seem to recognize when they are opened, the door module microswitch is broken or there's broken soldering point in the module circuit board. The module cannot be accessed without removing the inside of the door, window, and window regulator. Common symptoms include the door/alarm going off even after you open the door or the interior door open light not coming on for 1 door. See for more details. It's also possible the wiring harness in the rubber boot at the door hinge has cracked. If the glow plug light is flashing, it could be a bad brake switch (under the brake pedal). There were multiple recalls on the brake light switch under the brake pedal so call VW service with your VIN number or check VW's website to see if it's up to date. If you have an auto transmission, a bad switch will not let you shift out of park since you have to brake to release the shifter out of park. Don't leave the power mirror selector in the middle position if you have heated mirrors and a mk4 (1998-2005 and NB/Golf 2006) VW, leave the mirror selector in left or right. The center position in most cars is OFF , but on your VW it's heat . Leaving it in heat when the car is on will burn out the heated mirror element. There is no timer to turn it off, it'll just always be on until it burns out. VW has finally fixed this design quirk in the newer cars by linking it to the rear defroster or putting the center position as OFF. See if you want to remove the mirror glass and heater element. Replace the vacuum hoses because the ends get dried out, rub through, or crack. They are mostly 3.5mm and 4mm hoses, you can buy silicone hose at Mcmaster. These can cause limp mode, as if you are trying to use more power but the engine suddenly loses power, see for more details. The MAF (Mass air flow sensor) commonly fails. Symptoms include a gradual reduction in power, stumbling, poor engine running. The solution is MAF replacement. This commonly occurs around 40-100,000 miles. It is covered by an extended warranty for 7 years or 70,000 miles for pre-2002 cars. See . I do not suggest the use of aftermarket oiled gauze high flow air filters because the stock TDI filter as plenty of excess capacity and the oiled gauze oil and dirt could damage the MAF sensor. Also see . Do you have an automatic transmission and 1998-2003 model? It uses the 01M automatic transmission. Expect lower fuel mileage. It has also proven to be less reliable than the manual transmission. Regular fluid changes should help but many feel that the problem is the design of the transmission. The 01M shares many internal parts with the pre-1998 096 automatic transmission. See . The 2004 and up auto transmissions seem to be much better and fairly reliable. The good news is that problems seem to creep up rather than suddenly fail. If you are experiencing a delayed reverse or delayed forward engagement, you may be experiencing the onset of automatic transmission failure, seek mechanical advice. The turn signal/hazard switch had a recall. The hazard switch is also the turn signal relay, it should have been replaced under recall or you can just pull the switch out and replace yourself. A problem that comes up is a clicking turn signal due to dust buildup contaminating the switch. See for the repair. The nut holding on the air conditioning compressor clutch pulley sometimes comes loose, if you are already down there, take a second to check it and tighten it to torque. See pics and torque specs here: If you have a New Beetle, the driver's side door handle often cracks or will crack since it's a long plastic bar. The Beetlebrace is a metal brace that will fix or prevent it from cracking. See for the fix. If your car has extreme high miles, some suggest changing the camshaft and lifters around 300,000 miles. Before 400,000 miles, it's suggested to change the oil pump chain and tensioner (under the front cover). It might last to 500,000 but the car has already gone more than twice a normal lifespan so changing the oil pump chain and tensioner is reasonable preventative maintenance. See for some tips. Power upgrades like chip tuning and aftermarket modifications As mentioned earlier, the suspension is probably worn out due to age and mileage. While you could go with an OEM suspension, there are many options for sport level suspensions from aftermarket companies. See the strut install article for more details. Chip tuning is very well developed for these engines. The average chip tune can increase power noticeably anywhere from 20-30 hp and 30-70 lb-ft of torque! The difference is if you combine it with larger fuel nozzles and use a clutch that can hold the extra power. If you increase power too much the clutch can't hold the torque.The amount of power varies according to engine health, tune parameters, and supporting modifications. I recommend because they actively develop and support their TDI tunes. Other misc. VW quirks and maintenance, non priority There were a few early 1998 New Beetle that had the AGR engine instead of ALH engine that all other 98-2003 TDI had. It's basically an ALH engine with a wastegate turbo (older style, no internal vane adjusters) instead of VNT turbo. If you have locking wheel lug bolts (star pattern instead of 6 sided hex head bolts), the key is in the small pouch in the tool kit. VW switched locking lug styles so if you're missing the key count the points on the bolt and buy one ASAP or have the dealer put in a regular 6 sided hex lug bolt. VW no longer sells replacement lug keys although you can buy aftermarket ones that will fit online. Also check the spare tire wheel well and glovebox because sometimes the lug key is misplaced. You may also notice that the headlight plastic is oxidized and yellowed. Polishing the headlights will increase the headlight effectiveness and make it look better to. See for more details. If you want to add an iPod adapter, VW sells an OEM kit that emulates the CD changer and will work with the stock radio. See more in . Is there wax like tar dripping from the bottom of the doors? It's...... ......the rest of this article is in the members only section. Please join our FREE community to continue reading.

2004-2005 VW Passat TDI how to and DIY index, BHW engine Here is the DIY TDI FAQ for B5 VW Passat TDI. The B5 TDI was only sold 2004 2005 and with tiptronic transmission. Did you just buy a Passat TDI or are you looking for one? See for a list of common problems, quirks, and immediate maintenance. Engine (every 10,000 miles) (drain water every 10,000 miles, replace every 20,000 miles) (Bosch ceramic plugs were under recall) (for gasser and diesel VW Passat) - TDI engine only part 1- background and technical information (part 2 - goes beyond only balance shaft assembly replacement) - part 1 - introduction and lowering the subframe - oil pan and balance shaft assembly removal (premium content, please join our forums and upgrade your account to premium to view) - introduction and serpentine belt removal - timing belt removal - installation (premium content, please join our forums and upgrade your account to premium to view) (premium content, please join our forums and upgrade your account to premium to view) (please join our forums to view) (can solve mystery overheating) (air can become trapped in the heater core, sloshing sound after engine start) (if you see red stains under them they're bad) (lets you put in a few more gallons of fuel per tank) (rare problem where the engine races on its own due to mechanical malfunction) (anti theft system) Drivetrain (do you see grease sprayed on the inside of the wheels or have vibration at idle that goes away in N?) - for 01v 5 speed, also how to replace fluid in the torque converter Tire / Wheel / gearing calculator Brakes and suspension (every 2 years or as needed) Front brake job (to fix misc suspension noise) Car Detailing Body, interior, electronics (if your interior light doesn't come on when you open the driver door) - These can disable auto-unlock of the doors above 10 mph, unlock all doors with one press of the remote, or adjust the horn/light blinking when locking/unlocking the car. fender removal (also shown is side view mirror and window switch removal) (2012 shown) (only for OEM parts since there are so many aftermarket) (turn signals not working) - most noticeable when at a stoplight (Jetta shown but Passat is similar) (for the mk4 generation but the same idea) (or remove the light) Misc.

2013+ Porsche Cayenne diesel forum, review, and buying guide

This FAQ shows details of standard equipment and options, and reviews for the new Porsche Cayenne diesel.

Introduction The Porsche Cayenne diesel is new for 2013 but neither the engine or car are new . This body style was all new for 2011 and this engine/transmission is also used in the VW Touareg and Audi Q7 (with which the Cayenne shares a basic chassis), and the Audi A4, A6, and A8. Fuel economy should be in the mid-20s after the engine is broken in, depending on load and driving style. The official EPA mpg is 20/29 city/highway which is better than the Q7 TDI and Touareg TDI with the same engine. So why buy the Cayenne over the VW Touareg or Audi Q7? The Porsche has the highest trim levels and available options. The Porsche also has different suspension and steering tuning and has the highest fuel economy rating. The Audi Q7 has 3 row seating but is heavier. The Touareg is cheaper but even at the highest trim level, can't be optioned like the Cayenne. Their options also come in packages vs. a la carte like on the Porsche. Other diesel SUV available in North America are the BMW xDrive35d (X5 diesel), Mercedes ML 350 Bluetec, or GL 350 Bluetec. If you wish to stay in the VW-Audi-Porsche family, there's also the Audi Q5 TDI which is smaller and uses the same engine. Here's a short review of my time with the Cayenne diesel lSbUE-ynkjw Porsche Cayenne major options explained Base Porsche Cayenne diesel: Every Cayenne diesel has partial leather 8 way power front seats, AWD, stability and yaw control, 8 speed automatic transmission w/manual shift capability (tiptronic), 6 piston monoblock front brake calipers and 4 piston rears, dual zone climate control, auto headlights, LED taillights, reverse camera, power rear liftgate, and of course the diesel badge. Below is my video walkaround. Many of the features shown are optional and are explained in more detail below. ckc0ajVdJfU Memory seat package or Adaptive Sport seats: Base seats (left, first picture) have seat tilt, height, and back adjustment. Memory seats look the same (middle) but add 3 position memory, seat bottom length adjustment, 4 way lumber, and electric steering column adjustment. Adaptive Sport seats (right) are also shown in the video and add side and kidney bolsters that can each be adjusted. 3 stage heat and/or ventilation is available with any seat option. The adaptive sport seat option also adds thicker bolsters on the rear seats (below right is a comparison of the rear seats). The rear seats have optional seat heating. Leather interior: this adds leather to the upper and lower dashboard, glovebox, and upper doors, visible in the video. There is an additional leather package described on Porsche's website that covers misc. front trim. The optional Alcantara headliner is synthetic suede and covers the side pillars, sunvisors, and the roof liner all the way to the rear. Adaptive cruise control: This uses radar sensors to monitor the distance of the cars in front. It can slow down the car all the way to a full stop. You can adjust the following distance between a few levels which vary according to speed. It will not apply full braking force (like in emergency situations) or detect parked cars/objects in the road. Only active above 19 mph. The multifunction display shows the cruise settings. CDR, CDR Plus, and Bose: CDR is the base radio. It features a 7 color touchscreen w/ 10 speakers and 100 watt head unit. CDR Plus has 11 speakers and 325W and adds a USB port that can accept iPod adapters or USB sticks. Bose has 14 speakers (including subwoofer), 9 channel, and a 585W amp. It also allows audio DVD. PCM: Porsche Communication Management is the navigation system. It uses the CDR display and adds navigation. See the video for a demo. Lane change assist: This uses radar to detect moving vehicles in your blind spot between 20-156 mph. The indicator is in the side view mirror, see the video for more details. When turned on, the light turns on if there's another vehicle in your blind spot and blinks if you use the turn signal and it senses a vehicle in your blind spot. I was skeptical but it works. It even picked up a motorcycle. The lights can be adjusted to 3 brightness levels or the system turned off. It can monitor up to 2 lanes to the left and right depending on the road and other vehicle. Note: - the sensor uses K band radar in the rear bumpers and can cause a pop or K band radar detector false alarm. The V1 Valentine seems to have this problem the worst but it has a pop radar disable function. You cannot use it with a trailer and it knows if you're towing and will turn itself off after displaying a warning message. Porsche entry and drive: this is keyless entry and start. If the key is in range, touching the door handles unlocks the car. It also adds an engine start button. When leaving you just have to touch a button on the door handle. Regular or Panoramic sunroof: the regular sunroof is an average sunroof that can tilt/retract. The pano sunroof is about 4 times larger. The front panel can tilt/retract. The rear panel is fixed. It also adds an electric sunshade. NOTE: if you get the panoramic sunroof some roof bars will not fit because the front panel opens above the rear panel. Max roof bar load is 165 lbs. Backup camera and Park assist: The rear view backup camera is standard. The part assist system is optional and beeps and displays on the CDR. It has both front and rear sensors. See the video for a demo. Bi-Xenon headlights: The HID are optional and can adjust vertically for leveling. They also turn the beam into corners between 5-80 mph. Ambient lighting: There's a demo in the video walkaround showing brightness levels but below is an additional thumbnail showing actual brightness levels at night. The footwell lighting isn't too noticeable because it's out of your line of sight but I found the overhead lighting distracting if set to a level where the upper armrest lights were visible. I would avoid this option or turn it off if it came with a package because it will degrade your night vision. It looks cool though. PASM: This uses magnetically controlled fluid inside the shock absorbers to constantly adjust their dampening in response to your driving and conditions. They can also be put into comfort, normal, or sport modes. The wheel and tire choice also have a big role in how the car rides. Bigger wheels use low profile tires that will ride rougher because their sidewalls are stiffer and shorter. PCCB: This adds ceramic rotors (instead of cast iron) and yellow brake calipers. Ceramic rotors are much lighter (improves suspension performance and comfort), nearly dust free, and will last the lifetime of the car. However, this option can add over 10% to the cost of the car. If equipped with PCCB, ALWAYS use wheel hangers when removing the wheels. This prevents the wheel from being dropped onto the rotor during service. Air suspension: (includes PASM): This replaces the steel spring suspension with an air bag suspension to raise or lower the car. It's powered by an air compressor and two reservoirs under the car. A lower car gives handling advantages and less drag while a higher car gives more ground clearance. If you tow, it's especially helpful because it levels the rear of the car in response to the tongue weight. A diagram of the same system on a Q7 is shown below. If you jack up the car you have to lock the suspension in a service mode. (see your owners handbook). The height is also seen in the virtual walkaround. The available levels and ride heights from highest to lowest are: High 2 raises the front/rear 2.28 (58mm)/2.17 (55mm) vs. normal and is only available below 20mph. Above 20 mph the car lowers to high 1. High 1 which raises the front/rear 1.1 (28mm)/0.98 (25mm). Below 50 mph it's deactivated. High 1 is automatically activated when the off road mode is selected. Normal which gives ground clearance of 7.48 (190mm) Low 1 lowers the front/rear 0.87 (22mm)/.98 (25mm) and is automatically activated above 100mph or if the car is driven at 85mph for more than 10 seconds. If it was automatically activated the car is raised to Normal if the speed is below 60 mph for 10 seconds or below 25mph. If it was set manually it'll stay there. Low 2 lowers the front/rear 1.26 (32mm)/1.38 (35mm) vs. normal. It's automatically used if the car is above 130 mph for more than 40 seconds and deselected if below 105 mph for 60 seconds or below 75mph. Loading Level can only be used below 3 mph. It lowers the car 2.05 (52mm)/2.17 (55mm) vs. normal. MFSW (multifunction steering wheel): This adds buttons and dials to the steering wheel. I strongly suggest it because it lets you quickly change the radio volume/channel, use Bluetooth, and cycle the multifunction display. The standard control is a stalk on the steering wheel column. 3.0L turbodiesel TDI engine: The engine makes 240 horsepower/406 lb-ft engine. 0-60 is about 7.2 seconds and range is about 700 miles. Peak torque is reached as low as 1,750 engine rpm which means that thrust is immediately felt. The 8 speed transmission also maximizes fuel economy and power response. This is a 24 valve single turbo engine V6. It's very similar to the older Touareg engine (see ) but his one has only 2 timing chains and is slightly lighter. Combined with the 8 speed transmission, fuel economy was increased by almost 20% vs. the older engine and 6 speed transmission. The transmission is rated for up to 627 lb-ft of torque so there's plenty of room in the transmission for a power chip tune in your Audi Q7 TDI. The water pump circuit can also close during cold starts to make engine warm up as fast as possible which reduces emissions and increases fuel economy. The 8 speed tiptronic automatic is made in Japan by Aisin. The gear ratios are listed below (7th and 8th are double overdrive). If you wish to find the engine rpm at a given speed, enter the gear and final drive ratio below with your tire size in . gear 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 final ratio 4.97 2.84 1.864 1.437 1.21 1 .825 .686 3.273 Porsche Cayenne diesel adblue fluid and particulate filter system: To meet emissions, the car uses Adblue fluid to clean NOx emissions and a particulate filter to clean soot emissions. Adblue fluid is consumed with engine load and should be topped off every 10,000 miles. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) catches soot and burns them out during the filter self clean cycle. For detailed pictures and description of the system and other handy info like Adblue part numbers and handling safety, see . There are multiple warnings once the Adblue level is low starting around and once the car is out of Adblue, it will not restart. The engine will still run but it won't restart since it's no longer meeting emissions. The first warning is 1,500 miles before it runs out. Refilling the Adblue can be done by the owner and Adblue fluid or generic diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) can be found at any truck stop or BMW, Mercedes, VW, Audi, or Porsche dealer. There is no Adblue fluid gauge. Tow rating: All Porsche Cayenne diesel come with trailer hitch prep (7 pin connector). The towing capacity is 7,716 lbs w/braked trailer and 617 lbs of tongue weight. Here's a picture of the hitch. Front and rear foglights: Front foglights are self explanatory but I wanted to explain the rear foglights. Rear foglights are common on European cars and should only be used in low visibility like in thick fog. Do not use them on in clear conditions because they create a safety hazard to cars behind you. It's distracting and degrades other people's night vision. To use the rear foglights, pull the headlight switch out to the second notch. Front foglights are the first notch. Other misc stuff to know about the Porsche Cayenne diesel The fuel gauge has a reminder arrow showing you which side the fuel filler is on. There's a small hole on the hinge to rest the cap. If you ever loan the car to someone DON'T have them fill it up for you because they may forget it's a diesel. Don't rely on the color of the fuel pump nozzle to see which is diesel because I've seen green and yellow diesel pump handles. If the car is ever misfueled, do not turn the car on or start the engine. Have the fuel tank drained. All retail diesel sold in the US, Canada, and Europe is ultra low sulfur diesel ULSD. If you travel to Mexico don't use low sulfur diesel because it will damage the emissions system. You may find ULSD along the border. The fuel tank opening has a misfueling restrictor that prevents gas pump nozzles from being inserted. Pelican parts sells a BMW part number (16.11.0.440.157) misfueling adapter that will work on your car for nonstandard or truck sized fuel pump nozzles. It comes with a pair of rubber gloves. Many thanks to user Dutch van Atlanta for the picture and the tip! I carry paper towels in the car when handling the diesel fuel pump. If there's diesel fuel on the handle it will make your hand smell. Diesel fuel is an oil so it doesn't evaporate as quickly as gasoline (solvent). I always use a paper towel when fueling gasoline too because I don't like the odors that are on their handles either. The normal power split F/R is 40/60 but it can change according to conditions up to a maximum of 65% front and 85% rear. The car uses an oil level sensor. There is no physical oil dipstick but you can add one if you remove the plug and buy one. There's already a tube to accept it. A physical dipstick lets you can check the color and level anytime. Homelink lets you program 3 remotes. It does work with rolling code remotes. Refer to your owner's manual and homelink.com for details on programming. Here's a thumbnail of some parts to know under the engine bay. Some of these are under the plastic covers. While a 3.0L TDI engine was also used in Audi A4, A6, A8, Q7 TDI and VW Touareg TDI since 2009, the 3.0L engine had major mechanical updates and a small power boost in 2012 for European models and 2013 for North American models. You can't order 4 zone climate control on the diesel for some reason. It has nothing to do with the emissions system because you can order 4 zone climate control on European Cayenne diesels. There's a puddle light under the side view mirror. For some reason I couldn't get it to work on my test car so there was probably a setting that needed to be changed to make it work. It should turn on when you unlock the car or open the doors. Using biodiesel in your Porsche Cayenne diesel The 3.0L diesel engine will run on biodiesel but Porsche-VW-Audi's official limit is a maximum of 5% biodiesel (B5). The concern is...... ......The rest of this article is for our free forum members and . Please to see the following topics: What to cover in the car delivery inspection The engine oil technical service bulletin Only use one spec oil because the car is equipped with a DPF.

[Cabin pollen air filter and ECU removal and replacement and solution to fix error code 65535 This procedure shows how to replace the pollen filter or fix the ecu hose which causes 65535 - Internal Control Module Memory Error and a bad ecu code. Difficulty: 1/5 Introduction There is a hose inside the ECU that will wear out over time and should be replaced. I'm convinced that this problem will occur on every Mk3 VW Passat or Jetta TDI. There are probably other TDI models overseas that use a similar system. Yes it's unusual to have a hose inside the ECU but it's there. This hose connects to an air sensor inside the ecu. If an air leak occurs in this hose, the car will not run correctly. If you are getting a check engine light (CEL or MIL) and see 65535 - Internal Control Module Memory Error with a VCDS tool, it's most likely caused by this leaky hose. The leak could be from the same line outside the ECU so if you have worn vacuum hoses it's a good idea to replace them all. The OEM hose is 3mm but I went with 4mm silicone hose since my 3mm hose was stiff and the 4mm could stretch out. There are barbs and 2 clamps that hold it in place. 4mm hose can be used for many other hoses as well. This can be done at the same time other worn out vacuum hoses are replaced. Silicone hose is a good choice since it stays soft when cold or hot, lasts a long time, and is more economical than the braided VW line. The only problem with silicone is that prolonged exposure to certain oils can degrade it. I've found that it still ages better than the OEM hose. Since the ECU is disassembled, this is also a good time to upgrade the chip since this is an excellent basic power modification to your car. See 1000q: basic power modifications for more details. Note that some FA ECU are not socketed so open it up first to take a look before buying a chip. It's also a good time to clean the cabin air filter if you have a Passat or add one if you have a Jetta TDI. If one of your hoses has fallen apart then this this is a good time to replace all of your vacuum hoses. Below is the diagram for the mk3. This is from a 96-97 passat, your car may be slightly different. This article refers to ECM (car computer) as ECU. Boost pressure transducer is the n75 solenoid valve (goes to turbo wastegate can). EGR solenoid is EGR frequency valve. Both of these solenoids can stick so if it's convenient to remove them you can clean the insides out with carb or brake cleaner followed by a shot of wd-40. 2322 Passat B4 TDI, engine code 1Z Vacuum diagram:

Parts

3.5mm silicone hose (about 5 feet) 4mm silicone hose (about 10 feet) hoses can be purchased from 13mm wrench, screwdriver, vacuum cleaner, snips to trim the vacuum lines to fit

Procedure

Cabin air filter replacement for passat (jetta TDI didn't have one stock but it can be added) Disconnect the battery if you are also going to remove the ECU. Remove the rubber weather stripping on the top of the engine bay firewall and plastic windshield trim (3 x plastic screws marked by yellow) 2323 If your car is equipped with a cabin air filter, remove the bracket and filter. This would be a good time to vacuum out any dirt or leaves. Remove and reuse the plastic end clips on the air filter. 2324 If you want to remove the ECU, read on, otherwise END cabin air filter replacement

ECU removal

Remove the cabin air filter and bracket. It has (2 x 13mm) bolts and a plastic wedge holding it down 2325 Remove vacuum hose leading into the ECU. Unbolt the near side ECU bracket (1x10mm), the other side is just a plastic clip. The ECU should now slide out. You might have to tilt it or unplug the electrical connector to avoid stressing the wiring harness. Slide the top of the plug handle out towards the vac nipple (outlined in yellow), then pull the plug handle towards you to remove the plug, as shown by the yellow arrow below. If it's oriented like in the below picture this means you slide the outlined area (the plug handle) to the right, then pull the whole thing towards you. 2326 Unscrew 2 screws on 1 side of the ECU mounting bracket and just loosen the other 2. Unscrew 4 torx screws holding the ECU in it's case and gently slide ECU out . Note: do not touch any metal part on the circuit board unless you are wearing a static electricity grounding strap. All electronics may be damaged by very small static electricity discharges. You will now see the hose, see below for a picture, hose is outlined in yellow. Gently unclamp the hose clamps and wiggle/twist the hose off. One end of the hose is on a metal barb but the other is on a plastic barb on the pressure sensor. Warning: if the plastic barb breaks off you will need a new ECU, so be very gentle. Try not to pull hard or at an angle. Wiggle/twist the hose off gently! Someone named Paramedick found that slicing the hose lengthwise at the plastic nipple end with a razor sharp blade will let you easily peel the hose off. Cut a new length of hose matching the old length. Installation is the reverse of removal.

ECU chip replacement and hose repair on VW TDI

Remove the ECU as shown above. Using a chip puller or paper clip, remove the original chip. There are 2 spots at the corners to pry them out. Install the new chip. Do NOT press directly on the chip or else it will be too far and won't have good contact resulting in your car not starting. Press the chip in 3/4, then use a pen to roll it in the rest of the way. Make sure it is seated flat. Also note that some aftermarket chips are installed on a tower. If you open the ECU and see that the chip is on a tower, you already have an aftermarket chip. Replacing it with another brand of chip requires removal of the tower as well. Here's a picture of a FA ECU from a 97 passat tdi. Some very early FA ECU may not have removable chips so check that your ECU has removable chips before buying an aftermarket chip. See: 1000q: mk3 jetta vs passat interchangeable parts and differences to read more about the different ECU. The two chips that are replaced with a performance chip are labeled 357813 and 357814 with a yellow sticker. The hose that should be replaced is on the left and outlined in yellow. 2327 If you have a plastic cased BK ECU, it was pre-recall and can be Installation is the reverse of removal. Do you have any questions about this error code or performance chips for your Passat or Jetta TDI? Post your comments in the myturbodiesel.com forums

MK5 how to index for 2005.5, 2006, 2009, 2010 VW Jetta TDI sedan and wagon and Audi A3 TDI 2010-2014 Looking for a 2005.5-2006 Jetta TDI? Read Looking for a 2009-2010 VW Jetta TDI sedan? See: Looking for the 2010-2014 Audi A3 TDI hatchback? See Why is the Audi A3 TDI included here? The A3 TDI uses the same chassis/suspension/transmission/engine as the 2009 Jetta TDI. The A3 may have continued using the CBEA engine some or all years while all 4 cylinder VWs switched to the CJAA engine in 2010. The only other significant mechanical differences on the A3 are the electronics, larger brake rotors, and slightly different struts/shocks/springs. All other differences are minor or cosmetic.

Engine

: introduction and removal every 80,000 miles : timing belt removal installation (premium content section, please join our community and upgrade your account to view) : introduction and removal: replace at 120,000 miles : timing belt removal continued installation (premium content section, please join our community and upgrade your account to view) (premium content section, please join our community and upgrade your account to view) : for (2005.5-2006 only) pumpe duse engines only (please join our forums to view) (2009-2014 engine only) (2009-2014 engine only) (without changing the water pump) (2010-2014 CJAA engine only) (20,000 miles or as needed, for 2005.5-2006 Jetta TDI, only for pumpe duse engine (BRM)) (20,000 miles or as needed, for 2009-2014 common rail engine VW Jetta, Golf, Audi A3 TDI (CBEA or CJAA engine)) (for 2009+ models, for type #3 one hole filter only) (10,000 miles or as needed) (10,000 miles or as needed) from the top (10,000 miles or as needed) (2009-2014 engine only) (40,000 miles or as needed) (exhaust gas recirculation valve) (2009-2014 engine only) (can cause a hissing noise or more than normal black exhaust) (mass air flow sensor FAQ and part numbers) (sudden loss of power) (constant low power and can't rev high) (CBEA/CJAA engine 2009-2014) (CBEA/CJAA engine 2009-2014) (CBEA/CJAA engine 2009-2014) (comparison chart) (there's a corner which catches on a wire) (rare problem where the engine races on its own due to mechanical malfunction)

Car Detailing

Suspension/Brakes

(also clutch fluid, should be done every 2 years regardless of mileage) (shown on Audi A3 TDI but Jetta and Golf are similar) (these tend to be on the tight side)

Tire size and wheel offset calculator - also shows fender clearance, offset, and final drive calculator

Drivetrain

(every 40,000 miles) (fill hole is too low) (5 speed 2005.5-2006) (6 speed 2009-2010)

VAG COM (now called VCDS) modifications for the VW Jetta

(2005.5-2006 models only) (opens/closes the windows using the remote key fob) (they changed it for 2010) (you must have auto wipers-headlights for this function) (flashes on the brake or hazard lights when ABS is activated) (xenon HID headlights only) (2005-2009 cars) (2010 cars use mk6 electrical) (without a highline instrument cluster)

Bluetooth, GPS navigation, and interior electrics

(OEM VW GPS touchscreen navigation system 2009+) (smaller touchscreen system on 2010+, can swap into earlier cars) (VW GPS system 2005-2009) (2010 only) (for 2010 only) (aftermarket gauge package) (2010 + only comfort turn signal operation) (uses mk6 electronics so also see above article) (and what a euroswitch is) (or why the headlights on chime is on even though the headlights are off) (for dual zone auto climate control only)

Body and interior

(2012 shown) (substitute puddle lights) (from sagging fabric) (for mk4 but same basic idea) (the one on the bumper) (replace every 30,000 miles)

Miscellaneous

(2005.5-2006 only) e

Volkswagen Passat or VW Jetta TDI - how to solve chirping in cold weather and in cold starts Introduction If your 1996 1997 b4 Passat or 1996-1999 a3 Jetta has developed a chirping sound on cold starts in cold weather but goes away once the car warms up, a few things may be happening. First check the following: [LIST=1] [*]If you hear a rubbing sound, first check the timing belt by unclipping the timing belt cover and looking for damage to the timing belt. [*]Alternator bearings and pulley, power steering pulley, air conditioner clutch could be bad and creating noise. [*]The Jetta has a one way clutch on the alternator pulley which can wear out and create noise, the Passat does not. To inspect, remove the belt and use a wood dowel or chopstick to hold the fan inside the alternator. The pulley should only rotate freely one way. [*]Accessory belt tension - as a rough rule of thumb to measure tension, push the belt at the midpoint by hand, it should deflect about 1/4 -1/2 . Warning: a tighter belt is not better because excess tension will wear bearings and pulleys. [*]The accessory/serpentine belt on the TDI is automatically tensioned by a lever and spring. [*]Oil, grease, or other fluids dripping onto the belts causing belt slip. [*]You can check the serpentine (accessory) belt tensioner pulley, clean and lube as outlined here. [*]I would just replace them with the harmonic balancer as described below since it's probably the cause - replacing the tensioner might only temporarily fix the problem. [/LIST] If these are okay, your car's harmonic balancer pulley and serpentine pulley tensioner spring may be worn out. Replacing both of these will normally solve the chirping noise. Worst case you just have to replace the lever and rod. Summary of procedure: remove the belts and put on a new pulley and tensioning spring. Grease the old tensioning lever or put in a new one. Detailed steps below. The noise is caused by inconsistent belt tension in cold temperatures. The redesigned replacement harmonic balancer pulley should help reduce this tendency. A large source of the drag that causes the noise comes from the alternator. When you start the car, the alternator generates more load to recharge the drain of the battery from starting the engine and the glow plugs. The cold temperatures may also cause the belts and the rubber parts of the pulley to contract and loosen. Once the engine warms up the noise goes away. If the engine doesn't make this noise once it's warmed up then this is most likely the source of the noise. As a test and temporary way to reduce the likelihood of chirping, also disable the daytime running lights and reduce the electrical load. Turning off the DRL will reduce the load on the alternator until the car is warmed up. Also turn off the radio, cabin vent fan, or any other electrical load as a test. Once the car is warmed up, turn the headlights back on for safety. For specifics on turning off the DRL, refer to : . If the chirping is less or shorter, a worn crankshaft pulley is likely. Here is a picture comparing the old VW part #028 105 243 k and the new VW part #028 105 243 t harmonic balancer/dampener pulley/crankshaft pulley. The old pulley consists of an inner pulley and outer pulley with a rubber ring in the middle. When cold, the pulley contracts and slips, causing noise. The new pulley is one piece with the rubber built into the ring. The drilled dimple on the new pulley is for balancing. Parts (click links to compare current prices) Harmonic balancer/dampener pulley #028 105 243T, , Serpentine belt (alternator) spring tensioner #028 903 315 R new belts 4 allen bolts for the harmonic balancer (6mm) VW # N 903 487 04 (optional but suggested since they will probably be damaged during removal) (clicking on link gives n903487-06, it's possible part has been superceded) Relay roller #028 145 278 E (optional, it's the plastic pulley) Protective Cap #028 145 291 A (optional) Tensioning Lever #028 903 308 G (optional but not suggested) Tensioning lever dust cap #028 903 310 (optional x2 pieces) 13mm socket 16mm socket 6mm and 5mm allen wrench/socket T-25 torx screwdriver PB Blaster (strongly suggested) High temp moly or all purpose auto grease EZ out stripped allen bolt remover (optional) Procedure to quiet the TDI cold chirping Jack up the front of the car, chock the rear wheels, put the car in gear, set the parking brake on, set the car securely on jack stands on stable, solid, and level ground. Make sure the car is secure before doing anything else. Always wear eye protection, follow the precautions in the factory service manual, see the TOS for the full legal disclaimer. Use a service cover or some towels taped to the fender to avoid paint damage from watches or belt buckles. I use wood blocks to support the car at the wheels. See for more details on these. Remove the plastic splash shield (T-25 torx and a few screws or bolts). Spray a little PB Blaster on the 4x 6mm allen bolts on the harmonic balancer pulley. They tend to get stuck and the PB blaster needs time to work. Remove the power steering/water pump v-belt (outer belt) by loosening the 3 red circled bolts (2 x 13mm), (1 x 16mm). You can then swing the power steering bracket/pump a little to remove the v-belt. Remove the serpentine belt by relieving the tension off the belt. You can use a wrench on the tensioning lever arm to move it while you slip off the belt. Keep your fingers clear of the belt and lever in case it slips! Although the service manual says to use the idler pulley's bolt, I don't do this because it can strip the bolt. I avoid using a screwdriver on the lever since it can damage the plastic pulley. Then remove the tensioner spring (2 x 6mm allen bolts), (1 x 5mm allen bolt) marked by the 3 red circles below. Here is another view of the lever and tensioner with the injection pump and bracket removed. Remove the tensioner spring. It's pressed onto the end of the lever so I suggest using a lever to pry the end with the idler pulley to the pass side. This will pop the tensioner spring off (pictured at about life size below). Make sure the center allen bolt is removed. Here are some tips from user P&C if the spring assembly is stuck. We put the center bolt in the tensioning spring and came out one full turn. We used a 2x air powered rivet gun with a long pointed tip that fit in the allen cap screw hole. We applied a short burst of the impact and the lever moved. We kept backing out the center bolt a turn at a time and hit it again. We kept repeating until there were only a couple threads left in the lever arm. Then we removed the bolt and used a brass punch to push it out the rest of the way. The bearing sleeve on the one end was falling out but removing the bearing sleeve at the tensioning spring end was difficult. After trying to use punches and pliers with no movement we applied PB Blaster for lubrication and used a Craftsman 7/16 deep socket that was very close to the bore diameter. We had removed the air box by now so we drove the socket from the lever arm end towards the spring end. It look several medium hits on a shaft centered inside the socket but it moved and it pushed the sleeve out. Procedure continued Remove the allen bolts on the harmonic balancer pulley (4 x 6mm). The bolts can be soft and tend to strip so you may want to get replacements ahead of time. I don't suggest using the center 19mm 12 point bolt to counterhold the allen bolts because that bolt is attached to the crank. It's a 1 use only stretch bolt and although later TDI can use it for counterholding, this bolt uses a lower torque spec along with a different crank and bolt. To counterhold the 4 allen bolts, I suggest putting the car in gear and having a helper step on the brakes as the primary method of counterholding. As long as the tires are on ramps/wood blocks, the brakes will hold tight. Concentrating on 1 tool is also easier than using 2 tools at the same time in a limited space. If the car is lifted and the tires are in the air, use the 19mm 12 point bolt as another method of counterholding. Suggested: spray the allen bolt heads with PB Blaster and let them soak to help loosen them. Pictured below are the belts and the pulley removed. While you are here, inspect the condition of the pulleys and other belts for oil or water leaks. The 4 allen bolts will probably be hard to remove, I suggest having an EZ out (pictured at top) handy incase the allen heads get stripped. When using an EZ out, press on the bolt head and make sure it's sharp. If you let it slip it won't bite into the bolt head and it will dull. Installation is the reverse of removal. Note: because of 1 offset hole, the harmonic balancer bolt holes will only line up 1 way! I also suggest pulling back the tensioning lever boots and greasing the lever while moving it in and out, up and down. If you want to replace the lever, see the steps below. You may want to use a tiny touch of anti-seize on the 6mm allen bolts for the harmonic balancer so they won't be stuck next time. I believe the 6mm allen bolts come with threadlocker when new due to vibration so it's up to you whether to use any anti-seize. However, I chose to use a tiny touch of anti-seize since the problem is more likely seized and stripped bolts and they were all tight when I removed them for the next service. Also check the length of the new bolts against the length of the old bolts. Optional: Remove the tensioner rod by . This is what mine looked like. The advantage of removal is that you can grease the whole rod. If you do, inspect the bushings for damage. It's possible that squeaking is also from worn bushings. Although VW does not list the bushings in the part catalog, they are available (listed as a part for the Eurovan) as VW# 028 903 313 (028903313). A replacement lever is VW# 028 903 308 g (028903308g) Here are some more pictures and tips from user diesel? and his experiences in this forum thread: Here is his worn lever and bushings with the new part. A closeup of the wear on the other side: Here is his worn bushing and the replacement. If you remove the airbox, check for wires that have been rubbing through. Clean the old grease off with brake cleaner or degreaser and regrease. Keep the grease off the belt and pulley. Put the new pulley on and reinstall the belts. Torque specs Double check the torque of the four harmonic balancer bolts. (15 ft lbs). The idler pulley bolt on the tensioner lever arm is also 15 ft lbs. To tension the power steering v-belt, torque the splined tension adjuster (the bolt with the star spacer on it) to 2.9 ft-lbs for used v-belts, 5.1 ft lbs for new v-belts and then torque it's bolt to 18 ft-lbs. The v-belt should have about 5mm of deflection in the middle.

VW Jetta TDI and VW Passat timing belt replacement, part 1 - removal Related links: , , and . Introduction The timing belt change interval on 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 VW Jetta and Passat TDI is before every 60,000 miles. Here are DIY replacement instructions for belt removal. The timing belt (TB) connects the camshaft (opens the valves) to the crankshaft (moves the pistons). In the mk3 TDI it also moves the intermediate shaft and the injection pump. All TDI engines are interference engines. If the TB slips at the crankshaft or camshaft, it's very likely that the valves hit the pistons and cause head damage and in severe cases, piston/rod damage. If it slips at the injection pump but the crank and camshaft are OK, it can cause engine stalling but this is less likely than valve-piston contact. There is no warning whatsoever when a TB is worn out and is ready to slip. If there is any question as to when the TB was done or if it was done correctly, replace it ASAP. Most maintenance items are as soon as practical , if the TB or tensioner/idler pulley breaks, you could even need a new engine under the worst case, so change it as soon as possible . Disclaimer- this article is revised and updated to include the most current information but is not a substitute for the factory service manual! See the TOS Agreeement for the full legal disclaimer. Although a timing belt job can successfully be done with basic tools and mechanical experience plus the timing belt tools, improper installation of the timing belt can cause severe engine damage! Take all precautions listed in the factory service manual. If you have never worked on your car, I suggest gaining experience with easier projects first before doing something as critical as a timing belt! Suggested while you are in there: replace your old harmonic balancer (aka the crankshaft / serpentine belt pulley) with the updated part since it will be removed anyways. Over time, the rubber damper in the pulley dries out and causes a chirp-chirp noise on cold starts. See for more info on that repair. Suggested maintenance at your discretion: water pump, camshaft, and intermediate shaft oil seal. The intermediate shaft is the shaft inside the engine that drives the oil pump. It uses the same seal as the camshaft - also replace the o-ring under the intermediate shaft seal flange. I would not change the crankshaft front seal unless it is leaking oil. Differences in procedures between this and similar mk3 TDI timing belt writeups: Do not use the camshaft bar or injection pump pin (and the timing belt) to counterhold against the engine when tightening or loosening the crankshaft pulley bolts. The camshaft bar says not for torque . Different suggested torque spec for the camshaft bolt. Use a wood block to tap off a stuck valve cover instead of a screwdriver since it could scratch the metal. Other writeups suggest to set the tensioner with the injection pump lock in place. This writeup follows the Bentley manual - remove the injection pump lock pin after the belt is on but before setting the tensioner, details below. Caution: the order of steps listed in this writeup is the same as the Bentley service manual but different from older writeups you may see elsewhere. Other writeups tell you to set the tensioner with the injection pump lock in place. This writeup follows the Bentley manual - I suggest removing the injection pump lock pin after the belt is on but before setting the tensioner. The Bentley manual says on page 23b-9 describing timing belt installation: Remove the locking pin from the pump sprocket. Tension the belt by turning the semi-automatic tensioner with a spanner tool clockwise until the notch and the raised mark are aligned. While this is listed in the same step number and could be open to interpretation, the order is confirmed in another section where it describes injection pump installation (page 23b-12). One step says to remove the locking tool and then a few steps later, to then tighten the tensioner. Because both procedures list the same order, my interpretation of the service manual is correct - remove the pump locking pin before tensioning the belt. This means other writeups do not follow the service manual. However, there are also some confusing instructions in the service manual detailed below. Why I follow the order of steps in the manual: My interpretation of the service manual is correct but why follow the service manuals steps? Later ALH engine TDI let the injection pump sprocket move even with its lock in place so that the tensioner spreads tension evenly across the timing belt when you set it. I believe that removing the injection pump lock pin before tightening the tensioner serves the same purpose in these earlier TDI - it lets the sprocket move a little bit if needed. It doesn't move much but it could move a little. In a later step you turn the engine over twice by hand to double check for interference. The service manual says that if the pump pin doesn't go in then loosen the pump bolts and rotate the pump until the pin does go in. Confusing instructions in the Bentley manual: One confusing point is that if the pump pin is off and won't go in, (assuming TDC and camshaft positions are correct), rotating the pump won't fix the sprocket's hole being off. The pump's shaft-sprocket relationship is locked with a woodruff key. Rotating the pump won't move the shaft much since the shaft moves freely inside the pump. Because the shaft won't move the sprocket shouldn't move (without moving the timing belt) and the pump pin won't go in if it didn't go in before. If the pin is just a hair off, my suggestion is to ignore it since you'll adjust the pump in a later step anyways. If the pin is off by more then a hair, the timing belt is probably off by a tooth. Another confusing point is that the procedures for timing belt installation under the different sections to install injection pump and to install camshaft/injection pump drive belt (timing belt) are different. While both say to remove the injection pump pin before tensioning the belt, one procedure says to have the pump mounting bolts hand tight before tensioning the belt while the other does not say to loosen them in the first place (it does say to tighten them but I think it's a typo, see below). One says to turn the engine over twice by hand to double check your work (I would definitely do that), the other doesn't. Possible typo in to install camshaft/injection pump drive belt : The manual also states: Tighten the.....injection pump sprocket mounting bolt and then lists its torque as 18 ft-lb. The injection pump sprocket mounting bolt's torque is 41 ft-lb, not 18. I believe this is a typo that should read injection pump mounting bolt instead off including the word sprocket because the torque for those is 18 ft-lb. As mentioned above, the instructions for installing the timing belt never say to loosen these bolts in the first place but instructions for injection pump installation do say to loosen them and have them hand tight. There's a confirmed typo for torque spec on the lower timing belt cover bolt, it's noted on the next page. If you find the tips on this page helpful, please use the donation button at the top so that I can continue to keep publishing great articles for free. The Bentley service manual is about $80 vs. this page with more pictures, color pictures, and greater detail. Thanks in advance! So what should you do? The procedures listed here follow the order of steps in the service manual while interpreting its inconsistent instructions and typos. This interpretation of the service manual may not be correct but it's what I do and my car is fine. This website is not responsible for your work and the only official instructions are the ones listed in the Bentley manual, etc., read the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. CAUTION - generic parts available on ebay or other online sellers may be of questionable origin. The below linked sites are all well known and experienced TDI vendors. CAUTION - I would not buy the or any other of this seller's copycat sites' timing belt kit. These are almost certainly low quality copycat parts! It's not worth saving $50 when it can result in thousands in engine damage! I also had a bad experience with this seller so never again. The timing belt tool kits are reported to fit poorly or not at all. Parts (click links to compare current prices) timing belt kit OR the individual components. Kits available at , , or timing belt 028 109 119 P timing belt tensioner 028 109 243 F timing belt idler pulley 028 109 244 4x allen bolts (6mm) for harmonic balancer pulley (crankshaft pulley / serpentine belt pulley) VW# n903487-04 (may have been superceded by n903487-06) 10, 13, 16, 18, 19 mm wrenches/sockets timing belt tools: . (click link or banner to check current price) tensioner spanner wrench VW tool #T10020, or equivalent camshaft setting bar/lock VW tool #2065a , or equivalent injection pump locking pin VW tool #2064, or equivalent sprocket counterholding bar (included with the metalnerd tools, metalnerd #MN3036) pics and measurement of TB tools by Ray_G (mk4 ALH engine tools also shown but not used on this engine, (pictured below as thumbnails, click to enlarge) Optional parts (click links to compare current prices) lower crankcase vent (CCV) breather hose (in case yours is brittle, see note below) VW # 028 103 491 J new harmonic balancer pulley (crankshaft pulley / serpentine belt pulley) VW # 028 105 243T serpentine belt and v belt valve cover gasket (included with some kits) light strength locktite water pump intermediate shaft/camshaft gasket VW# 068 103 085E intermediate shaft seal flange o-ring VW # N 903 535 01 PB Blaster, liquid wrench, etc., penetrating lubricant EZ out - for removing stripped allen bolts (pictured below, can be deep or shallow) If you are changing the water pump then also get some G12 or G13 coolant to replace lost coolant. I suggest 3 liters of coolant or 1 gallon and an equal amount distilled water for the timing belt job and to account for spilled coolant. Do not use generic green coolant, see e for more details. It will gum up the system. You can buy coolant here: (1 gallon size , VW #G 012 A8F A4 ) genuine VW (1.5 liter size, VW #G 012 A8F M1),available from size, (1.5 liter size, VW #ZVW 237 G12) Timing belt replacement instructions and procedure With the car off, in gear, and the handbrake on, raise the front of the car securely with jackstands and/or ramps or as specified in your factory service manual. Never get under the car if it is being supported by a hydraulic jack. Secure all tires with wheel chocks, place the car in gear, and apply the parking brake. Remove the plastic engine cover (3x 10mm nuts) Remove the accordion air intake hose and (optional: remove air intake box, see if you need tips). If you plan on replacing the water pump, definitely remove the air box. Also remove crank case vent (CCV) - caution - the lower CCV breather hose (outlined above in yellow and pictured below) is bolted to the lower engine block. If the top part of the hose is not soft, the bottom part will be dried out and can shatter if you bend it! It is also a common place for oil leaks due to a cracked flange or dried out o-ring, the bottom part often cracks on its own after mileage and age. If you choose to replace it, (2x 6mm allen) bolts hold it at the bottom. The part number is VW # 028 103 491 J. I don't know the torque spec for those bolts but 10-15 ft-lb should be enough since the hose is plastic and the seal is achieved using the o-ring. Remove the upper timing belt (TB) cover, held in place by 2 metal spring clips and a screw. On the valve cover, remove the plastic thread protectors by prying them off. Underneath, there are (3x 10mm) nuts and washers that hold the valve cover. Under those, there is a metal cup and rubber gasket. Don't remove the bolt that's under them all. You can now remove the valve cover. If it's stuck, tap it at the flange with a piece of wood. Avoid prying with a screwdriver since this can scratch the sealing surfaces. You can reuse the valve cover gasket if it's in good shape. Go underneath the car and remove the plastic lower engine bay cover. Remove the power steering v-belt and alternator serpentine belts. Although the service manual says to do this in a later step, I think it's best to do this now. It makes turning the engine over much easier and it avoids turning the power steering/alt, etc., opposite their normal wear and rotation. There are 2x 13mm bolts holding the power steering pump and 1x 16mm bolt holding it in the back. Loosen these and then push the power steering pump towards the rear of the car to slip off the v-belt. Remove the serpentine belt by relieving the pressure off the belt. You can use a wrench to move the tensioning lever arm while you slip off the belt. Although the service manual says to use the idler pulley's bolt to move the lever, I don't do this because it can strip the bolt. The below picture is from another writeup, ignore the red arrows, you don't have to loosen those. Just put a wrench on the lever on the other side of the red arrows. Remove the harmonic balancer/crankshaft pulley and the v-pulley sitting on top of it (4x 6mm allen bolts). Caution: The pulleys you are removing are the v-pulley and the serpentine belt pulley only, this is pictured below! Do not remove the crankshaft sprocket (the one that looks like a gear and drives the timing belt). Its bolt (the 19mm 12 point bolt) is a one use only stretch bolt so don’t remove it. If your TDI is making a squeaking or chirping sound on cold starts, see . The pulley design was changed to fix the chirping noise. This pulley doesn't drive the timing belt, it only drives the power steering, alternator, water pump, air conditioning. The pulley’s allen bolts may get stripped so I suggest putting a few drops of PB Blaster or liquid wrench under their heads. Let it soak since PB Blaster needs time to penetrate the threads. I suggest lightly tapping the allen bit with a hammer to make sure it's seated all the way in - this helps avoid stripping. If they do get stripped, a sharp EZ-out should remove them easily. I suggest putting the car and gear and having someone step on the brakes as the primary method to counterhold against the 4 allen bolts. If it's still moving, use the 19mm 12 point center crankshaft bolt to counterhold. I don't suggest using the 19mm 12 point bolt as the primary method to counterhold because the bolt is a 1 use only stretch bolt and the force required to loosen the allen head bolts can be high. The Bentley service manual does not give details on how to counterhold these bolts, it just says to remove the crankshaft pulley. Although later ALH TDI engines can use the 19mm center crankshaft bolt for counterholding, its bolt/crankshaft is different and is torqued to 89 ft-lbs + a turn vs. your bolt which is torqued to only 66 ft-lb + a turn. Having a helper step on the brakes is also easier than holding two tools in a limited space anyways. Other articles you may see elsewhere say to use the timing belt tools to counterhold, I do not suggest this due to the amount of force involved. Your tool also says not for torque on it. Using the camshaft lock to counterhold can crack the camshaft. Remove the lower TB cover. You should now be able to see all of the timing belt. Caution - the TB cover is held by 2x 10mm bolts and 1x 10mm nut. The bolt holding in the nut shouldn't fall out but mine was already missing. Shown below (red arrow) is another car that did have the bolt. When you remove the timing belt cover, take care to not knock that bolt loose since it's very difficult to insert a new one. If you have a magnet, use it to pull the bolt forward and hold it in place. The reason I removed the airbox was so that I could stuff gasket maker around the bolt. This will prevent it from backing out when you put the cover back on and can be easily removed later if you choose. More tips on this in . With the transmission in neutral, turn the engine over to TDC by turning the 19mm 12 point crankshaft bolt. This is what is recommended by the service manual. You can also use the sprocket counterholder tool on the camshaft sprocket to turn the camshaft clockwise until the camshaft's alignment slot is horizontal. I suggest doing this now (after removing the v-belt/serpentine belt) because the belts add resistance and it'll be easier to turn the sprocket after they are removed. You will insert the camshaft lock later - the slot provides a general reference of where TDC is. (pictured below, the reason why the tool doesn't look like the ones pictured above is that it's a metalnerd tool instead of a VW tool) Although the below picture is from a later TDI, the camshaft looks the same. Both of the camshaft #1 lobes (closest to passenger side on a North American left hand drive car) should be pointing up. The reason why the camshaft lobes should be pointing up is because this indicates that they are not pushing open the valves. The camshaft lock should fit in the machined slot at the other end of the camshaft. If the camshaft lock is in and the #1 lobes are pointing up, the TDC mark on the flywheel should be close to the viewing window on the transmission. Remove the top dead center (TDC) plug. It's located at the center-top of where the transmission meets the engine. Rotate the engine to get the TDC mark on the flywheel to align with the TDC pointer mark on the transmission bellhousing. Sometimes the pointer on the transmission bellhousing is worn like mine, the TDC mark should be at the center of the window. If you don't see it, try turning the crankshaft pulley 1 full revolution. You can mark it with paint or chalk for faster identification later. Counterhold the camshaft sprocket while you loosen its 19mm bolt. You can put the camshaft lock in place but be very careful not to put any torque on the lock or else it could crack the camshaft. If you're not sure of the amount of force involved, I suggest test fitting the lock and putting it back after loosening the camshaft bolt. Since the camshaft sprocket is a tapered fit onto the camshaft, loosening the bolt will not release the sprocket yet. (note - this picture was taken during camshaft tightening, don't use a torque wrench for loosening) After loosening the bolt, turn the 19mm bolt out halfway to catch the sprocket when you pop it off in a later step. Recheck TDC and insert the camshaft lock plate. For best results, put a business card or feeler gauge under each arm of the camshaft lock so that it's as even as possible. If you have a crankshaft lock, insert it now and check that the flywheel mark is still showing TDC. Loosen the 13mm bolt holding the TB tensioner and rotate it counterclockwise with a spanner wrench or VW tool #T10020 (you can use an adjustable spanner wrench) to loosen. Always loosen counterclockwise and always tighten clockwise. Note - if you later want to check the tension of the tensioner, do it on a cold engine and don't be alarmed if it's a hair off. If you want to tighten it, make sure the timing belt won't move around and then loosen the tensioner counterclockwise all the way before retightening it to the marks. Not loosening it before retightening it can cause damage. You should be able to insert the injection pump sprocket lock (indicated below w/red arrow). If it's a mm of so off, don't worry about it, just move the sprocket a little to get the tool in. If it's as much as 1cm off, make sure the engine is really at TDC, the camshaft slot horizontal, and the hole correct. It's possible the belt was a tooth off if it was that far off. Use a punch through the hole pictured below to tap off the camshaft sprocket. This will release the sprocket. You can now remove the timing belt. Remove the camshaft sprocket, TB, TB tensioner (13mm nut) and idler pulley (13mm bolt). Leave the injection pump lock and camshaft lock in place. These will make sure that they don't move. The flywheel and its mark shouldn't move on its own (flywheel is on opposite side of crankshaft from crankshaft sprocket) and if you have a lock it definitely hasn't moved. If you need to replace the water pump , intermediate shaft oil seal, camshaft seal, or injection pump, do so now. See: , , and as needed. .....part 2 and the rest of this detailed procedure and pictures are in the premium members only section. Please upgrade your account to premium: to view. The Thank you for your support!

Water pump replacement for mk3 diesel - VW Jetta - Passat TDI , 1z and AHU engine Introduction Unlike later VW diesels, the water pump is not part of the timing belt but part of the alternator/serpentine belt system on the 1z and ahu engine. It can be replaced without changing the timing belt but is difficult. You only need to change the moving parts, changing the whole housing is unnecessary. It is much easier and probably faster to replace the water pump by removing the timing belt. Because of this, a new water pump is recommended if there are signs of leaking or every other timing belt change. Also note that because the intermediate shaft pulley is so close to the water pump, inspect your parts to make sure that the water pump has recessed bolts where the intermediate shaft pulley overlaps it (pic below) or else it will rub. Also see related links: and . The intermediate shaft pulley has to be removed to get the water pump off, it's also worth it to replace the intermediate shaft if your car has high mileage. See for more details. The intermediate shaft runs the oil pump and uses the same seal as the camshaft and crankshaft front main seal. This project is rated 3/5 difficulty only because of timing belt removal, changing a water pump is otherwise very easy. Parts for water pump (click links to compare current prices) coolant pump bolts #N 010 222 8 (optional, quantity: 8) new water pump #b 037 121 005 B you may not need the entire water pump, you may only need the water pump impeller so please check the part numbers and ask your vendor. Also make sure that the water pump has recessed bolts on the upper left side to clear the intermediate shaft pulley. G12/G12+ VW coolant (about 1 gallon, caution: do not mix coolant types, see for more details) an equal amount of distilled water, about 1 gallon water pump gasket (OEM metal/rubber water pump gasket) #026 121 041 P note: most water pump kits include a paper gasket that is appropriate for older VWs that used the same pump, it's best to get this rubber/metal gasket 10, 18mm sockets, wrench 6mm allen wrench optional thermostat VW# 044 121 113 thermostat o-ring VW# 038 121 119 b (50x4) timing belt lower cover t-bolt VW# n 900 534 01 (don't bother ordering unless you are planning on removing the entire pump) Procedure (with timing belt removal) Remove the timing belt. See / and follow the applicable steps. Remove the water pump pulley (3x 6mm allen bolts), (in white text below). You can use an adjustable pipe wrench to counterhold the pulley at the neck, right behind the pulley. Remove the intermediate shaft pulley (in yellow below). Counterhold the intermediate shaft pulley with a sprocket holder to remove its 18mm pulley nut. Be careful because the pulley is aluminum. Note the intermediate shaft woodruff key and location. You now have access to all the water pump bolts. (8x 10mm bolts). The water pump might be a bit stuck but you can gently tap it with a piece of wood to release it and break the seal. Do not use a metal hammer directly on the water pump or a screwdriver to pry it off. In the below picture, the intermediate shaft seal flange was loosened and had a new seal. From this view, you can see the water pump neck where an adjustable wrench can be used to counterhold the pulley. Also note that in the above picture, the previous owner lost the bolt for the lower timing belt cover. There is normally a bolt pushed in from the other side which helps hold the lower timing belt cover, as seen below on another car. The part number is t-head screw n 900 534 01 but don't bother ordering it unless you can figure out how to insert it from the rear or if the full water pump housing is removed because there's no access from the other side to push it through. There are more notes on fixing this in the timing belt writeup. I use gasketmaker stuffed aroud the base of the bolt to lightly stick it in place. When putting on the new pump, tighten it's bolts evenly to help the gasket seat properly. Pictured right is a pump with a metal/rubber gasket instead of a paper gasket. You can use the paper gasket but you may want to put a very thin bead of gasket maker on the paper gasket. Put a THIN continuous bead on, most people always smear a large amount of gasket maker on, which then squeezes inside, breaks off, and then gets clogged somewhere. A 2-3mm bead is sufficient. For cars that use water cooled turbos, this can cause them to overheat if their water line gets clogged. This is also why I hate stop leak radiator products, just call AAA instead of clogging your radiator. I tried stop leak once and found what look like fried gluten clogging everything. Note - TDI turbos are not water cooled, they are oil cooled only. Also note the 3 red circles indicating the recessed bolt holes. If your water pump does not have these recessed areas it will interfere with the intermediate shaft pulley. Torque for water pump bolts - 7.4 ft-lbs or 89 inch lbs (ones circled in red to right) Torque for 18mm intermediate shaft - sprocket bolt - 33 ft lbs Torque for 3x 6mm water pump pulley bolts: 15 ft-lb Water pump removal procedure (without removing the timing belt) Here is a diagram of what you need to remove. Remove the 3 hoses going in and out of the water pump housing. Use a bucket to catch it, I do not recommend reusing the old coolant but you can if it's kept very clean. A pair of remote operated hose clamp pliers (pictured below) is so helpful that I consider it a required tool. Remove the alternator and AC compressor and place them off to the side if you feel you need more access. See for more details. Do not remove the AC compressor hoses or else all the coolant will be released as a gas, just unbolt the compressor and place it to the side. Remove the 4 bolts holding the water pump assembly to the engine. Replace any lost coolant with fresh coolant. See for more details.

Intermediate shaft seal replacement for mk3 VW Jetta and Passat TDI, 1z and AHU engine Introduction If you are changing the timing belt andhave high mileage, it may be worth it to change the intermediate shaft seal and water pump since you're already in there and it's easy to change. (I wouldn't change the front main crankshaft oil seal unless you have a leak.) The 2 seals you are changing are the round seal (same as the camshaft and front crankshaft seal) and the green o-ring that goes under the seal flange. Since the intermediate shaft pulley has to be removed to get the water pump off, you may also want to change the water pump at the same time. The intermediate shaft runs the oil pump and uses the same seal as the camshaft and crankshaft front main seal. If you have low oil pressure, this could be a sign that the intermediate shaft bearing is worn and is causing a loss of pressure. There is also a green viton o-ring seal that goes under the flange and should be replaced. Also inspect the woodruff key and pulley for wear. See related links: , , . If you need to remove the intermediate shaft completely (if it's broken, etc), just loosen the right and front motor mounts, raise the engine, and the intermediate shaft can be pulled straight out. Parts for intermediate shaft seal replacement (click links to compare current prices) intermediate shaft /camshaft seal (47x32x10mm) 026 103 085 d or 068 103 085 e , viton green o-ring for the flange seal (always replace) n 903 535 01 , , Optional parts VW# n 012 708 2sprocket woodruff key VW# 028 115 017 e intermediate shaft (in case yours is broken, otherwise not recommended) Procedure (with timing belt removal) Remove the timing belt. See and 1 and follow the applicable steps. Remove the water pump pulley (3x 6mm allen bolts), (in white text below). You can use an adjustable pipe wrench to counterhold the pulley at the neck, right behind the pulley. Remove the intermediate shaft pulley (in yellow below). Counterhold the intermediate shaft pulley with a sprocket holder to remove it's 18mm pulley nut. Then you can just remove the pulley, you can mark it with a sharpie to show which side is the outer side. Be careful because the pulley is aluminum. Note that there is a woodruff key for the intermediate shaft. Once the intermediate shaft pulley is off, remove the 2 bolts holding the flange. Note that there is a woodruff key for the sprocket. Push against the shaft while you pull the flange out so the shaft doesn't come out. If it does come out, just wiggle/rotate the shaft until it slides back into place. In the below picture, the intermediate shaft pulley was removed and the seal flange was already loosened with a new seal installed. Here is the flange removed. Below is the seal. This is the same seal as the camshaft and crankshaft front seal. Use some PB blaster and soak the edges of the seal. After 5 minutes, the seal should come out easily with a drift/socket tapping it out. You can also try heating the flange with a torch. Lubricate the new seal with oil and press it in. Always use a new o-ring for the flange as well. If there is corrosion on the sealing surfaces, scrub them with something of medium-soft abrasiveness like scotch brite (not steel wool) until clean. Follow the above linked timing belt articles for more details. Torque specs: Torque for 2 flange bolts - 18 ft lbs Torque for shaft - sprocket bolt - 33 ft lbs

DIY removal and cleaning of intake manifold of carbon build up, for 1996-1999 Volkswagen Jetta or Passat TDI Introduction The intake manifold must be regularly cleaned of carbon buildup. This DIY shows how to remove the soot buildup from your TDI engine. There is no factory replacement interval, it should just be cleaned when there is significant buildup. This carbon buildup can reduce performance and efficiency. Now that all diesel fuel sold in North America (not Mexico) is ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) only, clogging problems should be much less. Unlike the mk4 cars, the egr is part of the intake manifold and cannot be removed separately. Because of this, I suggest cleaning it and reusing it instead of buying a new one since a new manifold is over $500. Otherwise you have to use a pressure washer and/or brush to scrub it clean. Wear old clothes because they will be stained after you clean the intake manifold. Always wear gloves and eye protection when cleaning the manifold. The carbon is very sticky and a pressure washer or brush alone can't reach the interior corners. I do not recommend bead blasting since improper cleaning can leave tiny particles stuck in the carbon and cause engine damage. There are chemical cleaners that work while the manifold is attached to the engine but I strongly do not recommend this. Dealers used to do this until engines were damaged. In a diesel, the valves are almost touching the pistons due to high compression and once you see how much crud is inside, you won't want that going through the engine with the cleaner You also don't want the gunk to go through the turbo. If the cylinder head is really bad you should remove the head for cleaning. Soaking the manifold in carb cleaner, biodiesel, or wood furniture stripper will clean the carbon effectively. I suggest buying new allen bolts ahead of time because by now they're probably rusty and seized. If you do get stripped bolts, use a deep socket bolt-out tool. The shallow socket bolt out tool won't reach. This is a good time to also clean the EGR cooler. This is the round cylinder that leads to the EGR. Removing the EGR cooler causes a little coolant to be spilled so have replacement coolant available. Warning: check the color of your coolant, do NOT mix green/blue coolant with VW red/purple coolant, refer the article: for more details. Some people put a EGR block off plate because this will greatly reduce any intake buildup in the future. Disabling or reducing the EGR cycling will increase emissions and could cause a check engine light to appear. For more EGR information, see . Note: if you have a 1996 passat TDI, you do not have an EGR cooler. All other models do, differences are noted below in the procedure section. Parts (click links to compare current prices) 6mm ball end allen wrench or socket, straight end allen wrench is preferred since it will help avoid stripped allen bolts 10mm socket mirror to see the back of the engine a brush, degreaser, and a power washer, biodiesel, or other solvent 6x 6mm allen bolts for the intake manifold (size: m8x45, also used on ALH engine) (optional but suggested) VW# egr gaskets VW# (can be reusable) intake manifold gasket VW # or (manual suggests replace ev time) NOTE-some intake manifolds do not have the EGR cooler, part number ending in J should have the EGR cooler, ending in T should not have one. Make sure to double check the part numbers with your vendor! It looks like J has bolt holes for the cooler but some vendors list T for both parts. Later mk4 ALH manifolds will not bolt on, especially since the manifold points to the the other side. With EGR cooler - VW # 028-129-711-J Without EGR cooler VW # 028-129-711-T if you have a 1996 passat and do not have an EGR cooler. VW G12 coolant (not needed on 1996 passat). Do not use green coolant or other type coolant, see for more details. Optional tools hose clamp pliers (optional but suggested) Bolt-out tool for stripped allen bolts (optional, don't get the low clearance set) Intake manifold cleaning procedure Remove the top engine cover. 3x 10mm nuts. Remove turbo outlet piping and intercooler-manifold piping by removing their hose clamps and any vacuum lines. Tape over the exposed pipes so nothing falls in. I prefer tape over paper towels because paper towels tend to get stuffed into the pipe and forgotten. If you have a 1996 passat, your car looks like this: It's pretty much the same but you have no EGR cooler, intake removal will be even faster! Optional: You can remove the accordion hose/turbo intake hard pipe for easier access but I don't suggest it. There is an o-ring seal at the turbo intake and it's best not to disturb it. Circled below are the 3x 10mm bolts holding the pipe. You should also remove the crankcase vent (CCV) oil line heater (the electrical plug) When you put the piping back, lube the o-ring before putting it back and twist/wiggle it on to avoid pinching the o-ring. If you need a new turbocharger flange o-ring, the part number is #1h0 129 646. Remove the EGR-EGR cooler metal piping (2x 6mm allen bolts per flange). NOTE: if you have a 1996 passat, you have no EGR cooler, skip this step. Make sure to catch the gaskets so they can be reused. Remove the EGR cooler water hoses. There are 3 hoses. Then remove the EGR cooler (3x 10mm bolts) Unbolt 3 bolts holding the EGR cooler down (red circles in below pic). Use a mirror to positively identify them. Disconnect EGR cooler intake and outlet hoses. Remove EGR cooler intake and outlet flanges (2x 6mm allen each flange), some PB blaster works great here. It may be hard to get access to the nuts on the exhaust manifold so you can leave that section in place. The EGR cooler can now be removed. To finish disconnecting the intake manifold remove the rest of the bolts (6x 6mm allen bolts, 1 hole is circled in red). It's hard to get a good picture, so here is the manifold after removal. Note - you may want to use PB Blaster to soak and pre-lubricate the bolts. You may also want to buy 6 new bolts in case they are damaged or get stripped during removal. The 3 bright areas in the below pic is the EGR cooler bolt location. The 1996 passat intake manifold has flat machined pieces with no bolt holes since it has no EGR cooler. Some people choose to remove or block off the EGR cooler and EGR system. On the mk3 TDI, it's part of the intake manifold and is not easily removed so you can block off the coolant and EGR tube instead. Refer to for more details about EGR blocking, the purpose of the EGR, etc. Cleaning The EGR naturally puts exhaust soot into the intake which must be cleaned out. It mixes with oily crankcase vapors and can form a buildup. Do NOT use a chemical dissolver or a vacuum cleaner to suck out the carbon while the intake manifold is still attached to the head. Hard pieces of carbon will fall into the engine and could damage the valves or turbo. The intake, EGR, and EGR cooler must be removed from the head for cleaning. The cylinder head is best cleaned while off the car. If you want to clean the cylinder head while on the engine, I suggest removing the camshaft (follow timing belt removal as spec. in your factory service manual or see so that all the valves are closed, or rotate the camshaft so that the valves on the cylinder you are cleaning are closed. You can then use a brush to clean. I would avoid using liquid cleaners in case it were to leak into the engine and cause hydrolock (engine damage). Make sure to follow up with compressed air to blow out all loose carbon particles. I've also heard of filling the manifold with carb cleaner, old nuts, and shaking it or to use an old hacksaw blade to get to the corners (hacksaw tip by P2B). Below are some pictures showing a moderately dirty intake. It looks worse than it really was because of the curve in the manifold neck. The worst buildup tends to be downstream of the EGR. Pictured below left is the manifold near the intake ports, there was only a moderate/light coating of carbon so removing the cylinder head was unnecessary. Note the oil stain below the EGR vent hole. After cleaning, the hole was tapped and a drilled out fitting/hose was screwed in to divert the oil leak, pictured bottom right. You have to look on the downstream side of the EGR to see the really bad clogging. Buying a new manifold will let you immediately change it and save car down time but they are more expensive on the mk3 TDI because the EGR is part of the manifold. A new manifold should avoid the EGR weeping issue but I chose to clean the old manifold. I used a pressure washer, soaked it in carb cleaner w/brushing, and used the pressure washer again. Soaking the manifold in carb cleaner, biodiesel, or wood furniture stripper will clean the carbon effectively. A hose will not clean it, you need a pressure washer like the one at the carwash! It will cause a big mess, so wear clothes you don't mind getting stained. Make sure to look inside the manifold as well, the corners and neck hide a lot of carbon. Other options for cleaning involve ultrasonic cleaning or soaking in biodiesel. I have a junk table and clamps to prevent the manifold from blowing away. A carwash type electric pressure washer will also work but these aren't as powerful because they would otherwise damage cars. The pictured manifold is from another engine, your mk3 manifold will look similar. Installation is the reverse of removal. The service manual says that the intake manifold gasket is one use only but you can reuse the old gaskets if they are not damaged. The intake manifold gasket's beading (coating) faces the intake manifold. Torque specs: 6mm intake manifold allen bolts - 18 ft lbs.

VW-Audi TDI EGR system FAQ: how it works, tied into the DPF, and how to disable it (some notes applicable to all light diesels)

Where is the EGR and what does it do?

EGR stands for Exhaust Gas Recirculation. The system is located on the firewall side (rear) of the engine on almost all TDI engines. The main purpose of the EGR is to reduce NOx emissions produced during diesel or gasoline engine combustion. By mixing exhaust gasses back into the engine, it lowers peak combustion temperatures and reduces NOx emissions anywhere from 50%-75% vs. a non-EGR system. The newest 2009+ models work with the exhaust or Adblue system to reduce NOx even further. The reason why putting exhaust gas (hotter than ambient air) into the intake stream reduces NOx is because the free oxygen would otherwise turn into NOx during combustion. Because a diesel runs very lean (much more air than fuel for efficiency), there's more oxygen present vs. a gasoline engine which means more NOx. The MAF air intake sensor also sees a reduction in air intake and adjusts fueling. Everything else being equal and within limits, in a diesel, more fuel = more power = higher temperatures (more potential for NOx formation). In a gasoline car, more fuel at the right ratios = lower temperatures. The 1997-2003 1.9L TDI systems take in exhaust gases at the exhaust manifold, send them through the EGR cooler (except North American market 1996 passat), and then into the intake manifold through the EGR valve at the intake manifold. The 2004-2006 EGR system takes in gas at the exhaust manifold, sends it through a diverter valve, then the EGR cooler, then through the EGR/diverter valve into the intake manifold. These later cars used an electronic EGR and intake flap throttles that regulate intake air for EGR metering purposes. Unlike a gasoline car, the throttle has no direct role in controlling engine RPM - it's only for the EGR because all diesel engines are throttled by fueling, not air. Earlier cars used a vacuum and solenoid operated EGR. These are standard routings in most cars, both diesel and gasoline, turbo and non turbo. The newest engines have a high and low pressure filtered EGR system that works with the diesel particulate filter DPF system. See for more details on the newest 2.0L engines. For the 3.0L TDI engine, see . The system is regulated by the car's computer to open or close to varying degrees depending on load and other factors. At light load or idle, up to 30% of the intake air flow can be recirculated exhaust. At heavier loads, the EGR valve begins to close and at a certain point, the car's computer closes the EGR valve completely. In the newest common rail TDI engines (2009+), the EGR closes all the way during an active diesel particulate filter regeneration cycle. Since the EGR is opened and closed at various engine loads, the presence or absence of the EGR does not have a significant effect on engine longevity. In theory, it lowers temperatures at lighter loads where there is less fueling and lower cylinder temperatures. In most cars, at heavy loads with more fueling and higher temperatures, the EGR system is closed so it does not reduce peak power at all. Again, because diesels run so lean, there's plenty of oxygen to burn even at high EGR flow. Before going into the engine, exhaust gasses normally pass through a cooler. A side benefit of an EGR cooler is faster engine warm up because the hot exhaust gasses give their heat to the coolant. This is great for a diesel because cold engines have greater engine wear and worse fuel economy and emissions. Diesels have a lot of piston blowby and once the engine is warmed up, the engine seals tighter and gets better fuel economy. In the mk3 Jetta and Passat TDI, the EGR is part of the intake manifold. EGR metering is a calculated value by the car's computer. In the mk4 and pumpe duse mk5 cars, the EGR is a separate unit bolted to the intake manifold and can be replaced as a separate unit if necessary. These cars also note how much fresh air is coming in from the MAF to determine how the EGR is working. This is why blocking off the EGR on the TDI can cause a check engine light/malfunction indicator light. The introduction of the pumpe duse engine in 2004 also saw the addition of an O2 sensor in the exhaust. Unlike O2 sensors in gasoline cars, the TDI sensor is not used to determine the amount of fuel injected. Again, it does not directly control fuel metering. The TDI O2 sensor is used to calculate the potential for NOx formation and regulate the EGR valve with more precision, resulting in cleaner emissions. Here is a picture of a pumpe duse (2004+) diverter valve and EGR cooler. More pictures can be found in the FAQ articles that show EGR cleaning or removal . If you have a mk3, see The 2009+ Jetta, Golf diesel, and Audi A3 TDI have a more complicated EGR system. The low pressure EGR gasses are filtered before being sent through the cooler and back into the intake. The high pressure gasses go straight from the exhaust manifold to the EGR valve and into the intake. The low pressure is used more at higher engine rpm and load. It's too new to know long term reliability but it should be relatively maintenance free because of cleaner fuel and less carbon buildup in the intake. Some believe that the EGR and DPF tuning is the cause of occasional engine stuttering in the CRD engines. This usually occurs at certain partial load situations like hesitation when cresting over a hill. Below is the visible part of the 2009+ CRD engine EGR system. The green highlighted box is the throttle valve. To the right is a cutaway picture on a demo picture. Its primary purpose is for EGR metering and not engine rpm metering. Some older engines had problems with the gears stripping (gears and throttle visible on the cutaway picture, below right) which caused air delivery problems. The blue box is the EGR valve which regulates recycled exhaust gasses from the white-wrapped tube (high pressure EGR) and restricts air during a DPF regen cycle. At high engine rpm or load, the visible high pressure EGR valve slowly closes and the system switches to the low pressure EGR. The high pressure EGR gasses are taken before the turbo. The low pressure EGR gasses are tapped after the DPF, through a filter (shown below), a cooler (the silver horizontal cylinder), and then recycled back into the intake path right before the turbo.

How to check proper operation of the EGR valve

The system is normally controlled by the car computer and a solenoid. The solenoid controls vacuum to the EGR valve. The mk3 and mk4 early ALH engine cars use a spring loaded valve that moves up and down. The mk4 later pumpe and mk5 cars use an electronic rotating diverter valve type EGR. This is less suspect to clogging than a spring type and fairly reliable since the electric motor moves the valve. To check for the valve proper operation, with the car off, remove the intake piping before the intake manifold to see the EGR valve. Take a look inside. If you see a lot of carbon buildup, the intake manifold will need cleaning. A little buildup of a 2-3 millimeters is normal and does not require cleaning. I wouldn't clean it unless it's already off or there's more than 4 mm of buildup or enough to cause restriction. For the cars that use a spring loaded valve, remove the vacuum line on the EGR valve and apply suction with a vacuum pump. Don't try sucking with your mouth since there isn't enough force and the hose is dirty. The valve should move towards the vacuum diaphragm when you apply suction. Since it's spring loaded, it should return to closed when you release suction. If it fails to fully close, it means there's a problem. EGR valves that are electrically operated have sensors to show their position and should trip an error code in the car's computer. It's possible for the internal gears to strip. If the EGR valve works but the system still doesn't work, check the solenoid, electrical connectors, and wiring. A vacuum leak can cause malfunction of the EGR valve. A clogged line can also cause malfunction. If none of these solve your problem, then the computer (ECU or ECM) or other sensor may be faulty.

Removing or cleaning the EGR system and intake manifold

If there is excessive carbon buildup on the intake manifold and EGR, it must be removed and cleaned. There is no set time, mileage, or factory recommendation on when to clean it since accumulation can vary according to type of engine oil used, driving style, quality of fuel used (ultra low sulfur diesel, biodiesel, etc.), and even by car. The reason why VW diesels seem to be more prone to buildup than other cars is probably due to engine oil mist in the intake system meeting the recirculated exhaust gases. The oil mist comes from the CCV (Crank Case Ventilation, similar to a PCV system) system. The main component of the CCV system is on top of the valve cover and looks like a black plastic hockey puck with a hose. Diesel cars naturally have more piston blowby than gasoline engines which pressurizes the engine crankcase. Since diesels don't have a strong vacuum in the intake system like gasoline engines, they use a vacuum pump to run the brake booster and other items. Gas engines are throttled by air - they use a throttle plate which creates a vacuum and pumping losses as a byproduct. The vacuum pump creates vacuum on one side and pressure on the other - this air pressure goes into the crankcase. Air pressure from these two sources must be vented or else it could blow out an oil seal. The CCV hose is attached to the intake piping before the turbocharger so that crankcase vapors and air pressure are drawn out of the engine crankcase. There may be a heating element on the hose to prevent it from icing up. (The oil in the crankcase vapors is why it's normal for a little bit of oil in the intercooler to be present. However, excess oil could indicate a problem.) The soot from the exhaust and oil mist combine to form the carbon buildup. Again, quality of fuel (biodiesel or ultra low sulfur diesel), engine oil, EGR system operation, and driving style all contribute to carbon buildup which must be cleaned. Since the introduction of ultra low sulfur diesel in the US, the likelihood of severe intake manifold buildup has reduced. To clean the system, it's best to remove the entire intake manifold and EGR system but you can get away with just cleaning the intake manifold, EGR cooler, and EGR valve. You MUST remove the components from the engine when cleaning them. Do not clean them on the car or use de-carbonizing chemicals to clean the intake manifold. If a large piece of carbon breaks off and gets stuck in a valve or turbo, it will result in severe engine damage! The liquid or solids can also go into a cylinder and cause hydrolock. Dealers used to do on car cleaning until they realized that some engines were damaged from this. If you didn't get the message - you must remove the parts from the car to clean them! Remember that the pistons are almost touching the cylinders in a diesel engine due to the high compression, so even a small amount of standing liquid may cause engine damage. You can also just replace them with new parts instead of cleaning them. It is recommended for the mk3 cars to replace the intake manifold because the EGR valve can malfunction and leak oil and is not removable from the intake manifold. On the mk4 and mk5 cars, you can reuse the manifold since it's just a cast piece of metal and the EGR can be replaced as a separate unit as needed. Cleaning them is a very dirty process so wear clothes that you don't mind getting dirty. Refer to the FAQ for DIY articles for each model. Another problem for the mk3 and mk4 TDI is leaking oil out of the EGR weep hole. The EGR has a diaphragm inside that moves on a shaft. The other side is vented to the atmosphere. As the shaft wears, it can leak oil that comes out the weep hole. You don't want to plug the hole or else the EGR will not function correctly. The mk4 EGR is removable from the intake manifold. If it weeps oil, replacement is suggested. The mk3 EGR is not removable from the intake manifold. If it weeps oil, you could replace the entire intake manifold or reroute the weep hole by running a small hose from the hole to into the intake tubing upstream of the turbo or onto the ground or a catchcan. The EGR on the newest 2009+ TDI is tied into the emission system to a greater level than earlier cars because of the DPF system. Give a hoot, don't pollute.

How do people modify the EGR and why?

People remove the EGR system for two main reasons. Removing intake restrictions will reduce pumping losses and create more available power. Removing the EGR will also greatly reduce the amount of buildup that you will see on the intake manifold. It's important to not seal off the crankcase ventilation hoses because the crankcase builds pressure that must be vented! Some people vent the hoses into a catchcan. Do not vent the hose onto the ground because you'll have an oil slick under the car and on the road. This is like dumping used oil onto the road - this contaminates the ground/groundwater. There are a few ways to modify the operation of the EGR system. The first is to use the adaptation function of a Ross tech VCDS cable to adjust the degree of EGR system operation. The computer may react to the change in EGR flow and adjust timing. People report a mileage loss with this method of adaptation. It is possible to shut it off completely with a VCDS but this will set a check engine light. It only works on earlier mk3 and mk4 cars before 2004. The other way is to physically remove the EGR valve and/or entire system from the car and replace one end with a block off plate and the other end with a straight pipe (race pipe). The problem is that it will set a check engine light and it removes the anti shudder valve. The anti shudder valve is the first thing that might stop a diesel engine runaway (a type of malfunction) and could save your engine from being damaged. See for more details on an engine runaway. Pumpe duse engines (2004-2008 TDI in North America) use an electronic throttle plate called an intake manifold flap. This can cause running problems and possibly cut off air flow to the engine if it's not running correctly. To remove it you would have to use an aftermarket chip for the engine to run properly and disable the check engine light, contact chip tuners for more details.

Why I do not recommend removing the EGR system

First, it is an emission device. It cost the manufacturer money to design and put on your car for the purposes of meeting emissions standards. This article is just the facts with the exception of this single section of opinion: I believe in personal rights more than the strict letter of the law and think a knowledgeable and consenting adult should be allowed to do anything they want to their property. However, emissions laws are in place because modifying things like car emissions infringes upon the rights of other people. Your rights end where your neighbor's rights begin and we all have to breathe the same air. In countries that have poor emissions controls and poor air quality, emissions are a major factor in disease and shortening the lives of people who are regularly exposed to vehicle exhaust, like police and road crews. Since most TDI are daily drivers, making changes to emissions devices has a much greater effect vs. special use off road or race cars. Here are some more facts to consider. If you are thinking of removing the EGR cooler only so that the intake charge is hotter and in theory, less prone to carbon buildup, this defeats a large portion of EGR effectiveness since emissions and temperatures will be higher without the cooler. The EGR cooler also helps warm up the engine by giving heat from the exhaust to the engine. This results in a faster warm up, less engine wear, and better fuel economy due to faster engine warm up. Removal of the EGR will turn on the check engine light which will results in automatic failure during emissions testing and can prevent you from registering the vehicle in many states. Disabling the light or taping over it won't work since they plug in an obd2 scanner which reads your car's computer. There are ways to trick the computer into not showing a check engine light like through a chip tune but tampering with emissions devices is illegal in most places. The newest DPF equipped cars require new computer programming for the ECU to bypass or delete the DPF filter. The biggest gain is reduced cleaning of the intake manifold. However, ultra low sulfur fuel used in all US and Canadian diesel fuel has greatly reduced major clogging. Biodiesel users report no excess intake buildup although there'll always be a small film. There are only small mileage or power gains from disabling the EGR system since it is greatest at partial throttle and idle. If you are removing the EGR for reduced pumping losses and the small power or economy gains, bigger and cleaner gains can be made elsewhere. See for a list of starting performance modifications. Also, the pumpe duse cars use an O2 sensor to regulate the EGR system much more efficiently than non pumpe duse cars. Even newer technologies on the common rail system cars allow more precise fuel delivery and burn, resulting in less intake clogging. I have seen comments that suggest the ingestion of the sooty EGR exhaust gasses combined with diesel piston blowby can cause oil contamination. This is false since the soot gets burned in the combustion chamber. Diesel engine oil is also formulated to hold soot and combustion byproducts and the engine will have sooty oil whether it has an EGR system or not. Engine oil quality and engine maintenance is a much greater factor in proper lubrication than the presence of an EGR system. One final thing to consider when modifying the EGR system: if you modify or delete the EGR system, you will almost certainly have problems getting warranty coverage on the engine if the dealer notices it. Even though it should not damage the engine, VW will probably claim that you caused the damage. If you wanted to pursue it, you would have to hire attorneys to take any further action and it's not economical to do so. It would be hard to deny a claim on the suspension if you modified the engine, but be prepared to encounter resistance if you make any claim on a modified engine. If your car is under warranty, I do not suggest making an EGR change unless you are prepared to change it back when you go to the dealer. Modifications like an ecu chip or larger nozzles are not easily detected and most dealership mechanics would never find them but a missing or blocked EGR can easily seen.

The future of the EGR system

The EGR system is an emissions device and because it makes such a major difference in emissions, it's unlikely that it'll go away in diesel cars. While some gasoline cars have eliminated the EGR, they can also run tighter air/fuel ratios, something that would never be possible with a diesel engine. This is partly because a diesel isn't throttled the same way a gasoline engine is and because they run very lean/efficient (much more air than fuel). The clogging problem that older cars have doesn't seem occur on newer cars as much for a number of reasons: ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, more precise fuel delivery and burn, better oil separators in the CCV, and new EGR systems all reduce the likelihood of clogging. Some diesel trucks use a mini catalyst before the EGR to catch and burn up any soot, preventing most of it from entering the intake. Future gasoline engines are also raising their compression and approaching diesel-like efficiency levels to be like half diesel half gas engines. Some people criticized catalytic converters for killing the 1970's muscle car but the truth is that poor engineering and high fuel prices killed the muscle car. And today, cars are far, far more powerful, efficient, and cleaner then ever.

VW TDI fuel filter draining or changing and priming the fuel system for 1998-2005 mk4 TDI see , for 2005.5-2010 TDI see Introduction This DIY shows how to replace the mk3 VW Jetta TDI or VW Passat fuel filter. The replacement interval is 20,000 miles. Your owner's handbook and service manual calls for draining the fuel filter of water every 10,000 miles and changing it every 20,000 miles. This means install a new filter every 20,000 miles and drain it halfway through it's life. This article gives tips on changing or draining the fuel filter and then priming the fuel system. If you are using high percentages of biodiesel such as 85% or 100% biodiesel, you should expect to change it early since biodiesel will clean out the old buildup and clog the fuel filter if there was significant build up in the fuel system. As a safe rough estimate, 1000 miles and then again at 5000 miles, your mileage may vary with biodiesel. A more economical idea is to install a small clear inline fuel filter before the main fuel filter to filter out larger particles and let you see how clogged the fuel filter may be. Early symptoms of a clogged fuel filter are stumbling at high rpms or lack of power. A general lack of power could also be limp mode, see for possible causes and the solution. Make sure that these symptoms are not caused by an air leak in the fuel line or a clogged pickup at the fuel tank. Bacterial or algal growth in the fuel tank can clog the pickup. Your car has no in tank electric fuel pump, only later TDI had these. Fuel filter basics There is a temperature sensitive recirculation valve on the return line. When below 59oF, the valve recirculates return line fuel to the filter and help regulate the fuel temperature. When the fuel is above 88oF, it should switch and recirculate fuel back to the fuel tank. The return line fuel is warmer than outside temperature because it's heated by the pressurization and compression from the injection pump and ambient heat from the engine and fuel lines. If this valve or any of the fuel lines are not sealed well, it will let air bubbles into the fuel lines and this could result in engine stumbling or a hard/no start condition. Make sure the o-ring and fuel line clamps are seated properly. The arrow on the recirculation control valve should point toward the fuel tank to the rear. You may hear that the fuel filters are heated, this is true only in the sense that they are slightly warmed by the return line fuel. There is no active or electric heater unless someone installed an aftermarket heater for a veggie or grease system and you wouldn't want diesel or biodiesel to be too hot anyways. Although you are supposed to drain water every 10,000 miles, I have never seen any water in my fuel. Water from condensation would be present in fuel that has sat for a long time or that has contamination from the gas station. The water drain drains the whole filter out the bottom when unscrewed. Parts (click links to compare current prices) vinyl/latex/nitrile (fuel resistant) gloves chemical resistant cup for holding diesel fuel paper towels to catch any spilled fuel 1 Fuel Filter (see below for part number) 1996-1999 mk3 Jetta/Passat TDI fuel filter: VW# TDI fuel filter replacement procedure Safety disclaimer - you are working with open fuel lines and fuel vapors when you change the fuel filter! Make sure that there are no sources of ignition, spark, or open flames near the car or where fuel vapors could reach. Work only in a well ventilated area where any fuel vapors can be immediately evacuated and if fuel is spilled, clean it up before you continue working. Although diesel vapors are not as flammable as gasoline vapors at room temperature and pressure (as seen in the video below at the 1:00 minute mark - it's a demonstration only do not try that yourself!), you still want to comply with all cautions in your factory service manual. Wear eye protection at all times when working on your car. See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Diesel fuel will melt asphalt and rubber lines on your car so clean up any spills immediately. Make sure to use gloves because diesel fuel has a strong odor and you don't want it soaked into your hands. Fuel filter circled in yellow. Draining the fuel filter The diesel filter has a water drain at the bottom. It's purpose is to let you drain out any collected water. Drain it every 10,000 miles. Just place a catch cup underneath the drain at the bottom and turn the white knob to open it. See below for a close up of the drain. Because of the quality of diesel fuel sold in North America, it's rare to have any water present and you will probably not see any water collected in a daily driven car. Water can condense in storage tanks or cars that are never driven. Replacing the fuel filter To replace, just loosen the screws that hold it and remove the clamps that hold the fuel lines. The fuel lines may be somewhat stuck to the filter line so try twisting the line before pulling it off to break the seal. Below left is a picture of the fuel filter. Below right is another picture showing the mounting bolts (you don't need to loosen those to remove the filter) and the fuel lines. Note the white water drain screw at the bottom of the filter. If you have a 1996 passat TDI, you have an extra T in the fuel line. You can ignore it during this procedure or see for more details. Pull out the filter and replace the o-ring on the thermostatic T. Make sure to replace them or else excess air bubbles can cause fuel supply problems. New ones should come with the new filter. Wipe up any fuel spills and make sure that while you are doing this procedure, that there are no possible sources of ignition or open flames anywhere near the car and adequate ventilation to clear any fuel vapors. Make sure to wad a paper towel over the fuel line when you remove it. The fuel lines should not be under pressure but some fuel may spill out. When you replace the fuel filter, fill it up with diesel fuel to minimize priming time. You can also use diesel purge or diesel power service. These are mostly diesel fuel anyways and they will also clean the system. Here's a video showing some of the procedure on a similar engine. When you replace the fuel filter, fill it up with fuel to prevent a dry start (see more on priming below). Here's a video summarizing the procedure on a similar engine: Here is what's inside the fuel filter housing, click to enlarge the thumbnails. Priming the fuel system or purging air (if your TDI engine can't start if you changed the filter) To prime the pump, first fill the fuel filter and fuel lines with fuel. If you didn't change the injectors or do something that emptied the fuel lines, just filling the filter should be enough. If you did empty the fuel lines and rail, prime the system fully. The injection pump is self priming but it'll take forever to start if the fuel lines are dry. This is hard on the battery and can overheat the starter. By priming, most of the air is removed and the engine should start with minimal cranking. If the fuel lines weren't run dry, just fill the filter and leave it at that. Apply suction on the return line at the fuel filter or fuel return line until fuel has circulated through the pump. You can use the small 4 mm braided hose connecting the top of the injection pump to the #4 fuel injector or the return fuel line T shown below. The problem with loosening the filter line at the filter is that the plastic T can become brittle and snap off. Remember, twist the hoses to break the seal before pulling it off. Don't bother using your mouth, you must use a vacuum pump to generate enough force. A vacuum brake bleeder or a mity vac hand pump will work. Some people loosen the fuel hard lines at the injectors to purge air. This also works fine but if you just removed the fuel injectors, counterhold the injector bodies to avoid twisting their hold-downs.If you didn't, they'll be frozen in place and won't need to be counterheld. Wrap a rag and around the line to prevent fuel being sprayed everywhere. Do not use your hand to hold the fuel since the diesel is under pressure. Although you only see instant death fuel pressure at the injector nozzle (in the cylinder and not exposed by loosening the fuel line), I would still avoid exposing bare hands to any pressurized fuel. Replace all the clamps and check for any loose tools, paper towels, etc. Take a test drive and check for any leaks. There may be many bubbles initially because of air pockets still trapped somewhere in the system. If there are still lots of bubbles after a day, check for leaks at the lines, the o-rings, the T, or at the fuel pickup in the fuel tank. Feel free to share your experience in the or if you need more help.

DIY engine oil change, for mk3 VW TDI with 1Z or AHU engine, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Introduction This article discusses some tips on how to change your engine oil on VW Jetta TDI or VW Passat TDI, 1996-1999. For types of VW approved oil and change intervals, refer to the article: . Later generation TDI that use the pumpe duse engine should use pumpe duse specific engine oil, this generation of TDI can use pumpe duse oil or older VW 505 spec oil. It's normal for new engine oil to be black since there will be a little bit left over which will make all the oil black. Parts Metric tool set oil filter wrench oil catch pan torx bits and screwdriver to remove belly shield/plastic cover engine oil - 4.5 Liters/4.7 quarts , should meet VW 505.00 standards or pumpe duse VW 505.01, 506.01, or 507.00 standards. you can get oil change kits from or Oil change procedure Torque specs: engine oil drain plug - 22 ft lbs Engage the parking brake, jack up the front of the car using the factory jack points, rest car securely on jack stands, chock the rear wheels, and make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. Remove the plastic engine splash shield. Place a catch pan under oil plug, remove oil plug (19mm x 1 bolt w/yellow arrow in below pic). Remove oil filter and replace. Sometimes the oil filters can be really stuck. If it is really bad you can stick a screwdriver through it and use it as a lever to turn the oil filter off. Caution - always check to see that the old filter gasket is off. Sometimes the rubber gasket will stick to the oil filter housing. If it's left there, it will cause a sudden leak later on when the double gasket blows. Below is a picture showing the bare metal of the oil filter housing, that is what it should look like with no gasket. The 27mm nut in the middle should not be loose as it holds the oil cooler. (see ) Also inspect for oil leaks or coolant leaks. Double check the engine oil drain plug and engine oil filter are tightened. Put in slightly less oil than needed. Lower the car so that the car is on level ground. Wipe the dipstick clean and recheck the level. If you need oil, slowly add oil and recheck. Too much oil is bad because excess oil can foam up. The optimum level is right below the upper mark on the dipstick. If you spilled some oil on the ground, first wipe it up with towels. Then pour some driveway spill absorber or basic kitty litter on the spill. Step and grind the litter into a dust and let it sit for a while. It needs time to soak up the stain. When it's saturated, sweep up the gravel/dust. If you can't find a dump for used coolant/antifreeze, engine oil, gear oil, or other car fluids, . Don't dump it onto the ground! Above the car method using an oil extractor (shown on mk4 TDI, similar procedure applies to your car) Insert the vacuum oil extractor into the dipstick and down into the oil pan. Use the vacuum to suck the oil out. If you want detailed steps, refer to the later TDI engine oil change articles.

Oil cooler, o-ring seal replacement, and oil pressure sender replacement Introduction One common place for oil leaks is the o-ring between the oil cooler and oil cooler flange. This article shows you how to replace the o-ring and remove the oil cooler on a mk3 TDI. The same cooler is used on the mk3 and mk4 TDI (and many other VW and Audi) and the procedure is very similar. If the leak is actually around the gasket at the flange and engine block, it is gasket VW# 028 115 441 c on the mk3 TDI. After you remove the oil cooler you will see 3 allen bolts. Remove them and the flange will come off. The gasket is underneath. The torque for the 3 allen bolts is 18 ft lbs. If you see oil around the top of the flange first inspect the oil pressure sensor/sender since they can leak through the metal prong sticking out the top. An example of this is pictured below. Before you order an oil pressure sender, check the color. Grey is VW#: 068 919 081 a , blue is VW# 028 919 081 d. Some have 2 oil pressure senders, one low pressure and one high pressure. Confirm which one you need and then order the part from your vendor. If the leak is confirmed as the o-ring, make sure the 27mm nut holding the cooler in place is tight. When the oil filter is screwed on, it should also help hold the cooler in place. The other leak for the oil cooler is internal. This will cause the coolant and oil to mix and should be immediately repaired. If you have oil in the coolant, see . Always test your new oil cooler. Mine was defective and immediately mixed the oil and coolant, wasting a lot of money and time. The normal industry practice is that parts vendors aren't responsible for defective parts made by someone else. I suggest applying pressurized air at 40 psi or higher and immersing it in water. Bubbles will reveal any leaks. Clean the water out of the oil passages with compressed air afterwards. The difficulty rating is 2/5 but remember that you may also have and which increases the time involved. The spring hose clamp remote pliers are needed since the spring hose clamps may be in a position where it's impossible to loosen them with regular pliers. Parts (click links to compare current pricing) 27mm deep socket oil filter wrench new oil filter and engine oil spring hose clamp remote pliers (pictured below) o-ring VW# 038 117 070 A , oil cooler VW# (from kermatdi) () Procedure If you are just replacing the o-ring, it is possible to remove the cooler without draining the coolant, do not disconnect any coolant hoses. If you are replacing the cooler you must drain the coolant and if there was a leak you need to do a flush anyways to clean out the old mixed coolant/oil. Follow the procedure listed in . Disconnect the 2 coolant hoses going into the cooler. The spring clamps may not be accessible so I suggest using the remote spring clamp pliers on them. Drain the oil and remove the oil filter. You will see a 27mm nut holding the cooler on (pictured below). Do not loosen the nut until the two coolant hoses are disconnected. The nut is thin and tapered on the edges so I suggest a deep socket and making sure you are holding the socket flat against the nut. I found that a ratchet with a head that can bend at an angle works best. Universal joints promote twisting on the socket. Universal joints also throw off a torque reading - more useful tips like this at . If the hoses are blocking removal of the cooler, rotate the cooler 90 degrees as you pull it down to clear the engine and hoses. If you are just replacing the o-ring, avoid damaging the threads as you pull the cooler down. It's possible to remove the threaded center rod to ease removal but I do not suggest this since it can damage the threads. The o-ring has tabs to help hold it to the cooler. See the above picture of the new cooler with the o-ring attached. Put a thin coat of oil on the o-ring and replace the cooler. Pictured below is the oil cooler and o-ring after removal. Replace the new o-ring and cooler and torque the thin 27mm nut to 18 ft-lb. Remember, the oil filter helps hold the cooler on so don't kill the nut, especially since it's thin and tapered. Installation is the reverse of removal.

How to remove the mk3 TDI injection pump and swap mk4 ALH IP into your car : removal and replacing the IP: 3/5, swapping mk3 for mk4 pump: 4/5 Introduction This article shows how to remove and swap a mk3 TDI injection pump (IP) for an ALH engine fuel inejction pump. The original idea by dieselgeek. NOTE - if the injection pump is leaking fuel, it does not need to be rebuilt due to only a fuel leak! Fuel pumps can leak due to old seals. Switching from a high percent biodiesel to ultra low sulfur petrol diesel or from low sulfur diesel to ultra low sulfur diesel (USLD) can also cause leaks. All retail diesel sold in the US is now USLD. Even if the pump doesn't say so, the oil refinery has switched over. Switching to a high percentage of biodiesel may swell the seals and stop a small seep. A rebuild would also restore lost IP efficiency but isn't economical just for a leaking seal. The top cover seal can be replaced in 5 minutes with a special triangle and torx sockets, see for the procedure. The middle seal requires a VCDS and the triangle security and torx sockets. The head seal can also be replaced while the pump is on the car although it requires you to disconnect the metal fuel pressure lines, here is the procedure from . The rest of the seals can be replaced with the pump off the car. Even a small leak can cause hard starting or lost efficiency and over time will melt the coolant hoses under the pump. The only reason why I rated a mk4 pump swap 4/5 is because the project requires you to source parts yourself and is one step beyond timing belt removal which requires the timing belt tools. It requires machining of parts because there are no pre-assembled kits for the swap. The reason why you cannot directly bolt on a mk4 IP into an mk3 is because the bracket is slightly different and the electrical plug is a different shape. The sprocket also has to be machined down to fit under the timing belt cover. The rear timing belt cover also has to be modified for the new IP. Expect your car to be down for 2 days unless you buy a spare bracket and sprocket and have them machined ahead of time. The benefits of using an ALH IP are greater parts availability, higher pressure compared to a 1Z mk3 passat pump (but similar pressure to an AHU mk3 jetta pump), and the availability of replacing your stock mk3 10mm pump with an 11mm pump from mk4 automatic transmission cars (that used an IP, pumpe duse TDI (2004-2006) did not use the Bosch VE IP). This will raise pump pressure even more. In theory, higher fuel pressure (everything else being equal) lets you inject the same amount of fuel in a shorter duration and with better atomization. This can give greater fuel economy, less smoke, and more fuel injected (more power). I would not suggest this swap for economy since the increased fuel efficiency will never come close to the expense of a new injection pump. In addition, I found no increase in fuel economy after the swap. And although the pumps are all swappable in theory, in reality, a few people have reported operating problems. This could be due to some strange electronic problem or incompatibility. In most cases, 10mm and 11mm ALH pumps have been swapped and work fine. If the injection pump body is smooth, you have the 1Z pump or someone swapped it onto your AHU engine. The AHU and ALH pumps have ribbed bodies, see pictures throughout the article if you're not sure, the last picture in this article shows the ribbed body pump. If you have an AHU engine, you may not see a worthwhile increase in pump pressure over using a rebuilt AHU IP. The advantage is that it may be more economical and give you less down time than buying a spare IP that is known to be good, rebuilding it to new specs, and shipping it back and forth. Both procedures require at least partial removal of the timing belt. Unless you just put a new timing belt in, it's a good idea to put a new timing belt kit in while you are there. See and for more details. Normal replacement interval for the mk3 TDI timing belt is 60,000 miles. Mk4 cars can use a 100,000 mile timing belt kit, it has nothing to do with the injection pump, it's a property of the pulley bearings, etc., and won't work on the mk3 cars. Although a 10mm ALH pump will not significantly change the stress on the timing belt, a larger 11mm pump will slightly raise the stress on the timing belt. Lower your timing belt change interval if you are using an 11mm pump on an AHU/1Z engine. Since timing belt failure will cause engine damage, there is no recommendation on a suitable interval so use your best judgment. This website is not responsible for your work, read the TOS agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Here are the various known VW part numbers for the pumps. An X after the part number indicates that the pump is a rebuild. Make sure the ALH pump has the grey hub attached since, unlike the AHU/1Z pump, you can't index the hub to the shaft! mk3 1z stock IP 10mm (90hp, 5 speed trans) : VW # 028 130 115 g, 028 130 110 N mk3 AHU stock 10mm IP (90hp, 5 speed trans): mk4 ALH stock 10mm IP (90hp, 5 speed) : VW# 038 130 107 d , #038 130 111 b (discontinued #s) , 038 130 107 k (replacement #) mk4 ALH stock 11mm IP (90hp, auto trans) : VW# 038 130 107 j Caution: I will not buy any part made by because they are probably low quality counterfeit parts. Many people have had bad experiences with this seller and his parts. I also had a bad experience so never again. Parts (click links to compare prices or have an idea of new part price) for removal or replacement10, 13, 14, 15, 17mm socket/wrenches, 17mm flare nut wrench for fuel lines rubber/vinyl gloves timing belt tools, see timing belt article for more details for swap ALH injection pump - can buy used, in new condition as a take off from a crate motor, or rebuilt ALH sprocket VW# 038 130 111 b ALH sprocket bolts (size:M8x16) VW # n 903 285 04 ALH pump electrical plug VW# 1J0 973 735 VW terminal release tool (optional but highly suggested) (reman) from kerma (from auto but can put on manual) Optional Full pump rebuild to new specs - try Diesel Fuel Injection Service, 1700 Southeast Grand Avenue Portland, Oregon, 97214. Phone: (503) 235-1947 injection pump mounting bracket VW# 028 130 147 b (if you want a spare core, used is fine. I suggest the auto recycler: L&T Enterprizes, 6220 Airport Rd. Allentown, PA 18109 ,610-264-9191 or 800-228-3895) metal fuel lines (pressure lines, in case yours are seized/stripped/damaged during removal) vw# 028 130 301 n, 028 130 302 n, 028 130 303 n, 028 130 304 n, used should also be fine. Procedure TDI injection pump removal Set the engine to TDC, secure the camshaft locking bar, and remove the timing belt as necessary. See for more details. After removing the timing belt from the IP sprocket, remove the IP sprocket (1x 13mm bolt). You can use the IP lock timing belt tool for counterholding the sprocket. The sprocket is a tapered fit onto the pump shaft w/woodruff key. Remove the sheetmetal timing belt rear cover (2x 10mm bolts marked w/red arrow) Remove the 2 electrical plugs for the IP. Put towels around the metal fuel lines (17mm) and remove. I suggest putting a drop of PB blaster around the fuel line unions because they will be stuck. It also helps prevent twisting the fuel lines. Do not reuse the metal fuel pressure lines if they get bent or twisted! The injector bodies will probably be caked into the head so you shouldn't have to counterhold them. If they have been loosened recently, I suggest counterholding the flat of the injector body with a 15mm wrench. The injection pump side of the fuel line will also probably be stuck. First put a drop of PB Blaster around the union thread and let soak. Counterhold the 14mm union on the injection pump when you loosen the 17mm fuel line. If you don't have a torque wrench that will fit on the nuts, use a permanent marker to make an index mark on the nuts before loosening them. Make each mark in the same direction (like pointing up or down) so that you have a better idea of how much to tighten the nuts during installation. Remove the fuel filter-to-IP fuel hoses, use paper towels to collect spilled fuel. Remove the injection pump by removing the mounting bolts (4 total). 1x 13mm bolt threaded into the rear timing belt cover, 2x 13mm nuts threaded into the spring-like bracket's bolts, 1x 13mm bolt on the rear bracket underneath the fuel lines backed by a 16mm nut. These are the same bolts that you loosen to adjust timing with the mk3 style pump. The IP can now be removed. If you just want to remove the pump, end procedure. The below steps are if you want to swap your mk3 pump for a mk4 ALH pump. If you're installing a new 1Z/AHU pump, the torque spec for the injection pump sprocket nut is 41 ft-lb. ALH engine Bosch TDI injection pump swap Caution - never remove the center nut on the ALH IP shaft! Unlike the mk3 pump, the sprocket mount does not have a woodruff key to mark it's position on the IP shaft. Releasing the nut and removing the sprocket will change their relationship and you cannot index the sprocket to the shaft once it's removed! Remove the IP. Remove the IP bracket (3x 6mm allen bolts, not circled but they are visible in the above picture). Take the ALH sprocket and machine it so that the outer face (the tapered side) is almost flat with the gear teeth. This is done for timing belt cover clearance. Your old IP sprocket is flat, you need similar clearance on the ALH sprocket. Don't worry about the center nut clearance because there's a relief in the timing belt cover and it will fit. It's best to remove less rather than more metal because a heavier sprocket will help dampen the jerky pull of the IP on the timing belt through a flywheel effect. Below are before and after pictures of the sprocket. The red bracket indicates about how much you should remove. Machine the IP bracket to fit the approx 60mm neck on the ALH IP. Make sure it's as tight a fit as possible. Due to tolerances during machining, I suggest machining the IP bracket hole a little bit too small and then test fitting it from there. Enlarge the sheetmetal timing belt rear cover so the IP sprocket hub (the part the sprocket bolts to) can fit through the cover. This measurement does not have to be as exact as the bracket hole. Here is an after picture. The grey sprocket mounting hub is smaller than the neck of the IP. Do not powdercoat or paint the mounting surfaces since this will reduce clearance and you may not be able to fit shims later. Only make the sheetmetal rear timing belt cover hole large enough to fit the hub. To hold the timing belt rear cover, I added some thin washers over the 3 IP mounting bolts to firmly clamp the sheetmetal. I suggest light strength threadlocker on the 3 IP mounting bolts. This will prevent them from vibrating out. Only after installing everything did I notice that the belt was a little too far to one side. Others have also reported this. Everything was machined correctly and the belt's position is not off because of the position of the tensioner or other sprockets. I do not suggest changing the tensioner position or other sprockets' position. After test starting the engine, belt position did improve over the picture below - it was right on the edge of the sprocket (yes I know a fuel clamp is missing, this was a test pic). After driving for a while, I didn't notice any unusual wear and the belt continues to ride right on the edge. To fix this, I suggest placing a 2-3mm shim between each IP mounting bolt and the mounting bracket. This will move the pump towards the transmission and move the sprocket a few mm over. Adding a shim would also slightly decrease the amount of material you have to remove from the sprocket for timing belt cover clearance. Make sure the backside of the sprocket doesn't hit the timing belt rear cover or the mounting bolts. Use a terminal release tool to remove the pins from the IP electrical plugs on the wiring harness. An example of this is in the youtube video below, skip to 1:40 in the video below. Swap the pins into your ALH plug so your wiring harness will work with the ALH IP. Below is a table of pin number and wire color. For example, T10/1 is the #1 pin on the 10 pin ALH connector. T8/3 is the #4 pin on the original 8 pin connector. T3 is the original 3 pin connector which you have to connect to your 10 pin ALH connector. Also note that there are 2 black/yellow wires on your original wiring harness. One is on the 8 pin connector, one is on the 3 pin connector. However, the pins on the 8 pin connector are slightly darker than the silvery 3 pin connector, at least on mine. Mark the wires accordingly to avoid any confusion. Seal the connections with shrink wrap and electrical tape. You can also use paint-on liquid electrical tape. Wire color ALH 10 pin connector Original 8 or 3 pin connector Wire color lilac/black T10/1 T8/1 lilac/black grey/green T10/2 T8/2 grey/green white/green T10/3 T8/3 white/green brown/blue T10/4 T8/4 brown/blue red/lilac T10/5 T8/5 black/yellow brown/red T10/6 T8/6 brown/yellow yellow/red T10/7 T8/7 yellow/black black/white T10/8 T3/1 white/black brown/black T10/9 T3/2 brown/black yellow/black T10/10 T3/3 black/yellow The ALH plug has a purple terminal lock. It should be 1 notch released when you insert the terminals (picture below is for illustration only, if the lock is off too far the terminals won't let the lock go back on). After inserting all the terminals, push the lock and it will hold the pins in place. Your 1z/ahu plug does not have a lock. From this view, you can see the notches next to the terminals where you insert the terminal release tool. You can also use a thin piece of sheetmetal like chopsticks as release tools. After you insert the terminal release tool, push the pin in before pulling it out. This helps release the terminal hooks that are actuated by the release tool. The spring-like bolts in the front that held your IP to the IP bracket will not be used, just use 3 new bolts/nuts of sufficient grade (10 or above should be sufficient) to mount the new IP to the IP bracket. Reuse the old bolt/nut that was under the metal fuel pressure lines. Use an ALH IP lock pin tool to set the injection pump to a position which will let the engine start. See and for more details. Make sure that the pin is actually in the correct spot and not to the left or right of the hole, see the below pictures (also available in the ALH timing belt article). Set the oval bolt holes so that they are roughly in the middle of their play. The pin should be aligned with the center of the square mark on the pump. view with mirror View with engine removed. Once the timing belt is installed, leave the (3x 13mm) injection pump sprocket bolts loose with the IP lock pin in place so that the sprocket can rotate independently of the pump within the limits of it's elongated holes. Again, install the timing belt with the camshaft and IP locks in place BUT their sprockets should be loose. This lets the tensioner set an even tension over the whole belt. Set the tensioner as shown in the timing belt installation article and torque to 15 ft-lb. You can now tighten the camshaft and IP sprockets. Make sure to counterhold the sprockets. Then remove their locks. You can also remove the camshaft lock while tightening the camshaft to avoid the possibility of accidentally torquing it and cracking the camshaft. You no longer rotate the whole IP on its bracket to adjust timing like the old mk3 pump. To adjust timing on your new mk4 pump, adjust its sprocket on the oval holes by slightly loosening the 3 bolts and turning the sprocket. Only loosen them enough so that you can move the large nut at the center of the injection pump to move the pump without moving the sprocket. If you loosen them too much, the injection pump will move too much and you have to reset everything. Since this is a level 4 difficulty article, refer to for screenshots and more tips. It's in the exclusive content forum so please join our free community and confirm your account by email to view. Before turning over the engine, I suggest priming the pump with fuel. To do this, apply suction to the return line, preferably at the fuel filter but the return line at the IP will also work. This will ensure that the pump is lubricated with fuel and help minimize cranking to purge the fuel metal pressure lines of air. A final note is the effect of higher pressure on injection timing. I would think that higher pressure advances timing because of how the needle lift sensor, the sensor on the #3 injector, works. Please refer to for more details. I normally try to set timing at the upper half of the timing graph.

How to replace and remove the glow plugs on TDI engines

Introduction

This article shows how to DIY glow plug removal and replacement on a VW TDI or Audi TDI engine.

If you want to do compression testing, glow plug replacement, etc., the glow plugs need to come out. If you think that you need new glow plugs, first check the wiring as faulty or corroded wiring may cause a misdiagnosis. Glow plug relay is a common misdiagnosis, while you you should still check the glow plug relay, get the car scanned for codes first. One trick is to unplug the coolant temperature sensor coming off the cylinder head coolant flange to trick the computer into thinking it's cold and turning on the glow plugs to their maximum glow duration. The glow plugs are only used before engine start when it's cold. They are on after every engine start to help emissions and smooth running until around 2500 rpm or the engine is warmed up. Glow plugs are not a it works or it doesn't item. As glow plugs age and are used, they become weaker and could contribute to a hard start condition. You can extend the glow plug duration through a VCDS cable. Manual transmission cars use 3 coolant glow plugs in the coolant flange out of the head for faster engine warm-up, they are not the same as the engine glow plugs. In an automatic transmission car, the ATF fluid cooler accomplishes this so there are no coolant glow plugs. 2004-2006 TDI use ceramic glow plugs and light up faster but are more fragile. The Bosch ceramic glow plugs were replaced with steel plugs under an emissions recall but caused cold starting problems. At the end of 2010 VW extended the warranty on vehicles that had the recall done and reflashed these cars and replaced the Bosch with NGK ceramic glow plugs. They cannot be swapped with steel without a computer change because of different voltages and duration. See for more details on this. Make sure to check the voltage on the glow plug when replacing them. 2009 and 2010 TDI use pressure sensing glow plugs in their common rail engine. See for details. TDI up to about 2002 sense all glow plugs as 1 unit because of the wiring harness. TDI after about 2002 can sense each glow plug separately on the harness. The glow plugs are numbered opposite the engine cylinders. #1 cylinder has #4 glow plug. #2 cylinder has #3 glow plug, etc. From what I've heard, this is because of a European wiring standard where #1 glow plug (which happens to be cylinder #4) is closest to the 12v feed wire. Don't mix/match brands of glow plugs. Buy all bosch or all beru glow plugs. Below is a .pdf file with some technical info on glow plugs. VW and Audi TDI glow plug removal procedure UkCVlHLfclg Remove the engine cover. Older cars use 3x 10mm nuts, newer cars have pop-off covers. Then remove the glow plug wires. Gently wiggle and pry them straight out. If you must, you can remove a fuel injector hard line to get more clearance (older cars). Just be prepared to catch any leaked fuel with a towel. Make sure there is plenty of ventilation, no source of ignition or spark nearby, and that fuel vapors are fully evacuated before working on the car. If you're not sure which are the glow plugs, here is a picture on an older engine with the glow plug wire harness removed and #4 and #3 glow plug. They are numbered opposite the engine cylinders because of how far each one is from the bus. Before you remove the glow plugs, clean the area around the glow plugs. Use carb/brake cleaner and lightly spray/wipe the area around the plug. Then use compressed air to blow out the area. Make sure you are wearing safety goggles because compressed air will send dirt into the air. If there's a lot of corrosion, spray a drop of PB blaster around the threads and let soak. This will loosen the threads and make it easier to remove. Wipe away any excess penetrating lubricant. Use a deep 10mm socket and universal joints to remove the glow plugs or VW special tool 3220. If you have a standard set of deep metric sockets, I wouldn't use VW's special tool. Warning: the glow plugs can break off if they are over torqued during installation or removal! They could break at as low as 26 ft-lb which isn't a lot so if they're too tight, let the engine warm up a little and use more penetrating lubricant. Put a tiny dab of antiseize around the glow plug threads and replace. Less is better, too much can get squished into the cylinder. Wd-40 or other lubricants are not a substitute for anti-seize. You may also consider gently tightening and loosening the old glow plug to clean the threads of any carbon build up. Beware of parallax, a viewing error, when rethreading the glow plugs! Please read for more information on this. The glow plug threads are not perpendicular to the head! Each is at a slightly different angle. If the threads don't go in smoothly for at least a few turns, you may be stripping the threads. One trick is to turn the plug counterclockwise for a complete turn to feel the threads, then turn clockwise to tighten once you've engaged the threads. The head is aluminum, so don't over torque it! Torque to only 10-12 ft lbs. Here are some TDI glow plugs after removal. The black and white coloration on the tip is normal. Compare the old and new glow plugs when replacing, to check the overall length, part numbers, and thread length. Glow plugs reinstalled with a new wiring harness. The glow plugs are connected by a black wiring harness, the injectors are the ones with a metal hard line at the top and a black fuel return line below it. Here's a burnt ceramic glow plug off a PD engine. Note the voltage next to the part number. 5535

How to repair stripped glow plug thread holes This article shows how to DIY repair stripped glow plug threads in your VW TDI engine or Audi TDI engine without removing the cylinder head. The article is mirrored with permission from the original author Franko6. He is a TDI cylinder head specialist so if you need any work you can . He also sells the taps. The cylinder head repair is shown off the engine for demonstration but can be used on heads still on the engine. You may have to remove the glow plug harness, fuel injector lines, or other parts for good access. The fuel injectors were removed but are not required for this repair. Glow plugs threads can be damaged from overtorquing or cross threading. The cylinder head is aluminum and the glow plugs are steel. The repair procedure assumes that the plug isn't broken off in the aluminum cylinder head. If they are snapped off you could try welding a nut to it and using that to torque it out. If that fails you could continue welding nuts or a rod to it. As a general tip, it should be easier to remove tight glow plugs on a luke-warm engine and use a penetrating lubricant like PB Blaster to soak the threads. The glow plugs can break around 26 ft-lbs which isn't a lot so take your time when removing them. The torque spec for most TDI engine glow plugs is only 11 ft-lbs which is fairly light so if you don't have a torque wrench, get one. Procedure to retap and repair the glow plug threads Insert a 3 long piece of 1/4 braided cotton rope or a similar substitute into the bottom of the glow plug hole. Completely plug the hole going into the cylinder so that metal shavings don't fall into the engine. I use an awl to push it tightly into the bottom of the glow plug hole. Next, take a small piece of cotton and cover over the top of the cotton rope. This is just a extra margin of protection to keep any aluminum or debris from going into the engine. I prefer to chase the threads with a 10 x 1 tap but you may skip this step if you feel confident that the threads will not cross up on you any further. Maintaining the same line as the original threads is crucial. If the threads are severely damaged you can drill the threads out to a certain depth and make a pilot hole for the tap. I use a Recoil brand 38100 with a two-stage tap. The front of the tap has the 10 x 1 mm chaser with a larger tap thread to accommodate the insert. (contact if you need this kit). It's important to get the hole threaded to the right depth for the insert you will use. I use a 10mm long insert. Measuring against the special tap, mark the tap for depth. You don't want to go too deep. The depth marking is indicated with black marker. The insertion tool has an adjustment screw for different length inserts. Adjust to collar of the tool so that the tang of the insert is firmly caught in the bottom of slot in the tool. Please note that the insert is facing the direction as it would be installed; tang first. Insert the special tap and make sure you are using the original thread path. Even if the glow plug has stripped out the threads, there are still enough threads that are not reached by the threads of the glow plug to keep the tap on track. Just be sure to keep the tap square in the hole. Use an aluminum tapping lubricant to ease the tap and improve thread quality. The tap will begin to feel tight before reaching full depth. Do not force the tap. Remove the tap and you will see a pile of chips driven in front of the tap. Remove the chips and continue to full depth as marked on the tap. Reinsert the special tap and work to depth. Remove the tap as necessary to facilitate working to full depth. In the following picture there is about 1/2 a turn to go. Remove the tap and blow out all chips from the hole. Apply a drop of motor oil on the insert. Use the insert tool to install the insert into the new threads. Work slowly and do not drive the insert in any more than flush with the top of the hole. Keep the insert 'closed up'. Pull lightly out on the insert tool as you drive the insert in. If you push the insert in, you can skip a thread and cause real trouble. When the insert is to sufficient depth, break off the insertion tang. Push straight down with a small screwdriver and it will snap off. I retrieve the insert's tang with an awl and magnet. Blow out the hole again. Retrieve the cotton and rope plug. If it is too stuck to pick out, you can use the engine's starter to pop it out. First compression stroke and it will blow out. I prefer to try to remove it by hand. I always treat the threads of the glow plug with anti-seize. Always insert the glow plug by hand and hand tighten! If you use anti-seize and insert it by hand until the glow plug seats, you wouldn't be rethreading the hole. Of course that doesn't account for whoever got there before you. Torque spec for most TDI engine glow plugs: 11 ft-lb

Motor mount replacement VW Passat TDI or VW Jetta TDI Introduction These DIY instructions show how to replace motor mounts on 1996-1999 mk3 VW Passat TDI or VW Jetta TDI. Due to age, heat, and vibration, the motor mounts will eventually lose their integrity and become shorter. If you are experiencing steering wheel vibration, shift lever vibration, lots of cabin noise and vibration through the seat and pedals, you could have a bad motor mount. I would suggest looking at the suspension as well. If the problem is related to motion and the wheels turning, the problem may be the suspension/wheels/tires/bushing, etc. Another reason to replace the motor mounts is that they may interfere with the CV boot heatshield. If the sag too far, the engine will be lower in the engine bay and it can cause the exhaust to touch the CV boot heatshield. Is it better to replace the motor mounts than to install a heatshield and prevent the CV boot from drying out? That's up to you. Note that your car may not have a heatshield stock from the factory, but there are mounting holes for it and the mk4 heatshield fits perfectly. Replacing the front motor mount will also make it easier to access the oil filter. Please read these directions fully before attempting this job, since the procedure for changing these TDI mounts is similar to gas VW mk3 and earlier VWs, you may want to consider taking it to a VW mechanic, a TDI specialist is not needed for this. Here is a picture of an old mount next to a new mount. It got shorter and some cracks were starting to appear in the holes. If you want to make your mounts stiffer the poor man's way, stuff liquid silicone, 3m window weld, or liquid urethane through the holes. Yes, it does work. Note - I am told that the stock passat hydraulic trans mount pictured below left is correct for all mk3 TDI. The solid mount will work but may be for automatic transmissions. If the hydraulic mount is leaking, it definitely needs to be replaced. The rear pass side motor mount may be hydraulic in the Jetta TDI. Parts - (click links to compare current prices) Note - there are multiple passenger side motor mount and transmission motor mount part numbers. I suggest using the part number in bold but both should work. floor jack, jackstands, and wheel chocks engine support or lift metric wrenches and sockets, 13mm, 17mm, extensions 8mm allen socket/bit For Passat: Front motor mount VW# Passat passenger side rear motor mount VW# 357 199 262 d Transmission mount VW# (referred to as rubb mount) For Jetta:Front motor mount VW# Jetta passenger side rear motor mount VW# 1h0 199 262 L hydromounting Transmission mount VW# (referred to as rubb mount) There are some possible duplicate part numbers, here they are. Please confirm the correct part number with your part vendor. From Arizona Autohaus, autohaus part numbers (some duplicates) Trans mount , Right pass side mount 357 199 262 E, Front mount 1H0 199 609 J optional: engine support: about $75 shipped from Northern Tool, about $40 from Harbor Freight before shipping, you can also make your own Mount mount replacement instructions Raise the car and place securely on jackstands, chock the rear wheels, and make sure the car is secure before getting under it! See for ideas on jacking up the car with wood blocks. Since you are going to be under the car, I suggest blasting the area with compressed air. Always wear safety goggles because falling dirt can damage your eyes! Spray the bolts that you need to remove with PB blaster and let soak. Wipe off any excess so that it doesn't drip into your eyes. Since the engine will fall out if you remove all the mounts, only replace 1 mount at a time. Pay attention to the height that you jack up the engine. Make sure that you use a block of wood between the jack and the engine so that it is not damaged if you jack from the oil pan. Also note where the orienting tabs that stick of the motor mounts fit into their respective mount brackets. The front motor mount is held in place by 1 bolts and the weight of the engine on the mount. The mount bracket has 2 bolts holding it to the the starter/engine. Before raising the engine, loosen the allen bolt underneath the mount (1x 8mm in green below). The weight on the mount will prevent it from spinning when you loosen the bolt. Support the engine as necessary with a jack and wood. You can also use an engine support such as an engine lift or by hanging a bar that goes across the top of the engine bay. If you can't get it out by raising the engine, remove the front motor mount bracket. Note the orientation of the little tab (pictured above ) on the mount to it's bracket. Remove this 8mm allen bolt before loosening or raising the engine so the mount doesn't spin. To remove the rear engine mount, first support the engine as necessary with a jack and wood or other method. Jack up the engine slightly to get the weight off the mount. Remove the mount bracket (2x 13mm bolts) and mount (1x 17mm? bolt). Rear mount bolt is circled in red below. You should be able to get to most of the bolts with extensions or reach around from underneath with a wrench. A bottom view, you can see the cup that holds the mount behind the axle. You have to raise the engine high enough to clear the cup. With the motor mount bracket removed. You can see the 2x 13mm bolts holding the mount in place. To replace the transmission mount (pictured below after transmission removal), remove the bolt in the mount (17mm x1 bolt) and the 2x 13mm bolts holding the mount in it's cup. Jack up that end slightly with a piece of wood. Remove the top 2 bolts of the transmission bracket. Loosen the third bolt so you can slide the bracket out. I don't think it's possible to get the mount out without removing the mount bracket. This mount will be difficult to remove if the transmission is still in place. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque specs: driver side transmission mount: engine-mount bracket (3x bolts) - 18 ft lbs mount bracket-mount (1x bolt) - 44 ft lbs mount-frame (2x bolts) 22 ft lb front engine mount (by the starter): The 2 large bolts and the small allen head bolt are all 41 ft lbs. pass side rear engine mount: The large bracket-motor mount bolt is 44 ft lbs, all other bolts are 18 ft lbs.

Engine air intake filter replacement and snow screen cleaning (or airbox removal) Introduction Replace the engine air intake filter every 40,000 miles or as needed on your VW TDI. This article shows how. The car also has a snow screen designed to keep out large debris and water out of the air intake box. It gets clogged with dirt and should also be cleaned. If it gets clogged, a secondary air intake flap opens and lets in warm engine bay air. Since the air box cover is not in the way, this is also a good time to drain the fuel filter or replace it, see for this procedure. This article also shows how to remove the airbox. Parts replacement intake air filter from KermaTDI: VW# 191 129 620 (Passat) or VW# 1h0 129 620 (Jetta) or Passat filter from IDparts, phillips screwdriver pliers DIY air filter replacement procedure For the passat, remove the 4 metal clamps holding the top of the intake air box. For the Jetta, there are only 2 clamps. The air box top will then slide out. Remove the accordion hose, the (the only electrical plug sticking out of it), and the vacuum line coming out the airbox which goes to . Remove the top and replace the air filter. Make sure that it is seated properly To clean the snow screen, unscrew the two screws and lift up. If the screws are rusted, use a dremel to cut a slot in the top and use a screwdriver to remove it. Also check the movement of the spring loaded secondary air intake flap - it should move freely. Circled below are the locations of the 4 metal clips and the MAF plug. Below are some more pictures of the airbox removed. The snorkel is an auxiliary air intake with a screen at the end. If the snowfilter screen gets clogged with leaves or a mouse nest, the spring loaded door at the back will open and let in warm air. If the engine didn't get any intake air it would stop running (stall). To remove the airbox, remove the rubber band holding it down. On the Passat, remove both the auxiliary snorkel and main snorkel to twist the airbox out. On the Jetta, it's easier to remove the cold air intake snorkel to twist it out. Note the position of the rubber pegs. For reference, here is a parts diagram listing of the parts for the Jetta intake system

Fuel temperature sensor and top injection pump seal replacement TDI engine

Introduction

This article shows how to replace the fuel temperature sensor or injection pump cover seal on a TDI engine.

The fuel temperature sensor is one factor that tells the ECU how to adjust the amount of fuel injected. When the fuel is warm, it's less dense and burns more readily so the ecu injects more fuel to get the same mass of fuel and retards the timing. When the fuel is cold, it's more dense so the ecu injects less fuel and advances the timing. Hot fuel has the same effect as higher cetane fuel at a lower temperature because it burns more readily. Timing and injection quantity is also based on many other factors, fuel temperature is just one of them. If this sensor fails, it will set a check engine light (aka. DTC/MIL/CEL) and the ECU will replace the faulty value with a nonsense temperature of -5oC. This lets it use a fall back setting so that fuel economy and engine operation is only slightly affected. A dealership may tell you that the entire injection pump is bad and needs to be replaced although this one sensor is actually user serviceable. Why not just ignore the light? The check engine light will result in emissions test failure in many states that have emissions testing, and the engine will not inject the correct amount of fuel. The car is still safely drivable, but your fuel will be slightly off peak economy. Here are some values you may see if you put the sensor in water for testing. The sensor pins on the harness are 4 and 7. 0°C - 15200-17300 Ω 10°C - 9250-11500 Ω 20°C - 5500-6500 Ω 30°C - 3790-4270 Ω 40°C - 2650-3100 Ω 50°C - 1800-2200 Ω 60°C - 1200-1600 Ω 70°C - 850-920 Ω 80°C - 600-660 Ω 90°C - 425-480 Ω 100°C - 325-370 Ω The top cover for the injection pump can also leak, this article shows how to replace it. Parts (click links to see current prices) multimeter (optional) (triangular injection pump socket) Bosch PN# 0-986-612-605 from (these are cheaper and just as good as the Bosch part) torx bit -T20 and T10 vinyl or nitrile diesel resistant gloves and paper towels - bosch PN# 2 464 509 015-001 OR VW # 028 906 040 c (note - the fuel temp sensor is the same for all 1996-2003 VW diesels) from OR

Sensor or seal replacement procedure

First clean the area around the injection pump cover. You don't want debris entering the sensitive area of the injection pump. Make sure the engine bay is cold and have a fire extinguisher in your workspace. Make sure all combustible fumes are exhausted from the area and do not introduce any ignition sources or sparks while working on the fuel system. I also suggest wearing gloves to keep diesel fuel off your hands. Wad some paper towels behind the injection pump. The mk3 pump is normally tilted backwards so you only have to stuff paper towels behind and to the side of the pump. The mk4 pump is tilted forward so quite a bit of fuel will spill out. At least 5-6 paper towels are required to catch the fuel. Remove the injector fuel return line and wrap with a paper towel to catch any spilled fuel - the fuel system should not be under pressure in these cars that use a Bosch VE injection pump since there is no electric fuel pump anywhere on the car. Remove the 3x T20 bolts and 1x triangle security bolt with the triangle socket circled below. The injection pump cover should come off easily, be prepared for some fuel to spill out. You don't want the fuel on the coolant lines or any other rubber hoses so make sure the paper towels are stuffed behind the pump! Unscrew the fuel temp sensor (T10 x 2 screws) and replace. It's the black thermistor, the thing that looks like it's holding a pill. I don't know the exact torque for the T10 screws, but 3-4 lbs should be more than enough, the T10 screws are very small and LIGHT hand tight is more than enough force. Any more and you will strip the torx head. The heads are pretty shallow. The sensor will only fit well one way, the numbers should face up. You can also check the resistance of the fuel temp sensor and compare it to the old sensor. It should be about 1300-1800 ohms at room temperature. With the ignition on, one side gets about 5V and goes to the ecu, the other side is ground. Also inspect for unusual wear or dirt in the injection pump area. It should be very clean with no visible wear. Inspect for bubbles or specks in the electronics and plastic - there should be none. In my case, the bad sensor was related to an electrical short on the wiring harness. Carefully inspect the wiring harness for shorts, cracks, or rubbing. A bad sensor could also be related to water in the fuel. Installation is the reverse of removal. If you decided to damage the triangle head bolt by hammering a socket onto it to remove it, here are some specs on the bolts.

DIY Bosch VE injection pump seal replacement on a TDI engine

Introduction Seals can leak due to age or switching from a high percentage of biodiesel to regular ULSD ultra low sulfur diesel. Many old pumps also leaked when the US government required all pump diesel to be ULSD by 2010. Make sure you buy a quality seal kit! Don't buy a cheap knock-off seal kit - if the price is too good to be true it is! If you need to remove the injection pump from the car, please refer to the timing belt articles here and either article on removing or swapping the pump: or Please thoroughly read each article for the best understanding of how it's attached and the adjustments to pump position and timing. If you only need to replace the very top quantity adjuster seal or fuel temperature sensor, see . When you're done, here is more detail on how to adjust the quantity adjuster position:. Do not run the car without checking the quantity adjuster because without control over the quantity of fuel injected, the car won't run right. The VCDS cable is required! If you decide that the pump needs to be rebuilt, send it to a Bosch authorized shop for a total rebuild. They will also replace all seals at that time. Parts 24mm or 15/16 socket for the fuel shut off solenoid 17mm flare nut wrench for the fuel lines 10mm, 13mm socket T30 torx bit

Procedure to fix leaking TDI injection pump seals

The pictures show a Bosch VW injection pump. Here are a series of videos showing replacement of the head seal, quantity adjuster seal, and top cover seal. VR44StvcXms DdQbrdv78A4 5nwyTmKVf0I uyxZ0sfPbB4 cTJHR9IZ2SM OKq-jCEqeBk RqisyVKH6wU As an interesting side note, using biodiesel can sometimes stop a small leak because it swells the seals. You will have to continue to use biodiesel and going off biodiesel will cause the leak to return. Biodiesel will also clean out the buildup in the fuel system so it's recommended to change the fuel filter early at least once or twice depending on how dirty the fuel system is. If the fuel filter clogs it will cause fuel starvation. Here is a video showing the basics: GPk94mQyack

How to repair broken vacuum nipple

This article shows how to repair a broken plastic vacuum nipple on the exhaust gas recirculation or anti shudder valve.

Introduction The original article is at , please refer to that thread for support on this article. The original author is mirogi. A mk4 ALH engine is shown but this article can be used on many other engines. Parts Loctite Epoxy Plastic Bonder with 20-minute setting time Procedure Many of us have found that by bumping the vacuum hose attached to the vacuum actuator on the anti-shudder valve, or by simply trying to remove the hose from the actuator, it is not difficult to break the nipple right off. And we have also discovered that the actuator is not available separately form the EGR/anti-shudder valve, that valve having a dealer price of about $320 or an aftermarket price of about $150-$220. Well, mine broke and I was not willing to pay for a new EGR valve. So, I developed a procedure to repair the actuator. First, I wanted to take a look at the broken-off nipple. I had to slice the hose lengthwise to get the nipple out. This is the nipple: I decided to try to attach a new, longer nipple to the actuator. I found a vacuum connector in my parts bin that is close to the diameter of the original nipple and cut it off to the length I wanted. I used a 5/64 drill bit to line up the new nipple with the passageway at the bottom of the dog house. I then filled the dog house with an agressive caulk/sealant that I had on hand. Well, the caulk didn't cure overnight so I decided to try something different. I concluded that attaching a new nipple securely to the actuator is a more robust method. I CAREFULLY trimmed away the dog house until only a short nipple remained. I also used a hobby knife to scratch the surface of the actuator around the nipple, to aid in adhesion. I looked in my collection and found a vacuum adapter that had one end that could be made to fit over the nipple and the other end that was the correct size for the vacuum hose. I trimmed it to length and bored out the large end to fit over the nipple on the actuator. I also roughed up the outside of the adapter to aid in adhesion. Using Loctite Epoxy Plastic Bonder with 20-minute setting time (the only readily-available plastic adhesive made for use with nylon that I could find--beware, there is, apparently, another Loctite plastic epoxy that has a 5-minute setting time that does not mention being compatible with nylon), I glued the modified adapter to the nipple on the actuator. Please note that I built the epoxy up around the base of the adapter in order to provide additional lateral support for the adapter (maybe it's overkill, maybe not). After the epoxy cured overnight, I found that the passageway was clogged. I CAREFULLY ran a small drill bit into the passageway at slow speed to clear the clog (do not run the drill bit too deep or you will ruin the actuator bladder). After drilling, I held the actuator with the nipple facing down and quickly pushed the actuator arm to expel any bits that may have fallen into the actuator can. Here's the result--a vacuum actuator that holds vacuum and fits well in the engine compartment (note that I made the new hose a bit longer than might otherwise be needed in order to kink it around the EGR cooler hose). And the car operates correctly! All for less than $10. Since I just completed the repair this morning, I do not have an idea about the longevity of the repair (the long-term adhesion of the epoxy). I will update this thread should I experience any problems. An afterthought: My original repair idea might have been more successful had I had the plastic epoxy on hand and used it in place of the caulk/sealer. But the integrity of the vacuum passage would not have been as sure as it is with my second method.

Engine coolant flush for 1996, 1997 Passat and 1997, 1998, 1999 VW Jetta TDI For the 1998-2005 Jetta, Golf, New Beetle, see the mk4 FAQ Introduction This DIY article shows how to flush the coolant or just drain it on a VW TDI engine. Engine coolant is the same as engine antifreeze. Although VW says it's a lifetime fill, a reasonable suggested change interval is about 100,000 miles or as needed, depending on use. Since some coolant is lost during a water pump change, you'll end up draining a lot of it every 60,000 or 120,000 miles with the timing belt service. Remove the lower radiator hose too and what's replaced will be enough to keep the coolant in good condition. Many high mileage cars show clean coolant passages with G12 even after 200,000+ miles! Your coolant should be pink or light purple in color. The original fill on the passat was blue g11 coolant and is not compatible with any modern VW coolant. G11 was not a lifetime fill and should be flushed thoroughly out. Warning: do not mix red, pink, or purple VW G12 coolant with green or blue coolant or other non-VW/Audi OEM or OEM compatible coolant! There are 3 main types of coolant available: G12, G12+, and G12++. G12 (VW# g012-a8f-a4) is compatible with G12+ (VW# g012-a8f-m1). The replacement for G12+ is G12++ (VW# g012-a8g-m1). Pentosin is generic OEM compatible coolant compatible with G12. Just tell your vendor that you need G12 coolant because they are all compatible. If your coolant is brown, a few things are possible. You could have a leak in the EGR cooler (not app. to 1996 passat TDI only), oil cooler, or head gasket. If it looks sooty then it could be residue from an oil fill or the EGR cooler. If it's the EGR cooler then you should also see coolant residue in the exhaust and see the coolant level dropping. If it's the oil cooler then the oil and coolant are mixing. You will see milky engine oil. Do not drive the car in this condition, immediately change the oil and have oil and coolant flushed. See . If it's the head gasket you will notice harder starting, burning coolant, and low compression. You should also notice immediate pressurization of the coolant reservoir on a cold engine. (Pressurization of the reservoir on a warm engine is correct). It's also possible that there's a tiny leak between the oil and coolant passage but not the cylinder, which will not effect compression. Another possibility is that someone mixed incompatible coolants together. If the oil is contaminated, have it fixed immediately since contaminated oil can cause engine damage. If you only have minor coolant contamination don't worry about driving the car because what's done is already done and nothing will immediately blow up. If you see scales or gummy buildup on the inside of the coolant tank then do not drive - have the system flushed as soon as possible since the contamination could lead to overheating and engine damage. Contaminated coolant might not look dark if you take a small sample but if it isn't pink/purple/red through the coolant reservoir plastic, then it's probably brown. Pictured below is contaminated coolant. Also note that you should never use any radiator stop leak products. Although the TDI turbo is oil cooled only, as good practice, stop leak products can gum up the turbo coolant lines and possibly cause damage to the turbo and engine. Parts Coolant capacity: 6.5 Liters of coolant/distilled water Ratio: anywhere between 60% coolant/40% distilled water and 50% coolant/50% distilled water, 60% coolant gives better freezing protection You can buy coolant here: click links to compare pricing (1 gallon size , VW #G 012 A8F A4 ) genuine VW (1.5 liter size, VW #G 012 A8F M1) ,available from size, (1.5 liter size, VW #ZVW 237 G12) Enough coolant and distilled water to satisfy the required 6.5 liters total capacity. 3 liters of G12 concentrate is enough for a normal flush since there will be a little left over in the system. Otherwise get an extra 1.5L or gallon of coolant. Warning: coolant is poison. Wear waterproof gloves, and take all precautions to avoid skin or eye contact. If some spills on your driveway, rinse it off with water because animals may drink the coolant and become poisoned. Also note all warnings and precautions on the coolant and in the factory service manual. hose clamp pliers, they can fit into a tight spot and lock the clamp open Procedure Draining the coolant If the hose clamps for the hoses you want to remove are accessible without raising the car, just securely park the car. If the hose clamps are in odd locations that require you to get under the car, engage the parking brake, jack up the front of the car using the factory jack points, rest car securely on jack stands, chock the rear wheels, and make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. Remove engine top plastic cover. Since some model years are slightly different, you can modify this to suit your car. The idea is that you want to open a low spot to let the coolant out and refill it as necessary. If your fluid is still pink and clean, you can just open the lower radiator hose and the oil cooler hose and refill as necessary. If your fluid is dirty and contaminated or you want to switch from pink to green or vice versa, see the below section on thoroughly flushing the coolant system. Your radiator may not have a drain valve so remove the return radiator hose. Open the coolant reservoir cover (first picture) and place a catch pan below the lower radiator hose. This car had a small oil leak in the past which discolored the coolant reservoir. They are cheap so if you can't see the coolant level, just buy a new one. Yours will probably be a little yellowed from age. The radiator has a hose at the top which is shown below and a hose at the bottom (second picture). To remove hoses, don't yank on the hose or pry with a screwdriver. Try using pliers to twist the hose and break the seal first, then it will pull off much easier. Remove the hoses at the radiator and the oil cooler (circled red below) to drain the coolant. You can really use any hose, but these hoses are more accessible from the top and are low enough to let most of the coolant drain out. If you need to thoroughly flush the system, see the section below. Thoroughly flushing the coolant system of gunk If you want a through flush, leave the lower hoses open and apply low pressure compressed air to the coolant reservoir hoses to push the coolant out. Use your finger to block the other end of the hose to effectively push air out the open hose. There will always be corners where there is lingering coolant but as long as the coolant is not contaminated, don't worry about a little old coolant. Just drain and refill and skip the section below. If your coolant is contaminated you need to flush a few times with first water, then radiator flush/water, then distilled water to circulate the cleaner thoroughly. Also drive the car with the water/cleaner mix to open the thermostat and circulate the cleaners. If it's really bad, accept that you'll have to do a flush again when you have time or take it to a professional. They have access to better radiator flush machines and chemicals, it's easy for them to dispose of the used fluids, and it's relatively inexpensive. Just make sure you give them G12 coolant/water and make sure they do not to use anything else. First press a garden hose against the removed oil cooler hose and it will backflush most of the old coolant out. Remember, first twist the coolant hoses at the flange to break the seal first. This will let you pull it off much easier. Remove the hose at the coolant reservoir and flush at the hose there. New and clean coolant reservoir tank pictured. Also remove one of the heater core hoses on the firewall and push the garden hose against the openings to flush out the heater core. Don't stick a power washer up there but a gentle garden hose flush won't damage anything. Also remove the coolant flange on the driver's side cylinder head and flush there. There will still be some old coolant lingering in the system so repeat a few times and then on the last flush, use distilled water. If you need to clean oil out, try radiator flush cleaners. Do not use dishwashing soap or regular simple green cleaner because these will foam or corrode aluminum. If you can't find a dump for used coolant/antifreeze, engine oil, gear oil, or other car fluids, . To refill coolant: For a normal refill, first mix coolant with only distilled water. Tap water contains minerals that will collect on the cooling system, damaging the metal and reducing coolant efficiency. Do not mix generic green, orange, or blue coolant with G12 VW coolant! It will turn brown and sludge. Make sure you mix the coolant in a ratio of between 40-50% water and the rest of the solution coolant. If your car still has blue coolant, I suggest a flush and refill with G12. Put back and secure any hoses or drains that you loosened earlier. As you add coolant/water to the coolant reservoir, air will slowly come out of the bleed hose that connects to the reservoir at the top of the tank. During this stage, the engine should not be running. Why not just add coolant into the reservoir on an empty coolant system and let the engine run and let the coolant it pump itself and gradually bleed out the air? Because that would take longer and the water pump would be starting on a dry system. During start, it would not be lubricated by the coolant and it would also cause lots of air bubbles and cavitation, causing you to misjudge the coolant level and eroding the pump. Believe it or not, air bubbles at the water pump can erode the water pump and cause excess vibration over time, so maintaining proper level of coolant prevents water pump failure. Once it is full, start the engine, and it should purge out any remaining air. Leaving the heater on hot won't get the coolant out of the heater core since it's always running through the core. Let the engine cool down and drain. Recheck that the radiator drain and all clamps and hoses have been retightened. Check the coolant level. Test drive to normal operating temperature and check the coolant level again. If it didn't go down, you got all the air out. If the level went down, wait until the car is cool and then add coolant/water until the level is between mix/max. If you open the reservoir while the coolant system is hot, scalding coolant could spray out so be very careful opening the coolant system while it's hot and pressurized! Check for any leaks and check the level after a longer normal drive.

Alternator removal for VW Jetta and VW Passat mk3 TDI Introduction This DIY shows how to test and replace the alternator on VW Passat TDI or VW Jetta TDI, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999. The alternator charges the battery which provides the electrical needs of your car. The alternator is considered a wear item and should be replaced on an as needed basis only. Symptoms of a bad alternator would be the battery warning light coming on, less than 14V at the battery when the engine is running, or dimming headlights when the electrical load is higher than normal (and you know the battery is good). Luckily, the TDI has relatively low electrical load since there are no sparkplugs. If the battery is weak, engine rpm when starting can be too slow. The engine computer sees this and does not inject fuel. The parts that see wear are the brushes and copper contacts. These are the parts that connect the rotating part of the alternator's electricity to the non rotating part of the alternator. In these 120amp alts, the brushes are held by the voltage regulator. Since the voltage regulator and brush costs about $95 and a rebuilt alternator costs $110, getting a rebuilt alternator may be faster. Some auto parts rebuilt alternators tend to be low quality so if the rest of the alternator is in good shape, a new voltage regulator and brush should extend the life of the original alternator. The spec on the voltage regulator states that, at minimum wear, it should have at least 5mm movement. If the diodes start to go bad that convert the AC to DC you can also lose amperage output and still be at 14V. The bearings and pulleys also see wear but they should have very long lives if properly tensioned. If you are having a charging problem, it's either the alternator or instrument panel light, battery, or grounds. The battery voltage when the car is off should be over 12V. The battery voltage when the engine is running should be at least 14V even at idle. If it's the alternator, the problem could also be in the instrument panel. There is a low voltage warning light in the instrument panel of the mk3 cars. If it burns out, the alternator will not charge the battery properly. This is not likely since it's an LED so the connector or instrument panel can be suspect. It could also be a loose battery terminal or ground that prevents proper charging of the battery. If you are not sure, take the alternator to an auto parts store because many places will check it for free. Many places will check it on the car. Jetta also have a one way clutch on the alternator pulley. If it fails, the pulley will spin but the alternator internals will not. To test it, remove the serpentine belt as described below. Spin the pulley by hand - you should feel resistance in one direction and none in the other. Use a wood or plastic pin (to avoid damaging the alternator) to hold the alternator fan inside the alternator and try to spin the pulley by hand - it should move in one direction and not in the other. If it fails these tests, the alternator pulley is bad. Related links: - if you have a chirping belt slipping noise when cold, it could be the crankshaft pulley Parts metric sockets adjustable wrench 6mm allen wrench DIY alternator removal procedure Remove the negative (-) battery terminal cable. Set it securely aside. Release the tension on the alternator by using a wrench to move the tensioner arm lever. The service manual says that you can use the pulley bolt to move the lever arm but I found this to be stressful on the bolt and may tighten it. Remove the alternator belt. Remove the 2x 6mm allen bolts (circled in red below) that hold the tensioner spring so that you can get access to the lower alternator bolt. Removing the belt first so that the spring is not under tension will make removing those bolts easier. Remove 2 bolts that hold the alternator in place, marked with red circles below on the left side. You can use a socket that is larger than the metal bushing pressed into the alternator, to tap the alternator away from the bracket, marked by the red arrow. This will loosen the tension on the bushings to loosen the alternator. You can try to pry it out without releasing this tension but it'll be harder. Remove 2 more bolts that hold the alternator cable in place. The alternator should now be easily removed. Clean all grounds as necessary.

Starter removal and diagnostics for 1996-2006 mk4 VW TDI or Audi TDI

related links: , Introduction The starting system on a VW TDI or Audi TDI fairly simple. There are only a few things that could result in a no start. This article describes starter troubleshooting and then starter removal. Although there are small differences over the years/models, the basic troubleshooting is pretty similar. The starter assembly consists of the starter motor and a solenoid. When you turn the ignition key to start, the solenoid pushes out the starter gear to engage the starter ring on the flywheel (driveplate if automatic transmission) and gives the motor 12V which turns the engine over. If you hear a metal on metal grinding noise after you release the key from the start position, the starter is sticking out and grinding against the flywheel starter ring when it should be retracted. The sticking is caused by excessive dirt build up on the starter shaft or a bad bearing inside the starter. Always disconnect both positive and negative battery terminals and make sure that there are no flammable fumes or sources of ignition nearby! Batteries give off explosive hydrogen gas and can pop and splash acid everywhere. Always wear eye protection and follow all precautions listed in the factory service manual. Take care to not touch the battery terminals together when at least one side is connected to the battery or let any metal object such as a wrench or necklace touch them together and ground! Parts 16mm (or 17mm) deep socket- for the motor mount bolts 13mm deep socket - positive cable and plastic cable bracket holder (mk3 cars) 10mm socket - to remove battery terminals various extensions (optional) battery terminal cleaner brush, shown below Note - if the part number shows the x suffix, it indicates a rebuilt unit and may require a core charge. Brand new starters are very expensive, click the links to compare prices. New or rebuilt units typically include both a starter and the solenoid, usually about $160 not including core charge -Starter for manual transmission 1996-2006 mk3 and mk4 TDI (excludes mk5 Jetta) - VW# 02A-911-023-R (ALH engine), , (starter and solenoid rated for 2.0kW or 2.68hp) -Starter for automatic transmission automatic transmission 1996-2004 - VW # VW# 09a 911 023 b (BEW engine) (starter and solenoid rated for 1.8 kw) -Solenoid only VW# 085 911 287 - available through the dealership for about $100, a generic part from most alternator or starter shops should cost about $60. Starter repair procedure Starter troubleshooting If the starter does not engage a second time after releasing the ignition key from start , this is normal. You have to turn the key all the way to off before it will go to start again. That's how VWs are. If you have an automatic transmission, the car will prevent starting if the gear selector is not in Park or Neutral. If you don't see the glow plug light on when turn the key to start, it could be a bad relay 109. 2004 and newer cars do not have this problem, only 1996-2003 TDI have it. Relay 109 controls power to the ECU. Look at the relay panel under the dash, you may have to remove 2 or 3 screws to see the relay panel. If the relay marked 109 is black then it could have failed. The updated part is gray. The normal failure is the car dies during normal driving and then restarts once the relay has cooled. Because initial failures are related to overheating, you are more likely to see this problem during driving than cold starts. First determine if the problem is related to a low battery. You should normally still hear the solenoid click at the starter and detect other symptoms of a low battery. Test for at least 12V at the battery with a multimeter when the engine is off, about 14V when the engine is running. If the engine is cranking but not starting, it is not a starter problem, it is probably an air or fuel problem, or a sensor problem causing the no-start. If the battery voltage plummets when starting you could have a bad battery. For example, if it drops to 4v when cranking and the battery were good, a fuse would pop or the battery cables would be really hot. It could also be a faulty ignition switch. Some Jetta and Passat TDI (mk3) had a recall on this. If you have occasional problems starting but can start the car by wiggling the key in the ignition switch, in/out, left/right, the problem is probably in the ignition switch (this will only work a few times until the switch completely fails). You can test this by turning and holding the key to start. You should see at least 8V at the starter plug (terminal 50, pictured above). The problem is made worse by hanging weight off the ignition switch like other keys, etc. A bad or loose connection to the starter can also cause starting problems. Make sure that the electrical connections to the starter are clean and corrosion free. There is a braided heavy gauge wire going from the solenoid to the starter, this can become damaged and cause a poor connection. VW models after about 2000 have an immobilizer but it will still let you start the engine without a problem but will shut engine off after 1 second if there is an immobilizer problem. Another clue is a blinking immobilizer warning light on the dashboard. Click here to see . So if the engine does start fine but quickly shuts down, there is nothing wrong with the starter. There could be something wrong with the ignition key since there is an immobilizer ring antenna on it, see the immobilizer FAQ for more details. The alarm system can also be faulty and prevent the ignition signal from reaching the starter solenoid at terminal 50. The alarm is part of the central convenience module (CCM) which also controls power windows, remote keyless entry. If you have a manual transmission, the clutch safety switch or wiring could be faulty, it can also prevent starting (The 1996-1997 passat oddly has a clutch safety switch installed under the clutch pedal but it is not connected to any sort of clutch pedal starter interlock, it is only connected to the cruise control system). There is also a relay on the fuse-relay panel under the dashboard. Mk3 have no starter interlock relay since there were no mk3 automatic transmission TDI sold in North america. Mk4 have a starter relay in position 3. Only do this next test if you are comfortable working on the car's electrical systems! You can put 12V directly to the starter wiring to bypass the solenoid and terminal to test the starter while it's still on the car. Remove the positive and negative plugs on the starter and apply 12V to the wiring. If the starter spins, then the problem is in the wiring, controls, or the solenoid. If the starter does not spin, then the problem is in the starter or its wire connections. The engine will turn over if it's working so be careful! Once you remove the starter from the car, you can also do the same test to determine if you only need to replace the solenoid. Here is a video that helps explain most of these points: dGem9YsjCRQ Here's another video showing how to check for voltage drop when cranking: ry68G0C2Fyc Removal Make sure that there are no sources of ignition including flammable vapors or liquids nearby! When you remove the battery terminals there may be a spark and it could ignite any exposed fuels. Although diesel fuel is not easily ignited at room temperature and pressure, always evacuate all fuel and vapors when working with the electrical system. Always remove the negative terminal first and put it back last! If you are working near or with the battery or cables remove all loose or uncovered watches, rings, necklaces and follow all cautions in the factory service manual, see the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Raise the car safely as specified in the factory service manual and remove the under the engine. You may not be able to reach the lower starter bolt from the top. Disconnect both the positive and negative battery terminals and safely set them aside (2x 10mm nuts). I suggest wrapping them with gloves or electrical tape so that they cannot touch the battery terminals. This would be a good time to clean the terminals wires and battery terminals with the battery cleaner brush. (Optional) remove the battery - it may be held down with a 13mm bolt and bracket. In some models, you may have to remove the intake air hoses and air intake to get better access. If you did not remove the battery terminals, go back and remove them now! Gently remove all the plugs and cables out of the cable bracket or starter. Also remove the starter positive wire (1x 13mm nut). Use an extension with the 13mm deep socket to remove the cable bracket that is holding the wires (1x13mm). There are a few ways to get to it, you could use a 13mm deep socket and feel for it. Its location is marked in the picture below with the red arrow. Here is a picture of the bracket from behind. It is threaded onto the 16mm (or 17mm) long bolt that holds the starter in place. Here is another picture with the bracket installed. Yours may slide off with a clip, mine had a 13mm nut resting on top of a 16mm starter/motor mount bolt. (Like the super deluxe shop mirror? It's the old side view mirror, left over from the OEM wide angle/blind spot mirror replacement, see for more details.) You might also be able to slip the bracket off by releasing this clip. Remove the 16mm (or 17mm) long bolts holding the starter to the transmission bellhousing (2x 16mm or 2x 17mm). For mk3 Jetta/Passat only: these bolts are connected to the motor mount on the other side. The mk4 Jetta/Golf/New Beetle does not. It's possible to remove them without supporting the engine (since there are 3 bolts in total that connect the engine to the motor mount) but it will be difficult to put back. I suggest putting a wood block and jack under the engine to hold it in place. After starter removal, immediately loosely thread the bolts back in the mounts to prevent the chance of engine sag. Optional: You can also use an engine support bracket from northern tool or harbor freight, pictured below Mk4 cars need removal of a bolt holding the air conditioning bracket. It is attached in the same way that the cable bracket above is attached (with a small bolt on top of the long bolt). Again, if you have an mk4 you don't need to support the engine as shown above. The starter can now be removed. Replacement is the reverse of removal. If the (2x 16mm) starter bolts don't want to go back in, wiggle the motor mount or engine until it goes in. Pictured below is the bolt and the threaded end on the motor mount bracket. You can also loosen but do not remove the 3rd motor mount short bolt (1x16mm) to let you move the bracket more. Below is an mk3, yours may look slightly different. Again, mk3 and mk4 are slightly different, mk4 do not use a motor mount there. Here's a video of starter removal on a similar engine. V9VApCSSxKA Beetle, Eos, Golf, Jetta, Passat, Scirocco, Sharan, Tiguan, Touran

How to disable or remove the 1996 VW Passat TDI 5th fuel injector Introduction The 1996 Passat was the first year for the VW TDI in North America and have a problem with the 5th fuel injector in the exhaust for emissions. Volkswagen had diesel powered cars for many years but not the turbo, intercooled, electronically controlled injection pump that distinguishes the TDI from earlier VW diesels, the IDI. There were also other major differences in the engine and engine management. The 1996 Passat also had a unique to '96 5th fuel injector. See to see a list of differences, interchangeable parts, model year differences, etc. The fifth fuel injector injects diesel fuel into the exhaust downstream of the turbo and upstream of the catalytic converter. The fuel was supposed to clean the emissions by heating up the catalytic converter but it didn't work very well and often made the car smoke more. It's recommended to remove or disable the 5th fuel injector to reduce smoke (emissions) and wasted fuel. The 1996 had a technical service bulletin (not a recall) that replaces the fuel injectors and changes the ECU (ECM, car computer) and 5th injector. Since it was not a recall, it may not have been done to all 96 VW Passat TDI. You don't need to have these changes done to plug the 5th injector, you can just plug it. Also check the ecu hose since this problem always shows up sooner or later. See for more details. Below are pictures showing a 1996 (left) vs. 1997 (right) passat TDI fuel line. The 96 has an extra branch off to the 5th injector (note the T below), the 97 does not. If you follow the extra fuel line in the 96, it goes to a solenoid, then to a fitting on the exhaust. In the 1997, both lines go directly from the fuel filter to the injection pump. Parts -1997 passat fuel line to replace the old line. The part number is VW# 3a0 130 307 e (1z and AHU engine). VW# 3a0 130 307 d is also listed but the parts catalog doesn't say what engine it's for. I recommend an OEM line rather than making your own because of fitment and because it should have a clear section. Do not use standard rubber or vinyl hosing because the line will come into contact with diesel fuel and heat. For reference, the Jetta fuel line is VW# 1h0 130 307 ae. -paper towel to catch any fuel spills -screwdriver -rubber or vinyl gloves to protect your hand from diesel fuel Procedure Unscrew the clamps on the old T shaped fuel line and replace with the new fuel line. You will also see the solenoid there. Remove the line and the 5th injector as pictured below on the exhaust. Make sure to plug the exhaust bung so there are no exhaust leaks. Put the new line on and tighten all clamps. Start the car and check for any evidence or presence of fuel leaks, fuel odors or vapors, or abnormal engine performance. This is cleanest method. A faster method is just to plug the old T with something that will not be corroded by diesel and to replace the T. Some suggest sticking a thin screw to plug the line and then replacing the T so there are no fuel leaks. If you do this, make sure there are no fuel leaks at all since you do not want any exposed fuel in the engine bay creating a possible fire hazard. Below is a picture showing the fitting on the exhaust. If you want to remove the solenoid and line it won't set a check engine light or make any difference in running. The issue is that you have to make sure that the fuel line is disabled as mentioned above and that there are no exhaust leaks. You can weld over the fitting or remove the union and stuff a ball bearing in there and then replace the union over it but on most cars it will be rusted in place.

Limp mode: What is it, what are the causes, and how to fix it on a Audi and VW TDI engine

What is limp mode

Limp mode is when your TDI suddenly loses power while driving and is restored after you turn the car off and back on. You might not notice it on a level road with light engine load because you don't need much power to drive slowly on a level road. You're more likely to notice or trigger limp mode on highway on ramps or going up hills because these request more power and turbo boost. The check engine light (CEL) or malfunction indicator light (MIL) on the instrument cluster doesn't always go off. If you have always have low power without the sudden cut out feeling or the engine just won't rev high then read . Many causes and symptoms overlap so read both articles - this article focuses more on power suddenly cutting out instead of constant low power.

What isn't limp mode

Limp mode is not when the engine seems to start fine but immediately suddenly shuts off. If this happens, look for the immobilizer yellow car symbol on the instrument panel, see . If this matches your symptoms, the anti theft immobilizer is shutting off the engine. If the car shuts completely off well after 1 second it's not an immobilizer problem. Check the air intake piping, fuel filter, fuel pickup in the fuel tank, and fuel shutoff solenoid at the injection pump (1996-2003 cars only, single black wire leading to solenoid). It's not when you turn the key and the engine doesn't even try to start or turn over. You have a low battery, ignition key, or starter problem. See to see the fix if you have a mk3 or mk4 car. (Or see , , if you have one of those cars.) If the engine suddenly shuts off during normal driving and you don't see the glow plug light go on during failed restarts then replace the black relay 109 with the newer gray relay 109 (1996-2003 cars only, it's under the steering wheel in the relay panel). It sometimes cools and lets you restart. The problem with black relay 109 was bad soldering. This relay controls power to the ECU and prevents the glow plug light from coming on at all during failed restarts. Newer cars have a similar main power relay on the fusebox. If the engine stays at a constant 1200 RPM and won't go higher your accelerator pedal or wiring could be faulty - this should trip an error code because it's a major fault. This could produce constant low power instead of limp mode but the error code and other symptoms should tip you off. The pedal is drive by wire, meaning there's no cable attaching it to a throttle - it's just electrical wires and sensors. In the mk3 TDI the pedal sensor is a potentiometer. In the mk4 TDI there are 2 pedal sensors (g79 and g185 sensors which are potentiometers). If one fails you should get an error code, if both fail the ECU will limit engine RPM to 1200. This should be obvious when reading the accelerator pedal value through VCDS engine measuring blocks. Turn the car on, plug in VCDS, and it will tell you how far the accelerator pedal is being pressed. If the car ran fine before but is suddenly bucking or jerking at a certain RPM range you probably have a loose/cracked intake piping. It's subjected to heat and pressure on turbo cars and can crack, releasing the intake air. A clip may have also released, letting a hose slip off. Look around for loose hoses and then do a boost leak check. See for more details. A major boost leak may result in hard starting but smooth but smoky idling. If the engine RPM goes up but the car's speed stays the same or doesn't increase with RPM, then you have a bad/slipping clutch or transmission. If the engine RPM stays as sluggish as the car's speed the transmission/clutch is probably fine. See for more details on clutches used on the TDI and the dual mass clutch. If you have a DSG transmission and the PNDRL shifter gear selector lights are all on or blinking, you have a low battery (also check voltage regulator or alternator). Some DSG are starting to show defective transmission temp sensors which cause false neutrals. On 2008 and older engines, it's never the glow plugs or glow plug harness, these don't have any effect on power, only engine starting. On 2009 and newer engines, the glow plugs are also cylinder pressure sensors. These can affect engine operation but as far as I know, aren't causing limp mode. (Perhaps as the engines age and the wiring/sensors begin to fail they may). If the car's top speed is 20 mph, there are other major problems. Limp mode should still let you slowly accelerate to 40-60 mph, depending on hills and how bad it is.

Why is there a limp mode?

The car's computer is constantly monitoring sensors such as air flow, EGR flow, fuel flow, etc., and is expecting certain values. If a sensor sends a signal that is out of bounds through malfunction or failure, the car's computer will fall back to a safety map or cut fueling and turbo boost to prevent damage. This is because overboosting or overfueling could cause engine damage. A diesel is built more sturdy than a gasoline engine and boost spikes are normal in a diesel. Even still, any engine has limits so the computer pulls back engine power to prevent these limits from being exceeded. The effect is that you lose the power from the turbo or don't get fuel, making it feel as if you lost the turbo or lost all power right when you need it. Again, if you have constant low power or can't rev the engine high, read 1000q: constant low power on TDI and the FAQ articles here for background information and to understand how the system works: , , and for some more background information. Here are the generations for TDI engines sold in North America. Some cars were available up to 2 years earlier in Europe. Mk3 (mark 3) = 1996-1997 3rd generation Passat TDI or 1996-1999 3rd gen Jetta TDI Mk4= 1998-2006 New Beetle, 1999-2005 Jetta, 1999-2006 Golf, 2004-2005 Passat TDI B5.5= 2004-2005 Passat TDI systems are equivalent to mk4 (1998-2001 B5 not sold in North America in Europe, B5.5 started 2001.5) Mk5= 2005.5-2010 Jetta sedan and wagon, Audi A3 2003-2014 Mk6= 2010-2014 Golf, Jetta wagon, 2011+ Jetta TDI NMS=2012+ Passat TDI - systems are equivalent to mk6 Mk7= 2015+ Golf, 2015+ Audi A3

Procedure - Troubleshooting steps for the TDI engine

With any problem on a modern car, first scan the car's computer for error codes and see what you have. If you don't have a code scanner, many auto parts stores will scan it for free. To access sensor readings or for problems that aren't caused by something obvious, you need a . This is a VW Audi specific laptop computer diagnostic cable to talk to the car computer. It is much more advanced than what the generic error code scanners can do and without it you can't do the more advanced tests. The cables aren't cheap but they are lot cheaper than blindly replacing parts or paying a mechanic. I do not sell these cables, I recommend them because they'll save you time and money in the long run. In addition, since the software license follows the physical cable, a genuine cable's resale value is very high. Below are some of the more common codes that show up from limp mode. Then inspect all the vacuum lines for worn ends or split corners. Also inspect boost hoses for loose couplers or do a boost leak test. The reason boost leak test is also listed above is because sometimes it causes limp mode and sometimes it causes stumbling and bucking with an OK idle. Since any cause of limp power is possible in your exact case, this article is divided into more common, less common, and rare causes. The numbers are in no particular order, it's just for organization. Of course, if you have any error codes tripped or have a clue to what's causing limp mode you should address those causes first. If there is an article showing more details, it will be linked from this page, otherwise ask your question in the Touareg troubleshooting is not included here but the basic principles are the same and many of their codes are caused by the same problems. This kit will address issues that can cause limp mode, low power, low mileage and smoking in any 1999.5-2003 Jetta TDI, Golf TDI or 1998-2003 New Beetle TDI. This kit includes: [LIST] [*] [*] [*] [*] [/LIST] Kermatdi sells that fixes the most common problems. This page explains why and how to narrow these common problems down.

More common causes of limp mode

1. Error code that shows Boost Deviation Intermittent, Boost Deviation Negative, Boost Deviation Positive, Intake Manifold Pressure xxxxx, charge pressure control deviation These codes show a problem with the system that senses turbo boost and controls the turbo. Most of the time, a sudden cut of power is related to sensor or turbo problems. These codes generally show an underboost or overboost situation which sets you into limp mode. The N75 solenoid is the solenoid that controls pressure to the turbo wastegate (mk3 TDI) or vacuum to the VNT actuator (mk4, mk5, mk6 TDI). Here's how it works: once the intake manifold pressure sensor shows boost pressure reaching the desired value, the ECU activates the N75 solenoid which fluctuates vac/pressure to the wastegate/VNT actuator to stabilize the boost pressure at the desired value. If the vacuum lines are broken or the solenoid is bad, it won't control pressure which causes a problem which the ECU sees. You can try removing the N75 and flushing it out with electronic cleaner. Once dry, try a squirt of WD40 inside to help the solenoid move freely. Check the engine wiring harness grounds for corrosion or breaks. Bad/corroded grounds can cause mysterious electrical problems. There's a ground under the battery which is exposed to leaking battery acid and can corrode. Check the wiring/connector for breaks or corrosion coming to and from the N75 valve. The wiring harness pin #1 (the one on the left) for N75 should have battery voltage. If not, you have a short on that wire. Resistance from each N75 pin to its respective ECU pin should be around 1.5 ohm. The wiring is normally OK. A more common failure is a bad N75 itself. Resistance between the two pins on the N75 solenoid is 14-20 ohm on an ALH engine with the ignition off. The N75 in the 1996-97 passat is on the firewall next to the coolant reservoir. The 1996-1999 Jetta N75 is in the engine bay on the passenger side fender by the fuel filter. The 1998-2006 mk4 generation N75 is on the firewall behind the accordion-like hose coming from the airbox. N75 1996-1999 mk3 body, VW #028-906-283-F (pierburg type n75) N75 1998-1999 mk4 body, VW #1H0-906-627-A, for Up To Vin # 9 MX 999000 N75 1998-2005 mk4 body, VW #1J0-906-627-A, ALH and BHW engine, for From Vin # 9M Y 000 001, D shaped connector Here is what the n75 solenoid looks like inside and how it works: the solenoid cycles back and forth to allow vacuuum through it. (click to enlarge) To test the N75 solenoid wiring,, pin #1 If you have an mk4, swap the EGR solenoid with the n75 solenoid as a temporary test for the N75. It's possible for the EGR solenoid to cause limp mode but this is not as common as the other problems, cleaning it out may be the solution. Again, check the vacuum lines first and the solenoid itself for resistance. 1a. Boost Deviation Intermittent means you most likely have a vacuum leak somewhere. Check all vacuum lines, turbo actuator, and plastic fittings. There are vacuum lines that connect the turbo, car computer, sensors, etc., and tend to get frayed at the ends or rub through. 1b. Boost Deviation Negative means you have a clogged intake, turbo actuator that's leaking, bad vacuum lines, or a sticky turbo actuator lever. If you have a VNT turbo, it may be because of stuck VNT vanes which requires removal and cleaning of the vanes. See the below section for related causes. 1c. Boost Deviation Positive means you have a N75 that's bad/malfunctioning, actuator that's leaking, bad vacuum lines, bad boost sensor, or a or wastegate lever. If you have a VNT turbo, it may require removal and cleaning of the vanes. See the below section for related causes. If you're getting an overboost error, it's never the MAF. For mk3 cars only: The A3 and B4 models (1996- 1999 jetta/passat TDI) have a vacuum line inside of the ECU. If you get error 65535 - Internal Control Module Memory Error and some boost codes, it's most likely this hose. The plastic inside may be fragile so see for a how to , pictures, and a diagram of the vacuum line routing. The line connects the outside of the ECU to a pressure sensor inside the ECU. Later cars do not have this internal line. The mk3 TDI don't have a VNT actuator and the wastegate is fairly reliable. To test the wastegate actuator, apply pressure to the vac line going to the wastegate can. The wastegate arm should move. If it doesn't, it indicates a problem with the actuator or vacuum line. For mk4-mk6 cars only: The turbo actuator or turbo vanes can get stuck. See and and the below section. Below are vacuum line diagrams for the mk4 ALH (below left) and BEW (labeled BEW) engines. (1Z and AHU engine vacuum diagram was in the ecu hose article linked above). There should be stickers above the radiator support that have vacuum diagrams there too if you don't have one of these engines. 2. Bad/sticking VNT actuator or turbo vanes If you have an mk4 or newer TDI, your car uses a VNT turbo. This section does not apply to the mk3 TDI. See to see exactly what a VNT turbo is. The actuator or adjustable vanes inside the turbo can stick or go bad from soot and carbon clogging the VNT vanes. On a regular basis like highway on ramps, you should rev the engine high and hard to raise exhaust gas temperatures (EGT). Raising EGT will burn up and blow out carbon and soot build up in the exhaust system and turbo. Only do this once the engine is fully warmed up and let the car cool down with a period of normal driving afterwards. More detailed procedures and pictures here: 1000q: VNT actuator check and removal and diagnosis TDI. This link gives instructions on how exactly to check it. Again, the mk3 TDI uses a wastegate, use pressure to check it instead of vacuum. If it's sticking, try to free it up by lubricating it, manually moving it, or by giving it a hard run. This may burn up or loosen any sticking bits inside. Give it a blast with PB Blaster or another penetrating lubricant. PB Blaster eats rust more than WD-40. This might only provide a temporary solution. If you read the above link on detailed diagnosis and need a new one, click the links here to compare current pricing, shipping, tax, etc.: Dealers don't normally stock this part or sell it because it's more profitable to sell an entire turbo and selling an entire turbo also fixes/rules out any internal turbo problem and fixes the problem in 1 visit. If you're lucky the VNT actuator or vacuum lines are leaking or the N75 valve is bad. Attach a vacuum pump and see if they're holding vacuum. If not then the turbo vanes or lever are stuck and the turbo should be removed for disassembly and cleaning. See the FAQ for the DIY turbo removal for your engine. The N75 valve controls vac/pressure to the wastegate/VNT actuator. It's labeled boost pressure frequency valve in the diagrams above. It should be getting around 22 vacuum upstream of the valve (check the vac pump output lines) and about 19-20 vacuum downstream of it. If it's close to this and the N75 valve moves freely with no error codes the valve is most likely OK. The test for the N75 was shown earlier. If the solenoid themselves are bad they usually throw a code but check it anyways. If they are are physically worn the vacuum pressure will be low from leaking. On the ALH engine you can switch the N75 with the N18 EGR solenoid (egr frequency valve) as a test. The videos below show how the VNT actuator and vane work. The lever on the outside is welded to a lever inside the turbo housing. This is how it moves the VNT vanes. See the below videos to see how smoothly and free the lever should move. It should not stick or bind at all. Vacuum is being applied to the can, not pressure. The lever moves a ring and the ring moves the vanes. These vanes change the angle and speed of exhaust hitting the turbine wheel. If these vanes are sticking it will cause low power or limp mode, depending how how badly they're stuck and at what angle. QdqMmB3hxTM Qu0UGKS7-JQ Below is a video showing a Borg Warner turbo. The above videos show a Garrett turbo. Ppif4qC560U If you have a 2004+ TDI, your car has a smart VNT actuator that has a sensor to check its position. The wiring harness on BEW engines is a tiny bit stressed (possibly too short) and the wire tends to break or rub through at the plug to the sensor. The exception is the 2004-2005 VW Passat TDI which doesn't have this sensor. As you can see, it's also exposed to the elements and the connection can become corroded. The mk5-mk6 cars use a Borg Warner turbo that moves out with vacuum instead of in but it otherwise works the same. My mk5 BRM engine Jetta actuator started to push out around 3 vac and was fully extended around 17-18 . My mk6 CJAA engine actuator started around 2-3 and was fully extended at 15 . The newer engines use active feedback from the smart actuator to help control turbo boost. The stop screw position is also very important. It seems to cause hesitation on Borg Warner turbos if misadjusted or is in need of adjustment from internal wear. See for details. Mk4 TDI engine stop screw adjustment is similar but VCDS cannot do the test described in the article. 3. Check for intake piping that is loose, not clamped correctly, or split hoses. Do a boost leak test on your TDI engine. See for more details. A fault in intake manifold pressure could indicate this or worn vacuum lines. Often, intake hoses will split due to age or rubbing/proximity to exhaust piping. Mk3 Jetta tend to have the rubber elbow hose before the intake manifold split on the far side where you can't see it. If you worked on the car recently did you attach and tighten all piping? It's possible a hose has since popped off. Did someone stuff paper towels into the intake piping and forget to take them out? A cracked hose or loose connector lets measured air out. No air or major leaks = poor engine running or stuttering. A visual inspection may not reveal all the possible or hard to see spots where leaks can form. See the boost leak DIY article for a foolproof method of finding all leaks. Common places for a boost leak to occur is at hose ends (the hoses pop off due to a loose connector or worn locking tab), the corners, or places where it rubs against something else. mk3 Jetta TDI tended to wear out the rubber hose before the intake manifold because it's close to the hot exhaust piping. mk4 Passat TDI tend to wear out one of the lower intake hoses because it rubs against a ground cable. 2004 and newer engines use snap hose couplers. These quick connect tab-spring connections can pop off if it's not tight or wear down the locking tabs. If it's only locked on 1 side (the clips+tabs are on 2 sides) the hose can pop off halfway and let boost out. For some reason, BEW engines tend to wear the tabs at the intake manifold (probably due to a looser fit) which made the hose pop out. This is shown below. If it's loose you can use an to lock it in place or replace the hose. A replacement for the BEW engine hose shown below is VW# 1j0 145 838 t (1j0145838t). Newer engines don't seem to have this issue. 4. EGR or exhaust leak can also cause limp mode Was the intake manifold recently removed and cleaned? The metal EGR hoses could have come loose or cracked. If there's enough of an exhaust leak at the EGR hoses or exhaust manifold, the gases powering the turbo will leak out, causing unexpected values and limp mode. Check for soot stains around the exhaust area. It's common for the intake hoses or valve cover to seep oil so make sure that's not what you see. There's a video of an EGR hose leak in the boost leak article above. 5. If the fuel filter has not been changed in the last 20,000 miles, it's possible that it's clogged and is restricting fuel. A bad batch of biodiesel or diesel fuel can clog the fuel filter. If you have a high mileage car, using a high percentage of biodiesel can clean out old deposits that travel through the fuel lines and clog the fuel filter. If your fuel injectors have been sitting dry outside of the car, diesel fuel can go bad and gum up the tiny components inside the fuel injector. 6. The intake could be so clogged with carbon that it's causing limp mode. Remove the intake piping before the intake manifold and look with a flashlight. If you've never seen a clogged intake, you will be surprised at the amount of carbon buildup in the intake manifold. Up to 1/5-1/6 of buildup on the inside is normal. Please refer to the FAQ for your intake manifold cleaning and removal DIY. Mk3 and mk4 cars are more prone to carbon buildup due to design and EGR metering. Now that all fuel sold in North America (not Mexico) is ultra low sulfur diesel (USLD) only, clogging problems were much less. It's possible that the EGR valve or intake flap are sticking due to carbon. It's also possible that the EGR valve (and its vacuum lines and control solenoid) is bad or the intake flap gears are stripped (intake flaps 2004 and newer are electrically actuated and use plastic gears). 7. It could be the MAF air flow sensor contributing to the problem although this normally isn't the sole cause. See the MAF FAQ article for detailed testing procedures. MAF problems could be causing both constant low power and triggering limp mode. This problem is common on mk4 and newer cars but rare on mk3 TDI. A bad MAF does not normally trip an error code. A bad MAF does not trip overboost but could contribute to underboost. Less common causes of limp mode Please join our community today! Rare causes of limp mode Registration is free, post your problem so we can help you fix limp mode. ...The rest of this article and pictures are in the exclusive content section and . Please join our forums and . Thank you for supporting the site so I can continue to improve this article!

How to fix constant low power or limit on engine rpm on TDI engines

This article shows possible causes of low power without limp mode on Volkswagen and Audi TDI.

Read this entire article if you're having problems with low power on your TDI engine. See if you have limp mode. Although you could be in permanent limp mode, it should be fairly obvious because engine error codes will be set and you may see the check engine light/malfunction indicator light. Read both articles since each situation has overlapping causes/solutions, this article is more for permanent low power without the sudden loss of power. Since any cause of low power is possible in your specific case, this article is divided into more common, less common, and rare causes. The numbers are in no particular order, it's just for organization. Of course, if you have any error codes tripped or have a clue to the cause of low power you should address those causes first, so get the car scanned for error codes before throwing time and parts at it. This can be done for free at many auto parts stores. Further details for each each section are given in links to other articles. If you need more help, ask your question in the If you have a problem that isn't caused by something obvious, you need a Ross tech VCDS cable. This is a laptop computer diagnostic cable to talk to the car's computer. Without it you cannot do the more advanced tests. Note about generations - some generations have similar engines. These are only for North America, Europe got some cars up to 2 model years before America and they had much more TDI availability. Mk3= 1996-1997 3rd generation Passat TDI or 1996-1999 3rd gen Jetta TDI Mk4= 1998-2006 New Beetle, 1999-2005 Jetta, 1999-2006 Golf B5 and B5.5= 2004-2005 Passat TDI, equal to Mk5= 2005.5-2010 Jetta TDI, 2009 Sportwagen, Audi A3 2010-2014 Mk6= 2010-2014 Golf TDI, 2011+ Jetta, 2010+ Sportwagen NMS= 2012+ Passat Mk7=2013/2014+ Golf TDI, 2015+ Sportwagen Procedure Remember, an engine needs fuel, air, and compression to run. Low power is related to a lack of one of these or a sensor problem making the computer thinking there's a lack of these. Any sensor problem could also be caused by a bad ground or broken/chaffed wire so also check every section of the wiring of the suspect sensor for breaks. More common causes of low power on TDI 1. Bad MAF sensor - very likely cause on the mk4 TDI. Not common on the mk3 TDI (1996-1999 Jetta/Passat). Early mk4 MAFs failed often, see for more details and replacement part numbers. Error codes normally do not show up with a faulty MAF since the signal degrades instead of going out completely. Through VCDS, checking MAF actual vs. specified at idle, high rpm, and high load will quickly show a bad MAF or other problem causing a low MAF reading. Start the engine and click on engine , then click on measuring blocks in the screen below. You should see the screen below. Hit up until you see group 3 . Below is a bad MAF - the specified value and actual values are off. Bad MAFs don't go over 400-500 because the sensor degrades and isn't sending the correct air value. Also check for faulty wiring or a bad plug. Below is a good MAF - the specified value and actual value are close and both can reach 800+. 2. Clogged intake manifold - carbon buildup chokes the intake manifold, starving the engine of air. Only ultra low sulfur diesel is sold in North America now so there should be much less buildup in the future. Always use good quality synthetic engine oil on your TDI. See , , or search the FAQ for the newer engines. 3. Anti shudder valve shut or almost shut (does not apply to mk3 TDI, more for mk4 TDI) - there is a spring loaded valve right before the intake manifold. Newer TDI use an electronic valve and are not as susceptible to sticking. If there is excess carbon buildup, it could shut in a partially closed position. See the intake manifold cleaning DIY for detailed pictures and operation. 4. Clogged snowscreen/air filter - a clogged air filter will starve the engine of air. A clogged snowscreen (large debris air pre-filter) shouldn't block off all air unless the aux-intake flap is also clogged. See , r or search the FAQ for the newer engines for details on changing them. 5. Clogged fuel filter - change interval is 20,000 miles but biodiesel use (cleans out old buildup) or bad fuel could clog it early, resulting in fuel starvation. Algae or bacterial growth in the fuel tank could also clog the lines. See , , or search the FAQ for the newer engines for details on how to change it. The fuel pickup screen in the tank is a common place for it to become clogged. 6. Boost leak - a cracked hose or loose connector lets measured air out. No air or major leaks = poor engine running or stuttering. A visual inspection may not reveal all the possible or hard to see spots where leaks can form. See for a foolproof method of finding all leaks. Common places for a boost leak to occur is at hose ends (the hoses pop off due to a loose connector or worn locking tab), the corners, or places where it rubs against something else. mk3 Jetta TDI tended to wear out the rubber hose before the intake manifold because it's close to the hot exhaust piping. mk4 Passat TDI tend to wear out one of the lower intake hoses because it rubs against a ground cable. 2004 and newer engines use a quick connect tab-spring connection. If it's only locked on 1 end, it can pop off halfway. For some reason, mk4 engines tended to wear the tabs at the intake manifold (probably due to a looser fit) which makes the hose pop out. If it's loose you can use an to lock it in place or replace the hose. The BEW engine hose is VW# 1j0 145 838 t. Other engines also have quick connect couplers at other locations. 7. Hose inside ECU (mk3 TDI only, does not apply to mk4 or newer TDI) - this hose leaks and normally sets a check engine light, see for the fix. 8a. Vacuum lines to/from turbo and n75 solenoid - these dry out over time and crack or can rub through. It's possible they are clogged. The n75 solenoid controls the turbo wastegate or VNT vanes with either vacuum or pressure. b4 Passat - on firewall above coolant reservoir, a3 Jetta - on pass side near air box, a4 Jetta/Golf - on firewall above brake fluid reservoir. Below are vacuum line diagrams for the mk4 ALH (below left) and BEW (labeled BEW) engines. 8b. Problem with the n75 solenoid, VNT actuator, VNT vanes, or vacuum lines. Only mk4 and newer have VNT. You should have already checked the vacuum lines, the below test will inspect the entire system. Start the engine and through VCDS, click on engine --> measuring blocks -->hit up until you reach group 11 . Compare Specified vs. Actual MAP. This compares what's actually happening and being observed from the boost sensor (barring a faulty sensor/plug/wire) to boost the computer is requesting (what should be happening). They should be relatively close. If they are far off this normally results in limp mode but it could also be contributing to the problem. If you have a mk3 you have a conventional turbo but you can still use this test to check the n75 solenoid, the wastegate, and vac lines. However, wastegates are much less susceptible to sticking vs. VNT vanes. The videos below show how it works. The lever on the outside is welded to a lever inside the turbo housing. This is how it moves the VNT vanes. See the below videos to see how smoothly and free the lever should move. It should not stick or bind at all. Vacuum is being applied to the can, not pressure. The lever moves a ring and the ring moves the vanes. These vanes change the angle and speed of exhaust hitting the turbine wheel. If these vanes are sticking it will cause low power or limp mode, depending how how badly they're stuck and at what angle. Here is a Borg Warner turbo - it works in a similar fashion but the actuator moves in the opposite direction. Below is a log of a turbo which was recently cleaned. Some initial spikes are normal but boost should level out. If you're quickly stomping on the acceleator/gas pedal, expect more spikes. If you're smoothly applying the accelerator pedal there should be less spikes. A faulty log could also indicated a faulty actuator, vacuum lines, or n75 solenoid. 8c. If the test shows poor response or no response at all, it could be sticky VNT vanes/actuator (mk4 and newer TDI only) - see for a description of what a VNT turbo is. The vanes or actuator can stick or fail to function, see and repair to check the actuator. The lever should move freely as shown in the above link and videos. 8d. If the actuator is fine, also check the n75 solenoid and vac lines. The n75 solenoid controls vacuum or boost to the vacuum line going to the turbo wastegate/VNT actuator. To test, apply voltage to the solenoid or swap with a known good unit. If you have a mk4 TDI, you can swap it with the EGR solenoid to test. Also check the plug for corrosion and the wiring harness for chaffing. If those are good, disconnect the VNT actuator rod and move the vanes by hand. If the vanes are stuck then remove the turbo and clean the inside of the exhaust housing to free then stuck vanes, see and If you need a new n75 solenoid, click the below links: N75 1996-1999 mk3 body, VW #028-906-283-F (pierburg type n75) N75 1998-1999 mk4 body, VW #1H0-906-627-A, for Up To Vin # 9 MX 999000 N75 1998-2005 mk4 body, VW #1J0-906-627-A, ALH and BHW engine, for From Vin # 9M Y 000 001, D shaped connector Here is what the n75 solenoid looks like inside and how it works: the solenoid cycles back and forth to allow vacuuum through it. (click to enlarge) 9. Faulty injection pump's fuel injection quantity adjuster - these are occasionally set wrong from the factory or after seal replacement. It's also possible the fuel pump's internal quantity adjuster is faulty. Applies to 1996-2003 TDI only or TDI that use a Bosch VE injection pump (not pumpe duse or common rail). See for more details. Injection quantity should be 3-5 at idle and up to 36-38 at full throttle. 10. Exhaust leak. It's possible for the exhaust manifold or EGR hoses to leak out gasses that should be powering the turbo. This should give a sooty stain around the leaking area. The recirculates exhaust gases to the intake to lower NOx emissions. The EGR hoses are metal but it's possible for them to leak at the gaskets or crack. There's a video of a loose EGR hose in the boost leak article mentioned earlier. The rest of this article is for premium forum members only. Please join our free community and upgrade your account to premium: to gain access to less common and rare causes of low power. Thank you for supporting the site! Less common causes of low power on TDI Fuel pickup in the fuel tank...... Rare causes of low power on TDI From Ryan Irish I have a 1999 Jetta TDI ALH I have been fighting limp mode for a year. I replaced everything on this list. I finally decided to replace the intake manifold I with a clean one just a swap really. The intake manifold was not very dirty or clogged. don't get me wrong it was dirty but no constricting. When we removed it we were clearing room to work and noticed the lower EGR cooling tube was loose. In fact I was completely broken at last flex point. Now I have replaced every vacuum tube solenoids gaskets vacuum pump. I learned that any vacuum leak would throw the engine out of wack and this pipe was completely broken. So we found one and replaced it. Funny when we test drove the emission system was back in operations we gunned it a bit and it spewed a ton of soot out. Car is back and running like a champ.

How to adjust and test fuel IQ with VCDS or how to do the hammer mod

This article shows how to test or change the fuel injection quantity on a VW TDI or Audi TDI engine.

Fuel injection quantity (IQ), the amount of fuel injected into the engine with each stroke, is adjustable in your TDI. This article focuses on 1996-2003 VW TDI sold in North America or any TDI that use the electronic Bosch VW injection pump. You can use the below procedure on 2004 TDI and newer to check the IQ but you cannot change it. To change IQ on 2004 TDI and newer, you need chip tuning. An IQ adjustment is also not a substitute for chip tuning for the earlier cars. Injection quantity depends on fuel temperature, rpm, load, smoke, injection duration, coolant temperature, and measured air flow. Incorrect IQ can cause slow down engine shudder, rough idling, smoky running, poor starting, poor economy, basically anything to do with fuel. It's recommended to check IQ anytime after adjusting fuel nozzles, power chip, or if you just want to adjust the car's level of smoke. Also check the IQ if you just purchased the car because it is sometimes set incorrectly from the factory or previous owner. If you have low power, see the below section as well. Adjusting IQ can also smooth out engine shudder when engine rpms drop. Increasing fueling will increase smoke and power and lower fuel economy. Decreasing fueling will decrease smoke and power and raise fuel economy. If you just changed your nozzles to restore the fuel injectors, they are delivering a different amount of fuel, even if you replaced them with the same sized nozzles. For example, when you put .184 sized nozzles on the original fuel injectors, your original nozzles may actually be .170mm instead of your new .184mm nozzles. The slight adjustment in fuel economy is not just because of less smoke/wasted fuel but also slightly changes how the car responds to the accelerator pedal. Driving from point a to b requires a minimum amount of energy/fuel. Faster than optimum (for fuel economy) acceleration means you use more energy/fuel than the minimum. Decreasing fueling through a change in IQ produces a similar result as decreasing how far and fast you press down on the accelerator pedal. Since most drivers use more acceleration than needed for maximum fuel economy, decreasing IQ could be like giving the driver greater foot control for maximum fuel economy. This is not a recommendation to put the IQ out of its normal range on a stock, unmodified car! The accelerator pedal in all TDI is drive by wire, meaning there's no cable connected to a mechanical throttle. At the base of the pedal is an electronic potentiometer which sends a signal to the car's computer. Changing IQ does not affect the accelerator pedal signal. How much could fuel economy or power increase? The difference is small and there are too many variations between drivers, driving styles, and cars to say it will even result in a noticeable change. Since this test will not hurt your car in any way, try adjusting IQ within the normal range, drive the car for a while, then see how you like it. There are two ways to adjust IQ - through software adaptation using a VCDS ross tech cable or mechanically. Sometimes the injection pump is set incorrectly from the factory and requires a mechanical adjustment. If you reach the limit of how far you can adjust IQ through software adaptation then you have to adjust IQ mechanically. Inside the fuel pump's quantity adjuster (QA), there is an electronically operated arm that moves back and forth to adjust the IQ. If the software is telling the arm to move all the way to one side but it's at its limits, adjust the physical range of movement. Rules for adjusting IQ and the QA's reactionThe normal range for IQ value on a stock, unmodified car is 3-5 mg/str at idle and 36-38 at full throttle. Too low and the car is overfueling, too high and the car is underfueling. If you want less fuel you want a higher IQ value, lower software adaptation number, QA moves left towards fuel filter (passenger side for left hand drive cars). If you want more fuel you want a lower IQ value, higher software adaptation number, QA moves right towards battery (driver's side for left hand drive cars). Related links , Tools/parts 1 (cable is required) Which cable do you need? Since injection quantity on pumpe duse TDI is not adjustable through VCDS, this page does not apply to them and their hex-can cables. Hex-can cables are for CAN BUS cars but will also work on your car. If this page applies to you, I suggest the key-com or KII cable. The key-com is an older design and will work equally fine, available through , . The KII is the newer design cable and will work equally fine, available from If you need to make a mechanical adjustment: T-30 torx bit triangle security socket (triangular injection pump socket) Bosch PN# 0-986-612-605 from (these are cheaper and just as good as the Bosch part) hammer and a piece of wood - If your injection pump seals have not been changed yet it's possible moving the will break the seal if the seal is original or very old. If your pump does start leaking at the lower quantity adjuster union after the hammer mod you will need to follow the procedure here to index the pump's quantity adjuster before removing it and replacing the seal. Procedure Testing and changing IQ with software adaptation Drive the car and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. While idling, plug in the VCDS cable and start the software. Click on Engine and you'll see the screen below (the controller info numbers may be different). Click on login in the screen below. Login using the code 12233 and hit enter. Go back to the last screen and Click on adaptation . Select block 1. Block 1 should show the IQ. The IQ value is normally about 3.0-5.0 mg/str . If the IQ is bouncing around as much as 1 to 6 then the engine isn't warmed up or there's either an injection pump internal fault or ECU fault. The default adaptation number, whether you have a chip or not, is 32768. A lower adaptation number entered in the blank will reduce fueling and increase the x.x m/R value. A higher adaptation number entered will increase fueling and lower the x.x mg/R value. Hit test after entering your adaptation number and the IQ, the x.x mg/str value will change. There is a mechanical limit to how high or low you can change the adaptation number since it's just software. If you reach the limit the software won't let you click on save . Click up or down to change the adaptation number until you see where the limit is. If you can't get to the desired IQ then you need to do the hammer mod to mechanically change the QA's range of movement, see below for details. Again: If you want less fuel you want a higher IQ value, lower software adaptation number, QA moves left towards fuel filter (passenger side for north american cars). If you want more fuel you want a lower IQ value, higher software adaptation number, QA moves right towards battery (driver's side for north american cars). Hit save when you are satisfied. When you're done, go back and make sure the values you wanted are still there because if you forget to hit save there's no change. Go for a test drive. After adjusting the IQ you should notice a difference in throttle response, power, and smoke. As long as the car has enough drivable power, I prefer a setting on the high side because this will help reduce smoke (unburned fuel). I would not adjust IQ much higher than about 5.5 at idle since power starts to noticeably drop off. Testing the IQ and checking for correct IQ range If you're having low power issues the problem could be a bad QA or a QA out of adjustment. Sometimes the QA is bolted on incorrectly at the factory or a previous owner replaced the seal underneath the QA and didn't adjust it correctly. Drive the car and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. While idling, plug in the VCDS cable. Click on engine - you should see the screen in the above picture. Click on Meas. Blocks . Go to Group 15 or click on up 15 times. You should see the below screen. Inj Qty (actual) at idle is normally 3-5 mg/str. Full throttle (pictured above) is about 34-36 mg/str. At idle, Inj Qty requested (accelerator) can be 0 because you're not touching the accelerator pedal. If the IQ is bouncing around as much as 1 to 6 then the engine isn't warmed up or there's either an injection pump internal fault or ECU fault. Go for a test drive, making sure your helper operates the computer - you don't want to get distracted and crash the car! The Inj Qty actual and requested should stay close together as you drive. If they aren't, you are having a fueling problem that the computer is aware of. It's not the accelerator pedal since that should trip an error code. It could be an internal injection pump failure, bad ECU, bad QA, sticking fuel shut off solenoid, or bad fuel injectors/nozzles. Hammer mod to mechanically change QA's range of movement If you have reached the limit of software adjustment to change the IQ, you need to change the QA's mechanical range of movement. This lets the electronic arm inside the pump move farther. Reset the IQ through VCDS to the default factory value. This way you change only one thing at a time. Note the IQ value. Again: If you want less fuel you want a higher IQ value, lower software adaptation number, QA moves left towards fuel filter (passenger side for north american cars). If you want more fuel you want a lower IQ value, higher software adaptation number, QA moves right towards battery (driver's side for north american cars). Drive the car and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. Shut off the engine. Remove the engine cover (3x 10mm nuts). Loosen the 3x T-30 torx bolts and the 1 triangle Bosch security bolt circled below. Use Bosch PN# 0-986-612-605 or the equivalent tools to loosen the security bolt. Only loosen them hand tight, enough to slide the QA left or right without having a fuel leak. You do not remove the QA - only loosen it so that it can slide left or right to adjust the arm inside. First, use a pad like a block of wood or use a rubber or deadblow mallet to prevent damage to the metal. Tap on the middle section of the injection pump, the QA, left or right to slide it and change the IQ. It's safe to gently tap on the areas highlighted in green above. This can be done with the engine running to see the change in real time. Once it's around 4 (3-5 is acceptable), recheck that the bolts are tight and recheck the IQ. You can now fine tune it using the VCDS software using the above steps. Below is a video showing how hard to tap the pump. If it's not moving, loosen the bolts a tiny bit more. a9kfXQyO_NQ

VW and Audi TDI nozzle FAQ and selection guide Also see: Introduction As a wear item, the fuel injector tips (the nozzle) should be regularly replaced. The TDI nozzles could last anywhere from 50,000-200,000 miles and beyond with normal use. However, the nozzle and its spray pattern gradually diminish. Replacement will restore it to like new condition. Worn nozzles won't cause any damage but replacing them will restore lost fuel economy, power, make less smoke, and give the car a smoother idle. This is because a worn nozzle's spray pattern is irregular and prevents optimum fuel combustion. Worn nozzles can also cause a bit of excess smoke on cold engine startup. If the problem is only related to minor buildup and not nozzle wear, . The needles and nozzle bodies are also matched to each other during machining. Nozzles with larger than stock openings will also make more power (and possibly more smoke) by injecting slightly more fuel, faster. This is because the TDI car computer (ECU or ECM) does not know the size of the nozzle. When requested, a larger nozzle opening can inject slightly more fuel in a shorter time. Unlike a gasoline car which has O2 sensors to help sense fueling levels, VW and Audi diesels which use this type of injector have no sensor to determine fuel metering after leaving the fuel injection pump. (Fuel is metered at the injection pump but nozzles still have an effect on the amount of fuel injected). There is a sensor on the #3 injector called a needle lift sensor which sees the timing of the injection. Below is a picture of a mk3 TDI nozzle and injector partially disassembled. Pumpe duse solenoid injectors (~2004-2007) use some of the same concepts but this article does not focus on them. If you don't know if you have a pumpe duse, please refer to for more details. If you use larger nozzles with a chip, it can create too much torque for the clutch and may result in clutch slip. Every car and every driver is slightly different so the recommendations here are on the conservative side. If you buy rebuilt injectors, the main component replaced is the nozzle so I suggest avoiding buying rebuilt injectors when a nozzle replacement is more economical and just as good. Larger nozzles and a chip are considered a necessary supporting modification when adding a larger turbo. See to see what options there are for TDI turbos. If you demand the most precise fuel metering, have the injectors balanced and pop tested . This requires specialized equipment and taking the injectors out to a specialized facility for the adjustment. It basically involves shimming the springs inside the injector so that all four injectors are balanced and delivering the same amount of fuel at the right pressure. To the right is a youtube video of an older VW injector being pop tested, the same principles apply. 7jXX_rGqgGo If you wish to have the . They will also do an injector hot swap with a deposit so there is no downtime shipping your injectors to them. (injectors cannot be damaged like from wrench marks or veg oil) An alternate basic power upgrade (instead of nozzles) would be a chip. A chip will give you more power than +1 size larger nozzles alone, but a chip is not a wear item. For best results, a good chipmaker will also fine tune fueling for your chip if you have larger nozzles, so it's up to you if you want chip, nozzles, or both, and in what order. See and for more details on other options for increasing power. Lastly, I do not recommend buying e bay or generic nozzles. TDI nozzles are not a common item so there aren't many brands to choose from. The brand name nozzle for the VW TDI available in North America is the Fratelli Bosio brand. They are a well known Italian maker and sell the Sprint and PowerPlus nozzles, more information on the differences is below. Nozzles are subjected to extremely high pressures and require very fine machining. The consistency and quality is poor in generic nozzles and any money you spend on them may be wasted because they may not be much better than your old nozzles. While power may go up, it's sometimes accompanied by an increase in smoke (wasted fuel and unnecessarily high EGT). Generic nozzles could be great and they could be bad, but for such a small difference in price I would recommend buying brand name nozzles. Bosio nozzles are available through their North American distributor . A factory defect or shipping damage is always possible but experience has shown these nozzles to be of high quality and result in better injector balancing when plug-play and with no further adjustments. I avoid parts sold by because this seller sells mostly copycat parts and because the seller scammed me. The wholesale price of the copycat nozzles is about $5 and you get what you pay for. People who have tried them report that while they do increase power, they are also smoky (wasted fuel, loss of potential power, excessive exhaust gas temperatures). My guess is that this is due to poor spray pattern and cheap construction / quality control. Detailed nozzle size technical information The below OEM nozzle size information is specific to VW and Audi TDI diesels with stock injectors. Some of the nozzles below were measured with an electron scanning microscope by Geoff Williams GeWilli , organized by smallest to largest. The DSLA means that the nozzle orifice is cut into the needle seating area. The P is the needle type that is in the nozzle- a 4mm diameter needle, and the 150 is the spray angle of the orifices. The last number is not the orifice size, it's just the name. Note that the nozzle orifices may be placed asymmetrically around the nozzle tip, some are, some aren't. The stock nozzles have 5 holes around the tip and some newer aftermarket nozzles have 7 holes for a finer spray. Note about aftermarket injectors: sizes should be close to advertised. For example, aftermarket .184 nozzles should be .184 µm (micrometers) and not .170 µm. Some .184 stock nozzles were actually .170 µm. Aftermarket part numbers are highlighted in purple and follow the stock part number. The newest generation of aftermarket nozzles use a diamond like coating (DLC) for better wear and spray characteristics, especially with ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel). .158 injectors: DSLA 150P 672, OEM on the 90 hp auto transmission mk4 ALH 1998-2003 engine, actual measured size is .138mm. .184 injectors: DSLA 150P 706 (some say France) OEM on the 90 hp manual transmission mk3 AHU/1Z (post smoke recall for the 1996 passat) 1996-1999 engine and the mk4 ALH 1998-2003 engine, actual measured size is .170mm. Remember that if you have this size nozzle and replace them with .184 .170mm actual size nozzle you will see an increase in power because of the size difference. .184 injectors: (Euro market: DSLA 150P 357)/(US market: DSLA 150P 442) (sprint 357/442 or PP357), OEM on the 90 hp manual transmission mk3 AHU/1Z 1996-1999 engine, actual measured size is .185mm. Similar to the smaller .184 injectors used in later cars except it has a larger opening and was used in injector bodies with lower opening pressure (190 bar) used with different ecu programming pre-smoke recall in the 1996 passat. PP357 should give about +5hp, +10ft-lbs over comparable sprint nozzles with less smoke. .205 injectors: DSLA 150P 520 (sprint 520), found on the 110 hp Euro AFN/ASV engine, actual measured size is .205 µm. These are the stock nozzles found on the 110hp Euro cars which also used a larger turbo and different ECU to account for more fuel. PP520 were discontinued (replaced with DLC520) and gave around +10hp, +25ft-lbs over stock nozzles. The new feature the diamond like coating and give around +20hp, +40 torque. .216 injectors: These will give more power than .205 injectors. There were also two different actual sizes for injectors commonly referred to as .216 . See below for more details on actual sizes. You need adjustment of the fueling to control smoke and when used with a chip, advanced modifications and a new clutch are possible requirements to be able to burn all the fuel with little smoke. They are not recommended for automatic transmission cars due to smoke. The latest .216 nozzles are the . These are 5 hole stock replacements for 150hp AXG engines. Earlier 140hp 5 cylinder VW/Audi AEL engine DSLA 150 P502 are true .216 µm nozzles. Later 150hp Transporter (eurovan, not available in the US) 5 cylinder AXG engine DSLA 150P 1019 are .203mm nozzles but seem to give better results due to differences in the injector body (nozzles are all interchangeable). The smaller nozzles used a longer duration to achieve the same amount of fuel but since your ecu doesn't know the difference, make sure you know what .216 nozzle you are getting. The actual .216 injector body looks slightly different than your stock smaller nozzle injector bodies but the nozzles are all removable and interchangeable. 150hp nozzles may also be called DSLA 150P 764 and use .205 holes. .226 injectors: .226 µm orifice: These are for cars with moderate turbo upgrades. has a 7 hole tip instead of 5 hole and and These are for highly modified cars around the 200hp+ level. The stage2 has a 7 hole tip instead of 5 hole tip. All pumpe duse injectors (all North American 2004-2006 VW diesels): the replacement is harder than earlier cars because you have to remove the valve cover and send the injectors to a specialized facility. This requires either car downtime or a core charge to hot swap injectors. If you still want injectors, kermatdi at sells larger or modified pumpe duse injectors. If you have a pumpe duse, I would recommend getting a chip first because you can always have the chip rewritten for larger injectors later. The average chip on a PD will make about 140hp/240 ft-lbs torque. Another issue is that you have to have the entire injector body modified at . If you don't know if you have a pumpe duse, all North American VW diesels between 2004 and 2006 are pumpe duse. For more details, see The currently available PD injectors are: : small power upgrade and mpg improvments, supports 100-170 hp. : moderate power upgrade, supports 130-210 hp : for modified cars: supports 100-170+ hp All common rail injectors (all 2009+ VW TDI): These are new engines and there are currently no aftermarket piezoelectric or solenoid injectors for this engine in the US. They use 8 hole common rail injectors. The CBEA/CJAA use piezoelectric and the Passat and mk7 cars used solenoid injectors. Nozzle size recommendations A common question is: if a diesel engine's rpm and power are regulated by fueling and not a throttle (see ), how do larger nozzles increase power? Larger nozzles give a tiny bit more fueling and make more power with a shorter injector duration, everything else being equal. But when you press on the accelerator pedal to request more maximum power, the larger nozzles have the capacity to flow more fuel. In a diesel engine, more fuel = more power. A smaller nozzle should give slightly less fueling and make less power with a longer duration. Try to think of the injection pump as a pressure wave generator instead of a water pump. Fuel metering is regulated at the injection pump by the ECU/ECM. Larger nozzles can inject the requested amount of fuel in a shorter time and closer to TDC which can reduces smoke, effectively advances timing, and lowers EGTs. When you request more power, the injection pump can allow more fuel to be injected rather than just go back through the return lines. The disadvantage of larger nozzles is that they may not atomize fuel as well as smaller nozzles which can increases smoke. The latest 7 hole nozzles solve this by using more holes (7 vs 5) with smaller orifice size. Most people report a slight increase in smoke at heavy acceleration but unchanged or actually improved fuel economy with larger nozzles! This difference could be also be due to replacement of worn nozzles. In general, the PowerPlus (PP) nozzles will give a slight increase in power and reduction in smoke over the OEM style sprint nozzles due to a ceramic coating, tighter tolerances on the nozzle, and a cone shaped orifice. The Sprint nozzles have a cylindrical orifice and are OEM style replacements but cost less and are still well made. The latest DLC nozzles from Bosio use a diamond like coating to give greater service life with better tolerances with the decreased lubricity of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). Also note that +2 size larger injectors OR injectors combined with a chip could cause clutch slip due to making more torque than the clutch can hold. Every car and every driver is slightly different, so just because someone else had no clutch slip doesn't mean you won't! Environmental conditions, car build variations, and the way that different chip tuners adjust their power delivery all affect the possibility of clutch slip. More torque may overcome the clamping force of the clutch and pressure plate (part of the clutch kit). The clutches used in 1996-2000 model year cars had higher torque ratings than 2000-2003 cars. The mk3 cars used a clutch that is similar to the vr6 (6 cylinder engine) clutch but had a different part number. The mk4 1998-2000 cars had a Luk clutch which had a higher torque rating than the 2000-2003 Sachs clutch, so early cars should be able to hold more torque than later cars. There may also be wear, driver, and other factors (like a tiny oil leak on the clutch) that will result in two otherwise identical cars with one car's clutch slipping and the other not slipping. In other words, assume that +2 size or larger nozzles could cause clutch slip. Perception and tolerance of smoke is also very subjective: just because someone said that x nozzle made no difference in smoke or x nozzle made no difference in power, your butt dyno and acceptable amount of smoke may be different! The engine condition, mileage, and calibration of two identical cars will always be slightly different, so what works on one car often turns out slightly differently on another car. The recommendations below are conservative guidelines. Also note that larger than stock nozzles may also cause a slight shudder at low load or slowdown or rough idling unless you adjust the fueling. The larger the nozzle the greater the chance for engine shuddering and the need for adjusting the fueling. Automatic transmission mk4 ALH cars with and without a chip: There is no reason to replace these .158 size nozzles with identical nozzles. Sprint 357/442 and PP 357 all are .184mm nozzles and are recommended with a fueling adjustment since the higher pressure 11mm injection pump already supplies higher pressure fuel. Smoke is considered acceptable with the .184mm/auto transmission's higher pressure 11mm injection pump. .205mm injectors with auto transmission cars will probably create more smoke than what most people like without more modifications, see the advanced performance modification FAQ article for more details. It can work but the car will have at least some smoke so a conservative recommendation is to avoid this size with the automatic transmission without further modifications. Manual transmission cars w/no fueling modifications/no chip: These cars use .184 sized nozzles stock, but the actual size may have been .170mm or .184mm. The section above shows differences in stock nozzle sizes due to a slightly different injection pumps, etc. used in different cars. Sprint 357/442 and PP 357 all are verified .184mm size nozzles and are a good size for all manual transmission cars. The sprint nozzles are direct OEM replacements. The PowerPlus nozzles will give a slight increase in power and reduction in smoke. The PP nozzles are being phased out in favor of the DLC nozzles. You should not need a new clutch if your only change is nozzles since this is about the stock power levels. .205mm nozzles will also work and give a little more power/smoke than .184mm nozzles. You will have to adjust fueling with a VCDS to adjust fueling/smoke/economy to your personal preferences. You should not need a new clutch but it's a possibility with mk4 cars. It is very unlikely in mk3 cars. With no chip, this is probably the best choice for most people and will give a mild power increase of 5-15hp, +10-30ft-lbs torque. .216mm nozzles will also work but will require recalibration of the fueling through VCDS or an injection pump adjustment to control smoke since the car will make some smoke. Clutch slip is unlikely with mk3 cars but possible with 2000+ mk4 cars. Manual transmission cars w/a chip: Since .184mm nozzles are an OEM replacement, you should see a reduction in smoke and an increase in power with new nozzles if your old nozzles are worn. Most mk3 cars don't get clutch slip but some do. Mk4 and newer cars are slightly more likely to get clutch slip depending on what clutch you have. .205mm nozzles will require a fueling adjustment when combined with a chip. Try to get a replacement chip that takes into account the larger nozzles to minimize the chance for clutch slip and smoke. If you have an mk3 or 1998-1999 mk4, clutch slip is a real possibility. If you have a 2000+ mk4 car, clutch slip with an OEM clutch is more likely with this size nozzle and chip. Mk4 cars will have slightly less smoke than mk3 cars due to the higher injection pump. Mk3 cars use a lower pressure 10mm injection pump. Mk3 passat and jetta which use the 1Z engine have slightly different pistons and rings, which also creates slightly higher smoke levels. Again, acceptable smoke level varies by car and driver. .216mm nozzles with a chip is too much fuel without additional supporting performance modifications. There will be smoke unless you have a larger turbo, intercooler, and a chip tuned for that size nozzle. A stock clutch will probably not hold up to these power levels so plan for a new clutch. Highly modified cars: Consult your chip tuner. The PPDLC stage2 (7 hole), DLC Race520 and DLC Race 520 stage 2 (7 hole) are only for highly tuned cars with at least moderate turbo upgrades and supporting mods. Injector body technical details, pop testing This section describes the injector body, how it works, and how pop testing works for the 1996-2003 TDI. The pumpe duse (2004-2006) fuel injector is mechanically very different from earlier injectors and only a few of the same basic principles apply. Common rail fuel injectors are also very different (2009 and newer). When dealing with the Bosch VE injection pump system, think of the fuel coming from the pump less like water coming out of the faucet and more like a pressure wave. Injector body details The 1996-2003 TDI use a 2 stage spring fuel injector. The first stage is a pilot injection which serves to soften the pressure waves from combustion. The main injection is where most of the power comes from. As the pressurized fuel enters the injectors, it overcomes the weaker pilot spring which moves and triggers the pilot injection. As the injection pump builds up a wave of pressure inside of the injector body and fuel line, the stronger main spring then moves and triggers the main injection. See below for a cutaway diagram of the injector body. Some 1996 injectors had the pilot injection begin at 190 bar and were replaced under a recall (with a new ecu) with 220 bar injectors which were used in all other 1997-2003 TDI. The pilot injection pressure is set by the pilot spring. This is part of the reason why the 1996 .184 nozzles are the only actual .184mm measured nozzles and all later .184 nozzles are actually .170mm. The .170 has a smaller orifice but a higher fuel pressure and different injection duration which means that the same amount of fuel is injected regardless of nozzle size. The main injection in all injectors, both 190 and 220 is set at 300 bar and is determined by the main spring. Pop testing and shimming injector springs Pop testing and injector balancing is a test where a specialized shop first cleans the nozzles and injectors to get a clean reading. They then measure and adjust the injector's internal springs so that all 4 injectors open at the same pressures. If they have to adjust the injector springs they do this by inserting shims (spacers) to adjust the preload on the springs inside. Most diesel injector shops can easily adjust the pilot injection but only a few can adjust both the pilot injection and main injection because VW uses a 2 stage injector instead of a 1 stage injector. Do NOT try this yourself, you need special hardened metal shims and pop testing equipment to do this. The official VW tool is #1322. It builds up pressure inside of the injector body, simulating an injection pump, and lets you see on a gauge at what pressure the injectors pop their springs. Above was a youtube video of an older VW injector being pop tested, if you don't want to scroll to the top of the page, here is the link again:. Although you can put in larger orifice nozzles as a plug - play modification, the best way to get them it all working as a system is to have the injectors cleaned, pop tested, and balanced by a professional who has equipment to adjust both stages of the VW injector. Effect of injector shims on fuel injection timing The #3 injector's needle lift sensor is a magnetic field sensor that detects the start, lift, and ending of the injection events. The pilot injection is how the ECU (car's computer) determines the start of injection. The fueling maps are based off calculated values and sensor readings including the needle lift sensor and crank sensor. If the needle lift sensor or wiring fails, the ECU falls back to a safety map. The needle lift sensor detects movement (given as voltage) through the pressure pin (shown right) moving through a magnetic field. The ECU calculates the actual point of injection from this sensor and the TDC signal from the engine speed sender. Shimming the injectors to adjust the pop pressure changes the timing. Remember, there are 2 sets of springs, pilot and main. As fuel pressure builds up inside the injector, the pilot spring opens. A weaker 190 bar pilot spring advances the pilot injection because it opens sooner but effectively retards the relative main injection. A stronger 220 bar pilot spring setting retards the pilot injection because it opens later but advances the relative main injection. Adjusting fueling / injection quantity after installing nozzles After installing new nozzles, you should notice a change in power, fuel economy, and smoke. If you installed larger nozzles and want to reduce smoke and fueling, you can fine tune the fueling with VCDS. Fine tuning the injection quantity (IQ) tweaks the amount of fuel that is injected and can slightly adjust fuel economy and reduce smoke, everything else being equal. The computer doesn't know the size of the nozzle but it does know how much fuel was metered at the injection pump and the duration and timing of the pilot injection opening through sensors (and not the nozzle). Procedure Please refer to and the section Testing and changing IQ with software adaptation for details and screenshots. A summary of the procedure is below. First drive the car for about 500 miles or so to let the new nozzles settle in. If you also have a chip, you should ideally have a new chip made that takes into account the larger nozzles. Drive the car and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. While idling, open VCDS, login with code 12233 , adaptation, block 1. Adjust adaptation value higher or lower to adjust IQ to the 3.0-5.0 mg/R range. Hit save when you are satisfied. When you are done, exit and then go back to make sure the values you wanted are still there.

How to install replacement TDI nozzles Introduction This article shows installation of new TDI fuel injector nozzles for all 1996-2003 Volkswagen TDI or Audi TDI engines (non pumpe duse) Due to mileage and use, the tip of the fuel injector (the nozzle) will wear out and requires replacement to restore the injector's spray pattern to like new condition. The benefits are both more power and economy. If you think there is a problem due to bad fuel or buildup, you can try running a can of diesel purge through the fuel system. Buildup due to low quality fuel and normal wear will disturb the spray pattern and cause uneven combustion and temperatures. If the problem is wear, the only solution is nozzle replacement. You can also replace the nozzles with larger nozzles with a larger opening to make more power (and possibly more smoke) by injecting more fuel. It's unlikely for damage to occur from only worn OEM nozzles but replacing the nozzles will restore your lost fuel economy, power, make less smoke, and give the car a smoother idle. For more information on nozzle selection and technical details, see and . Although this is an easy job, cleanliness is extremely important! The nozzle holes are very small and particles can damage and clog the injectors. While the injector tips withstand thousands of psi of combustion in the engine, having dirt stuck behind the tiny nozzle orifice is like squeezing out an apple sized kidney stone - you're at risk of a blowout. Below is a slightly larger than life size picture of an old nozzle next to a caliper. The entire nozzle tip is less than 4mm and you can see the enlargement of a new nozzle tip with a red arrow pointing to the orifice measuring .184 millimeters (mm). You want the injector internals and area around the injector holes to be very clean. This is an easy job but please follow the directions below! Counterholding is suggested on some parts (like the fuel hard lines) because not counterholding could result in damage! The injector holding forks have been known to break due to overtorquing as well so make sure you have an . For more basic mechanic's tips, see . TDI nozzle Parts 10, 14, 13, 15mm wrenches and sockets. 17mm open faced wrench or 17mm flare nut wrench or VW special tool #3035, equivalent tool from PB Blaster lots of paper towels and rubber/vinyl gloves vise pliers screwdriver slide hammer to remove the injector (Optional) available from , or you can make your own (see below) vacuum cleaner (Optional) new nozzles (4 total) available from : new copper injector washers VW# 046 130 219 A (4 total, included with most nozzle sales but always make sure) Replacement procedure Summary: Remove the glow plug harness, move the fuel lines to the side, and unbolt the injector holders. Pull out the injectors, remove the old nozzles, put the new nozzles on, replace as necessary. Detailed procedure: First let the engine cool down so that is not hot to the touch and park/secure the car. Make sure the car is secure and off before doing anything else. Make sure there is adequate ventilation because some diesel fuel and vapors will be leaked and observe all safety practices cautioned in your factory service manual when working on the engine. Although diesel vapors aren't as flammable from an open flame at room temp/pressure as gasoline vapors (an example of this is shown in the video below at the 1:00 minute mark, don't try to replicate the experiment yourself), you still want to observe all safety practices in your factory service manual pertaining to this procedure and evacuate any fuel fumes that are present. Keep all sources of ignition away from spilled fuel and/or vapors. Diesel fuel will also melt rubber coolant lines or driveway asphalt. Open the hood and remove the top plastic engine cover (3 x 10mm nuts). Cleanliness is very important in this job! Put on rubber or vinyl gloves to protect your hands against the fuel. Once the engine is cool, wipe down any oil or dirt away from the front of the cylinder head, fuel injectors, and glow plugs. Then wad paper towels around the base to collect excess fluid and spray the metal head around the fuel injectors and glow plugs with cleaner. Also clean the flare nuts at the end of the fuel lines and wipe down the fuel lines. Clean it again. Repeat as necessary. You can also use a vacuum cleaner to help clean the area but I find that carb cleaner and compressed air is better at loosening stuck particles. The fuel injector metal pressure lines will loosen much more easily if you put a few drops of PB Blaster, liquid wrench, or a similar penetrating lubricant around the threads. Also apply to the fuel line side of the injector pump union fitting only to help prevent loosening the unions. Remove the black glow plug harness (outlined in red below). Each of the 4 plugs should pull straight off easily. Place to the side and clean as necessary. You can also remove it later if you don't have enough clearance. Use a screwdriver to remove the black plastic clips (outlined in green above) holding the pairs of metal fuel lines together. Some cars have a metal clip. Remove the fuel pressure lines from the injector tops. Note: you probably don't have to counterhold the injector body during fuel line removal since the injectors will be frozen with buildup but it is suggested to counterhold them for reinstallation or if the injectors are loose. (note you will need a thin 15mm for injector #3 due to smaller flat area) To counterhold, use a 15mm open wrench against the flat part of the injector body to prevent movement while you use a 17mm wrench to remove the nut at the fuel line. The tightening torque is only 15 ft-lbs but for some reason, the forks on the injector holding bracket have broken with only a little excess force. It's tempting to not counterhold but it couldn't hurt. The forks can also break when it's 13mm bolt is torqued to greater than 15 ft-lbs, so take note for reinstallation! If you don't have a torque wrench that will fit on the nuts, use a permanent marker to make an index mark on the nuts before loosening them. Make each mark in the same direction (like pointing up or down) so that you have a better idea of how much to tighten the nuts during installation. Now loosen the fuel lines at the lines at the injection pump (17mm nut), just enough to swivel the fuel hard lines out of the way as necessary. I suggest using a 14mm wrench to counterhold the union at the lines at the injection pump end (so the union at the injection pump doesn't spin in the pump). Caution: the moved fuel lines may interfere with the hood so avoid closing the hood if there is a clearance issue. You should now have plenty of room to remove the needle lift sensor's wire coming from injector #3. It's the only injector with the wire coming out of the top. Pinch in the metal or plastic clip at the plug (circled in red below) and carefully wiggle the plug off. Pictured are 3rd generation and ALH engines, they are similar except the plug is in a slightly different location and uses a different connector. Remove the 4 injector holders (the metal fork holding the injector) and place to the side. There is 1 conical washer on each injector holder and they are each held by 1 x 13mm bolt (circled in red below). In the below picture I removed a glow plug to do a compression test and hadn't yet cleaned the other spots or removed the fuel lines. Now you can remove the injector bodies. They'll be stuck so below are some tips. Injector removal tips The injectors are pulled straight out since there are no threads, there is nothing but carbon buildup holding them in place. Most people find that the injectors will wiggle out, some people find that they are completely frozen in place. To help loosen the injectors, put a drop of PB Blaster penetrating lubricant around each injector hole when you start the project. This will give the PB Blaster time to penetrate the area and should break up the buildup. After you start to wiggle the injector and get motion, add another drop to lubricate the hole. Caution: here's what NOT to do: [LIST=1] [*]If you leave the injectors out of the car and dry for more than a day or two, keep them immersed in diesel or diesel fuel additive. Injectors have been known to seize when left dry for a week. [*]Don't pull on the fuel lines or return line nipples at the top with anything more than a gentle touch. [*]Try to avoid spinning the injector body counter-clockwise if it's seized. This can release the retaining nut while it's still stuck in the cylinder head and pop out the injector internals. This will make life difficult. If this happens, you can take apart another injector to see how it should be put back together. [*]Don't heat the injector or nozzles with a torch since this could damage them. You can torch a rusted bolt on the muffler but don't use it on the sensitive needles and springs of the injector or nozzle because they could get messed up. [/LIST] Wrench method First try using a 15mm open faced wrench on the flat part of the metal injector body to wiggle them back and forth. Do NOT pull on the fuel lines or nipples with anything more than a gentle touch. Try to make the first break clockwise or wiggle it back and forth so that it doesn't loosen the retaining nut before you loosen the whole assembly. If this happens, the injector internals will pop out and the injectors will not make you happy. As they start to move, put another drop of PB Blaster at the base of the injector body to lubricate the hole. Slide hammer method You can either buy, rent, or make your own slide hammer to carefully pull them out. A slide hammer is a weighted rod that lets you apply force on the injector along the axis of the slide hammer. They are available from or you can make your own. To make your own, find or rent a slide hammer and attach the end to the injector threads. The threads are 14mm x 1.5mm pitch. Some hardware coupling nuts are 2mm pitch. A 3lb weight should work, a 5lb weight may be needed for extreme cases. I took a damaged fuel pressure line and bent it straight to make a puller, pictured below. It attaches to the top of the injector. A slide hammer attaches the same way. Once you get the injectors out: Place all 4 injectors a fresh and clean surface like clean paper towels. Lint free towels would be best. Below is a picture of the head after injector removal. Note that the hole is not threaded - the injector fork holds the injector in place. You can see buildup in the #2 injector seating surface. Clean the area around the injector holes and seating surfaces. This is very important because excess dirt can cause a compression leak if not cleaned! I suggest using a soft swab moistened with carb cleaner to wet the area first. If you use a q-tip, tie a string around the end because it's small enough to fall into the hole and cause a bad day. To avoid getting fluid inside the injector hole (since it leads to the cylinder and could cause hydrolock), spray fluid directly on the q-tip instead of on the hole. This is a type of serious engine damage resulting from letting too much non-compressible liquid inside the cylinder. Carb cleaner should evaporate if it gets into the hole but I'd still rather not have it filled with fluid. I do not suggest using metal objects to clean the area since this can cause a scratch to the sealing surfaces and leak. I would avoid using a pick or screwdriver since the head is aluminum, a soft metal. Also do not use compressed air since this will blow particles all over the freshly cleaned surfaces and onto the exposed fuel lines. A vacuum cleaner works well here as well. If a small piece of built up soot falls into the hole it will burn up when you start the engine so don't freak out. The sealing washer will be stuck on to the injector with soot. I suggest using pliers and turning the washer a 1/4 turn with a light pressure. This will break the carbon buildup and the seal. Don't go near the retaining nut's sealing surface to avoid scratching it (marked with a red line below). Don't use a screwdriver or pick to remove the washer because this can scratch the surface! Clean the exterior of the injector as much as possible. If the copper washer is not there, it's probably stuck to the cylinder head! Remove it to prevent any compression leaks. Use a vise to hold the flat part of the injector body - put a paper towel around the base in case fuel leaks out. (It also keeps the injector clean since my vise was dirty). If you are thinking of just holding it with pliers you are asking for a dropped/dirty/damaged nozzle. All four of my injectors also needed a breaker bar to loosen them, so some sort of vise is a must here! Use a 15mm deep socket or wrench to loosen the retaining nut/cap. Because it will be so tight, I recommend using a 6 point deep socket/wrench instead of a 12 point socket/wrench or an open faced wrench. This will minimize the chances of the wrench slipping and scratching the retaining nut. Remember that a scratch on the sealing surfaces can cause a compression leak! Remove the retaining nut/cap and clean the inside and outside of the nut/cap thoroughly. Also clean the outside of the injector body. Avoid turning it upside down since the metal bushing can fall out. There is a large metal disk with a bushing in the center. This can easily blow away if you wipe or use compressed air, so be careful! If it lifts up, it will only seat 1 way, and the nozzle will also only seat 1 way due to the offset pins. Repeat for all 4 injectors. As you handle the nozzles, keep them pointed down so that the needle inside doesn't fall out. Put on the new nozzles, taking care not to touch the tip with anything that will leave a lot of lint or could scratch the metal. Take care not to drop the tip or hit it against anything. Again, the nozzle will only fit 1 way, the 2 pins on the injector are offset so that the 3rd hole of the nozzle aligns with the 3rd hole on the injector body. Also don't try to disassemble the nozzle or injector body - they're not toys and you are better off keeping them clean and intact! When you slip the retaining nut on, go slow to avoid banging the tip. There is a preloaded spring inside so the nozzle will not be completely seated flat. When you tighten the nut it will seat and some diesel fuel may come out the fuel nipples at the bottom. Note: there is no torque setting, 33 ft-lbs has been mentioned but the correct way to tighten the retaining nut is to turn until wrench tight, then turn another 30 degrees. This should be be than 33 ft-lbs. Undertorquing the retaining nut/cap causes leaks! You can drop the sealing washer into the injector hole and carefully center it with a thin screwdriver or use a very thin touch of grease to hold the washer on the bottom of the retaining nut as you lower it in. Make sure that the copper washer is fully seated, aftermarket washers have been known to not fully seat and cause compression leaks. Carefully slip the injectors in, replace the injector holders, bolt, and washer. CAUTION - the conical washer for the 13mm bolt is directional! The curved side points down. If you put the curved side up, it will crack the washer. Remember, counterhold the injector body with a 15mm wrench while you tighten the fuel lines because the injector holding forks are weak and have been known to crack! Replace all 4 fuel lines, 3rd injector needle lift sensor plug, and glow plug harness. Torque settings: [LIST=1] [*]If you missed it, the fuel injector retaining nozzle should be torqued to wrench tight and then another 30-45 degrees. 33 ft lbs has been mentioned but this oftentimes results in leaks. If you have an accurate torque wrench, 33 ft lbs plus a 30-45 degree turn can also be used. [*]fuel line flare nuts: 18 ft-lbs - remember to counterhold the injector body with a 15mm wrench. CAUTION: don't overtighten the flare nuts because you could distort them and cause a leak. Tight is good, overtightened is bad. [*]If the other end of the fuel line (the union) in the injection pump loosened and spun, torque the union to 33 ft-lbs. [*]forked injector holder bolt: 15 ft-lbs - WARNING: the injector holder forks have been known to break off when torqued too much, do not over tighten! [*]CAUTION - the conical washer for the 13mm bolt points down. If you put it face up it will crack. [/LIST] Starting the car - it might not start without priming You are now ready to start the car. It may take a while of cranking to start the engine. Try to crank for no longer than 30 seconds followed by at least 30 seconds of rest. As long as you did not empty the fuel filter or injection pump, there will still be some fuel in the system and the car should start with some cranking. If the car still doesn't want to start, slightly loosen one of the 17mm fuel line nuts at the fuel injector, wrap a rag around it, and crank the engine twice. It should be wet with fuel. Retighten the nut and crank the engine again. Check for any fuel leaks or odors. Inspect the area around the base of the injectors for leaks or bubbles. Also inspect for any wet areas that would indicate a leak. Drive the car for about 500 miles or so to let the new nozzles settle in. If you also have a chip, you should ideally have a new chip made that takes into account the larger nozzles. You may want to adjust fueling through injection quantity adaptation, see and the section Testing and changing IQ with software adaptation for more details and screenshots. Here is a summary: Drive the car and let it warm up to normal operating temperature. While idling, open VCDS, login with code 12233 , adaptation, block 1. Adjust adaptation value higher or lower to adjust IQ to the 3.0-5.0 mg/R range. Hit save when you are satisfied. When you are done, exit and then go back to make sure the values you wanted are still there. Troubleshooting tips Fuel Leak - If you see fuel at the base of the injector, check if it's running down from either the fuel line nut or the fuel hoses running between injectors. If not, it's likely due to a poor seal between the nozzle and retaining cap of the injector body. Tightening further may work, but you also may need to disassemble, clean and reassemble to get a proper seal. Remember to use a new copper washer each time you install the injector. Do you know something that should be added or corrected in this article? Post your comments in the For reference, here is a parts listing for the ALH TDI fuel injector system:

Fuel vent FAQ and DIY for mk3 Volkswagen 1996-1999 VW Passat and Jetta TDI to see the mk4 TDI vent FAQ, see for Jetta/Golf/New Beetle and Passat Introduction All mk3 and mk4 VW TDI used a fuel tank vent in the fuel filler neck to vent air out. Venting is when you press on the vent to release trapped air to add more fuel to the tank, extending your car's range per tank. Look inside the filler neck and you can see a button, see below for detailed pics. Press on it when the tank is almost full and you will hear the hiss of air venting. This lets you add about 2 extra gallons of fuel. Venting does not increase fuel economy at all, it just lets you add a little more fuel to increase miles per tank. You can also make venting faster by removing the vent's spring loaded internals so that you don't have to press on the button. Venting also works on b2 passat and a2 jetta diesel but those are pre-TDI and outside the scope of this article. The vent is normally opened with you put the fuel cap back on. Caution: Do not do this on a gasoline car. Your TDI vent is connected to only the fuel tank at one end and the filler neck at the other. It's not connected to anything else. A gasoline fuel tank is connected to an evaporative emissions system and removing the vent will cause a fire hazard! The only problem venting could cause is if you were to fill the tank all the way up to the very top of the filler neck and then park the car in the heat. Heated diesel expands much less than gasoline so the likelihood of overflowing fuel is very low but spilled diesel can melt asphalt and should be immediately cleaned up. Vent at your own risk! If you vented all the way, just drive a little bit to lower the fuel level and you should not have any problem with fuel spills. Disclaimer: As with any other information on this website, it is done at your own risk! This website is not responsible for damage to your driveway, any persons and/or property resulting from any tips you found here! Truck high flow fuel pumps are larger and can cause foaming if you fill at their max speed. The high flow large pumps will not fit all the way into the mk5 filler neck due to a blocking rib (pictured right). The mk5 cars don't use this vent anyways. Again, do not attempt this on a gasoline car because it is part of their emissions system, gasoline evaporates much more, and it can create a fire hazard. The air space may also help prevent fuel spills in a crash when the tank is full, especially important with a gas car since gas is more volatile than diesel. The gasoline vapors are normally trapped and burned in a gas car and the vent helps route vented gas back to the fuel nozzle instead of into the atmosphere. The TDI does not use a carbon canister or evaporative emissions system. Jetta sedan - normal capacity: 14.5, vented: ~16.5 Passat sedan - normal capacity: 18.5 gal, vented: ~22 gal Passat wagon - normal capacity: 21 gal, vented: ~27 gal Fuel vent procedure on VW TDI Here is a video of vent removal on a similar TDI with the fuel tank removed for illustration. Not shown is backflushing the vent of any dirt before putting the vent body back. The Passat vent is screwed in and is slightly different. Do not do this on a gasoline car! Remove the fuel cap and stuff a paper towel in the filler neck to prevent dirt from falling in. Remove the circlip spring from the outside edge of the rubber gasket. The circlip is a 270o metal spring that holds the rubber surround in place. Remove the rubber surround. There is a drain at the bottom and another hose at the top that should just pull out. Clean the dirt out and then clean it again. I suggest putting the fuel cap back on and hold your finger over the overflow tube to prevent water in the fuel. Below notes are Passat TDI specific, for Jetta TDI fuel venting, see below Reach under the wheel well and unscrew the white plastic knob. Push on the vent towards the rear of the car towards the white knob was. The vent will come out with the hose. Use some carb or brake cleaner to backflush the tube towards the rear of the car. The vent tube will be dirty and you don't want debris going into the fuel filer neck when you put the vent body back. You should also clean the o-ring on the vent body and the vent body to prevent dirt from getting into the fuel. There are tabs that hold the vent in place, gently pry them to remove the vent internals. Below is another picture (from a jetta, ignore the white arrow) showing the tabs. Put the vent body back and screw on the knob to hold the vent body in place. Make sure to replace the fuel overflow tube at the top right of the below picture and to make sure the drain in the rubber boot is clear. The vent internals are now removed, letting you vent faster and easier. Passat procedure ends here, the below notes are specific to the Jetta. Jetta specific procedure continued here There is a small tab on the rear of the vent body (white arrow below), push up on it while pushing on the button towards the rear of the car. This pushes the internals towards the rear of the car (yellow arrow). This should push the white plastic vent body out. Clean the o-ring and the vent body to prevent dirt from getting into the fuel. You don't push the black plastic tube out, only the black button and the parts inside the black plastic tube. Here is a different view on a similar TDI with the vent body halfway out. The vent body should come out the left side of the vent tube. I suggest backflushing the tube with carb or brake cleaner towards the rear of the car to clean out any dirt in the tube. There are two tabs holding the vent internals in the vent body, pull them slightly out and the vent internals should come out under spring pressure. You can discard or keep the vent internals. Marked with a white arrow below was where you had to push up to release the vent body out of it's tube. Put the vent body back (minus the internals) and make sure the white tab snaps the vent body back in place. Make sure to replace the fuel overflow tube at the top right of the below picture and to make sure the drain in the rubber boot is clear. The vent internals are now removed, letting you vent faster and easier.

Engine block coolant heater installation on VW Passat TDI Introduction This article shows how to install a frostheater engine block heater on a VW Passat TDI. The Jetta is similar. Using a coolant heater is the best way to preheat your VW TDI other than a heated garage. They work much better than an oil pan heater because it warms the coolant which warms the entire engine, instead of slightly warming the oil pan. Installation is relatively easy on a 4th gen body TDI but it's relatively hard on the Passat TDI due to access. The Jetta installation and kit are different but some pictures should help you with your installation. All instructions are superceded by the manufacturer's instructions. Faulty wiring, components, or installation could result in engine damage due to loss of coolant or a car/electrical fire, see the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. The advantages of warming the engine include instant or much faster cabin heat, lower engine wear, emissions, and fuel use, on cold starts. Because a TDI puts out less waste heat compared to a similar displacement gasser, a coolant heater on a diesel is more helpful than on a gasser. You shouldn't have any problem with starting the car in normal winter conditions due to the small displacement and fast glow plugs of the TDI engine, but it's just nice during cold winters. If you live in a very high altitude, the lower ambient air pressure and cold temperatures will combine to cause harder starting. A diesel runs off compression and the thin air combined with cold thick engine oil will make it harder to start the engine. A heater will warm up the engine and counteract the thick oil affect. An electrical element in a small heater warms the whole engine and coolant. Since the coolant system is sealed, instead of boiling off, the hot coolant creates a natural circulation, a convection, which leaves the heater and pulls in cold coolant from the rest of the engine. Because it works on a natural circulation, the heater's installation height should be between the inlet and outlet; refer to your heater directions for more details. Different models may use a pump or check valve. It takes at least 1 hour to get decent heat but 2-3 hours will yield best results. This depends on ambient outside temperatures, your desired warm up time, etc. The heater that I purchased cannot be operated with the engine running. It's also best to not mount it directly to the engine to prevent vibration damage. I preferred to buy the frostheater kit because it saves you time measuring, cutting, running back and forth for parts, etc. Because they are manufactured in bulk, I didn't think the savings were worth the time to find hoses, measure, cut them, etc. You don't have to buy a kit but you may find some issues routing the hoses. Remote cable operated spring hose clamp pliers are required for this job. My only criticisms of the heater kit is that the lower radiator hose would be an easier fit if it were longer and routed above the radiator fan motor (pics below, this would give more clearance to the heater). I prefer OEM style spring clamps vs. the included worm gear clamps. After installation (and during scheduled maintenance) you should check and retighten the worm gear clamps. These instructions apply to all 1996, 1997 Passat TDI. Caution - some early build 1996 Passat may use a different style of water pump coolant flange. If the hose that gets replaced (outlined in green in pics below) is part of the flange, you have to replace the entire flange to a style which has a removable hose. Parts (click links to compare current prices) 1 heater kit, available from kermatdi (or ) or frostheaterreplacement coolant VW type G12/G12+, caution - check the color of your coolant, it should be pink, refer to for more details heater kits also available from idparts for or B4 screwdrivers dab of light soap or lube to lubricate hoses required - remote cable operated hose clamp pliers like these: available at sears or optional parts the y-shaped hose that runs underneath the injection pump, connects the water pump-oil cooler-cyl head flange , VW #028 121 053 q spring hose clamps - I don't know what the remarks in the part catalog (number before VW#) mean but I'm pretty sure it's the hose diameter in mm. Double check with your vendor. 13 VW# n 100 987 01 23 VW# n 016 402 1 27 VW# n 016 403 1 32 VW# n 016 404 1 40 VW# n 016 410 1 Procedure The heater kit I purchased included instructions, all tips here are superceded by your kit's instructions and are not a substitute. Read the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Doing this procedure on a lukewarm engine will help get the hoses on and off without damage but make sure that the coolant/engine is not hot or else you could get burned. To help loosen hoses, rotate/twist the end before pulling it off. This breaks the seal so that it can be pull straight off much easier without damaging the hose. If the hoses are hard or cracked, they should be replaced. When installing the hoses, lube the ends or heat them with a heat gun. This will help expand the hose and make them easier to slip on. Jack up the front of the car by the factory jack points, make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. I made wood blocks for raising the car, see for these. Remove the upper and lower engine covers. Disconnect the battery. I also suggest removing the intercooler piping at the hose couplers. It will give you a little more access and since you already have a pair of hose clamp pliers, it's fast and easy. I try to avoid using paper towels since they can get stuffed down into the pipes and forgotten. Using blue tape seals the piping from loose bolts and flying springs and is also more visible. In the below picture, the crankcase vent (CCV) and some plugs were removed, ignore them. The hose outlined in yellow goes from the cylinder head to the EGR cooler. You will later remove it at the cylinder head end. Drain the coolant at the radiator and water pump or oil cooler coolant flange. To do this, remove their hoses or look for a drain valve on the bottom of the radiator. You can reuse the coolant if you keep it clean, I prefer to just use new coolant. Remove the water pump housing flange- oil cooler housing hose (outlined in green below). This hose will be completely replaced by the curved end of the heater later. The problem is that you have to remove the y-shaped hose to get access (outlined in white below). Use a bit of very light sandpaper or cloth to prepare the oil cooler/flanges for the new hoses and to help prevent leaks. This step is difficult because there's no easy access. You may have to remove the oil filter in this step to get access. See for details in changing your engine oil. In the below picture, the injection pump and serpentine belt tensioner were removed for illustration. The remote operated spring hose clamp pliers are required because you won't have much clearance. You can also remove the lower radiator hose at this step. Here is another picture to clarify which hose needs to be replaced - it's outlined in green. Remove the lower radiator hose. Note - the transmission was removed in this picture, your view will be slightly different. The tdiheater comes with a replacement lower radiator hose for better fitment and comes with hose sheathing. The heater will rub against the lower radiator hose so make sure to adjust the sheathing to prevent rubbing. If you are making your own kit, I suggest making the hose longer so that it goes over the fan motor instead of creating a clearance issue with the heater body. You will want test fit the heater to double check where to drill the mounting hole and how to route the hoses. It should look like this. The lower radiator hose gets a little squished against the heater - if something is poking the hose you should smooth it out. I ground off one of the upper mount tabs for this reason. This is where the upper side of the heater kit goes, test fit it for now. You may find that the heater is hitting the starter, radiator, power steering line, etc. Unless your motor mounts are totally squished, it shouldn't interfere with any of these. If it's hitting the power steering line, you can loosen the power steering bracket and move it around. If it's hitting the radiator, take into account where the lower radiator hose will be placed. If it's hitting the starter, move the lower radiator hose higher and push the heater towards the radiator. Here is a picture of how mine was routed with a view from above. If this installation is on a Jetta, test fit it and follow the manufacturer's instructions. You also want to take this opportunity to inspect the wiring harness. The wires to the starter and the wiring harness on top of the starter should be tucked into it's bracket and not interfere with the heater hoses. Here is a picture of where to drill the mounting hole. It's location is near the 4th spot weld on the front frame. The welds are the small circular spots. It's best to not drill into the weld, so test fit the heater first. Use a file or ridge cleaner to deburr the edges of the drill hole. If this installation is on a Jetta, test fit it and follow the manufacturer's instructions. Mount the heater and double check your work. Any potential rub areas should be covered with sheathing and the heater should not touch the starter or front motor mount. You may have to push the lower radiator hose up and push the heater under and towards the radiator to make sure it's not touching the starter. Again, the hoses should not be twisted or pulling. In the below picture I already zip tied the power cord to the power steering line. Attach the hoses. Double check that all the hose clamps are tightened. Try to install the hoses so that they are not under stress and not chaffing against anything, especially electrical wires. Install anti-chaffing sheathing where the hoses rub. Here is the heater installed at one end. The dashed green line represents where the old hose outlined in green was. It is replaced by the hose marked to heater . You can remove the old lower radiator hose's C shaped plastic holder since it will not work with the new lower radiator hose. Replace the lower radiator hose and the y-shaped coolant hose outlined in white before. Route the electrical cord somewhere so that it doesn't rub, drag, or come loose. I routed it with the power steering line along the front lower frame and secured it with zip ties. The plug is accessed through the front grille. , bleed out the air, and change the engine oil as needed. Reinstall any intercooler piping that you may have removed and double check for any paper towels stuffed in the piping! Reinstall the upper and lower engine covers. Regularly check the tension on the hose clamps and you should be good to go! If you can't find a dump for used coolant/antifreeze, engine oil, gear oil, or other car fluids, to find your local waste disposal.

How to check for boost leaks on your engine intake or intercooler - also works for vacuum leaks

Introduction

What is a boost leak and how to find it?

A boost leak is an air leak in the intake path downstream of the ) and before the engine cylinders. Because the car's computer fuels the engine based on (largely) the amount of air measured by the air flow sensor, air leaking out causes the incorrect ratio of air to fuel. Leaking air also causes the turbo to work harder than it should, causing further loss of performance. A diesel engine can operate well on a wider air/fuel range than a gasoline engine so they aren't as sensitive to boost leaks, but a boost leak check will maximize fuel efficiency and power. Before spending time and money tracking mystery problems on the car, you should first have your car scanned for error codes and if it's turbocharged or supercharged, have a boost leak check done. It's called a boost leak instead of a vacuum leak because it appears when the engine is under boost from the turbo or supercharger. The turbo and supercharger pressurize the air in the intake path when the engine is boosting so if there's a leak, it will flow out instead of in. When the engine is not boosting, the leak can become a vacuum leak. Some newer gasoline cars and most diesel cars don't have throttle plates and will not create a strong vacuum between the turbo and the intake manifold. VW diesels have separate vacuum pumps to make vacuum for the brake booster. Most gasoline cars have vacuum lines tapped from the intake manifold for the brake booster. A gasoline engine will show more symptoms of a vacuum leak at idle since they will not idle smoothly, will misfire, or detonate. While under boost, a forced induction gasoline engine will lose power from excess fuel and can puff a little smoke from the rich condition. Turbodiesel engine leaks show up while under boost in the form of lost power and economy, higher than normal EGT, an overworked turbo, and excess smoke from the overfueling condition. Turbo engines are more vulnerable to boost leaks because of more piping and hose connections vs. a nonturbo engine. The hoses are also exposed to greater heat and positive pressure which can cause them to work loose, dry out and crack hoses, or rubbing through and make a hole. Even a loose motor mount can cause excessive engine movement and hide a cracked hose that leaks only when the engine twists it. (When the car accelerates heavily the engine torque causes the engine to twist slightly on the engine mounts). Boost leaks are another reason why can cause unforeseen problems. Boost and positive pressure on these seals can create leaks that aren't there under vacuum because the seals, etc., were designed to only seal under vacuum or very low boost levels. A boost leak test will reveal them. A boost leak test's advantages over a visual inspection is that it can be faster if the leak is hidden from view or only shows up under some circumstances. In some cases it's faster to just look in the engine bay for broken or loose couplers/hoses but a boost leak check will show even small leaks under pressure and without getting under the car or removing the belly shield. In the case of a small crack on the intercooler, it's very difficult to spot a small crack by visual inspection while it's on the car. I also suggest looking for sooty spray (on a TDI you can expect some oil in the intake piping) or shaking the hoses as a quick visual inspection before doing a boost leak check. Also, a boost leak test is not a leakdown test, a leakdown test is different. Common places for a boost leak in the TDI are in the hose couplers, lower intercooler piping, EGR piping, and broken vacuum lines. In the mk3 jetta, one of the elbow couplers tends to split near the rear, probably because it's closest to the exhaust manifold. All TDI can leak where the EGR piping goes into the intake. Also check near the intercooler piping since it's out of view. Here is an example of a boost leak test being performed. If you listen carefully, you can hear air hissing as it's being pressurized and not leveling off. This means the air is leaking out somewhere. Normally the intake tract is pressurized within a few seconds and the sound of the air changes. The user stops adding air as well. Don't be afraid to turn up the sound (it's not a trick, I promise!) Procedure Again, I suggest looking for sooty spray or shaking the hoses as a first step before doing a boost leak check because you could spot the problem right away. It's normal for a little bit of oil to be around the couplers on a TDI and normal for the inside of the boost hoses to be oily on a TDI because of a diesel's greater engine blowby. Gasoline engine boost hoses should be dry or almost dry. Here is an example of a TDI intercooler which was leaking through the end caps. A spray bottle used during the boost leak test easily verified the leak.

DIY home made boost leak tester

Your basic boost leak tester should have a gauge and a way to get air in. Personally, I use a thick piece of plastic bag and clamp it over the air intake hose (where the air filter exits). As the intake is pressurized, the plastic stretches out. If it stays under tension there's no leak. If the plastic immediately sags, there's a leak. If it doesn't inflate at all there's a major leak or a hole in the plastic bag. If you want to measure the rate of leaking you need a gauge. NOTE - the examples below are generic examples only, change the pipe diameter to fit your car. (pictures from stealth316.com/2-pressuretester.htm and mirage-performance.com/EclipseGSX/BoostLeaks/index.html) This leak tester uses a tire valve stem (schrader valve) to pressurize the intake piping. This tester is just a coupler clamped around a PVC cap. Just remember that it should be quiet to detect an air leak. Below right is a video showing how to make your own DIY boost leak tester. u3Kqh52PC6Q Using your boost leak tester and how to do a boost leak test On a cool and shut off engine (not running), close the intake system by removing the piping at some point immediately downstream of the MAS/MAF sensor. Attach your boost leak tester or clamp a piece of durable plastic bag over the piping to form an airtight seal. This spot that I marked below with a green arrow is a good spot because there's a clamp already there that you can use to clamp the bag. All other cars are similar. Just pick any spot downstream of the air intake. If you want to see the leak rate, tap a spot with an air pressure gauge or make your own tester as shown earlier. Any vacuum line that directly taps into the intake path will work. If you have a VW TDI, don't use a vacuum line that leads to the EGR because it's separated from the intake path by a diaphragm. The line from the N75 boost valve to the intake will work. Always regulate your compressed air down to about 5 psi. This is enough to let you detect the boost leak and not blow out the plastic bag clamped over the intake. It also should not blow out any oil seals on the engine because your TDI already sees pressure in the crankcase from the vacuum pump exhaust and piston blowby. If there's a PCV or CCV hose coming off the valve cover (top of the engine) that connects to the air intake, plug the end that's on the air intake off. That hose is to vent crankcase pressure and is not subjected to pressure during normal driving. Many TDI have no hose clamp there so if there isn't, just block it off. Use a compressed air nozzle like the one pictured above or connect your boost leak tester. Apply the air into any vacuum tube that leads into the intake tract or into your boost leak tester. This will pressurize the intake tract as if your engine was under boost. Again, if you go to 10 psi or higher, clamp or close off any hoses that don't see a lot of pressure, such as the CCV (crank case vent, similar to PCV, it's the black puck on valve cover). You must use compressed air from a tank and not a bicycle pump or anything that makes noise while you are doing the test, otherwise you won't be able to hear the hissing noise of the air leaks. Listen for any hissing noise - this will indicate a boost leak. If it's not holding any pressure at all then there is a major leak somewhere. No noise means no leaks. Try wiggling the intake or vacuum hoses to aggravate and identify a loose connection. In rare cases a bad motor mount could cause excessive movement and pull loose a hose during hard acceleration. If you have aftermarket camshafts with a long duration, this may cause the intake and exhaust valves to not be completely sealed (more applicable to gasoline engines), creating a path for the air to leak out. Diesel engines typically have little to no overlap so it should not be an issue for diesel engines. s29Q77hK-i4 Why not use soapy water to find an air leak? Hydrolock is unlikely since air pressure should be pushing any water out of the intake tract and you can hear air escaping pretty easily so I don't bother with soapy water. In addition, since the intake tract has to be under pressure, which means you already have a compressor, soapy water is more effort than necessary. If you can't hear and feel the air escaping then it's not a significant leak. A smoke puffer or thin strip of paper can also help you find a leak. You can use a thin strip of paper or no-residue smoke puffer to waft around where you think the leak is. The thin strip of paper or smoke should help you locate the leak. Common boost leak locations on the VW TDI or Audi TDI engine A3 Jetta - check the backside of the elbow on the driver's side intake piping - that rubber pipe is near the EGR (exhaust) piping and can dry out and crack. The various couplers can also come loose. A4 New Beetle, Jetta, Golf - the hose coming off the turbo or the hose for the intercooler seems to have some issues. The various couplers can also come loose. The quick connect tabs on the rubber hose at the intake manifold tend to wear down and pop out. B5-Passat - there's a few hoses behind the bumper that use quick connect couplings which can pop out. The hoses could also rub against one of the ground wires and cause a hole. What's not a boost leak Here is a video of a leak on the exhaust side on a Golf TDI. It is provided as an example of what isn't a boost leak. In this example, the bolts for the EGR were removed and were not tightened. The sound is more choppy and scattered that what you would expect with a boost leak. Exhaust side noise upstream of the turbo is more choppy because of the exhaust pulses. Downstream of the turbo, exhaust leaks tend to sound smoother since the turbo chops up the air and smoothes out the noise. Lastly, if you are hearing a noise while driving, your noise could be a bad pulley on the serpentine belt, or some other non-intake related noise. It's very hard to hear a boost leak on the highway over road and engine noise and most don't notice a leak until they have a drivability or smoke issue. icvTdxaHn1Y

How to stop a runaway diesel engine

All diesel engines are throttled by controlling the amount of fuel they consume. If a diesel engine starts to eat its own engine oil, you could have a diesel engine runaway. This article shows why a TDI engine runaway happens and how to stop it.

Introduction A runaway is when engine RPM suddenly surges and races by itself as if the driver had stomped on the throttle or accelerator pedal. If the car is in gear, the car will also accelerate which could create an emergency situation. Burning engine oil will also create a smoke screen out the exhaust or around the engine. This article shows some causes of unintended acceleration from a runaway diesel engine and suggests some corrective actions for North American VW and Audi TDI 1996-present. If this or any other unintended or unexplained acceleration occurs, the driver's first priorities are to concentrate on safe operation of the vehicle, keep it under control through braking and steering input, and to regain control over engine power or shut the engine off as soon as is safe and practical. Pull the car over to the side of the road only as soon as it's safe to do so. It's not worth getting into an accident to try and save the engine only to lose your life and maybe someone else's. Any information on this page is just a generic suggestion not specific to your exact situation because it's not possible to foresee every cause or response to a potentially dangerous situation. The full responsibility of decision making and the reaction to a runaway engine is on the driver and is specific to each situation. See the TOS for the full legal disclaimer. As with any other preparedness drill, you will have the best results and least panic if the response is first practiced under safe, controlled conditions. While many of the ideas on this page apply to all diesel engines, the possible solutions and mechanical details are only for Volkswagen and Audi TDI. Other diesel cars may have different systems and therefore, different possible causes and solutions. Reacting in an unsafe manner or letting the engine runaway and the car accelerate without control could cause a dangerous situation. Lastly, a lot more TDI engines are ruined by faulty or neglected timing belt changes than runaway engines so I wouldn't sell my TDI or not buy a diesel because of this rare but possible condition. Basic technical background Diesel fuel is basically an oil and engine oil will burn through compression in a diesel engine like regular diesel fuel. Most diesel engines can even run off of propane, vegetable oil, coal dust, or even ambient gasses in the air (like if a backhoe breaks open a natural gas line). Older pre-TDI diesel VW engines had a common problem with blowby oils entering the intake path and causing a runaway but TDI engines are set up differently so their runaways are normally due to bad turbos. Gasoline engines or pre-TDI could also experience a runaway from the throttle cable sticking, the gas pedal sticking, or something falling into the throttle mechanism linkage or jamming it internally, any of which could hold the throttle open. All VW and Audi TDI use Electronic Power Control, or drive by wire throttle . The major component in drive by wire is the accelerator pedal - it uses an electrical sensor to detect pedal position. An example of a TDI accelerator pedal and sensor is shown below. There are only electrical wires coming out of the sensor to tell the car's computer how to control engine fueling - there is no mechanical cable to move an air throttle. Since the first TDI in 1996 (North America), all TDI computers are programmed so that fueling is cut down to idle after about a half second if the brakes are applied even if you're still stepping on the accelerator pedal. If the accelerator pedal signal is lost, the car's computer will limit engine RPM to a high idle or about 1200 RPM. This will let you drive slowly to the nearest repair. While unintended acceleration could have many causes, the most likely cause of a runaway engine in modern VW and Audi TDI diesel engines is from leaking turbo oil seals and bearings. Below left is a video about runaway diesels - it's for domestic diesels but it explains the basics of a diesel runaway engine. Below right is a BMW diesel in the middle of a runaway. WmkHTkmj2_U q4fxjKnuI4Y The most likely cause of a runaway engine in VW TDI or Audi TDI - the turbo oil seals A worn turbo can send engine oil into the air intake because air must pass through the turbo on the way to the engine. Oil can leak out of the seals. With proper care and good synthetic oil, the seals can last the life of the turbo. However, excessive thrust movement and pressures (caused by manufacturing issues, bad oil, or worn bearings) can cause excess wear and oil leaks. The compressor and turbine sides of the turbo can respectively leak oil out the intake or exhaust sides. Oil that goes out the exhaust side is burned up and causes black or blue smoke. This can shorten the life of the catalytic converter due to melting or clogging. Oil that goes into the intake is ingested by the engine. For more information on turbos, please see . The line between a leaky turbo and an engine runaway is when the engine suddenly increases in rpm and draws the engine oil out of the turbo seals and feeds off that oil, raising the rpm, drawing even more oil out. Once the runaway gets started, the feedback cycle increases until you shut the engine off by cutting fuel or air or all the engine is burned up and the engine seizes. Again, the reason why you don't hear about this on gasoline engines is because gasoline engines can't run on engine oil. In a gasoline turbo engine, oil in the fuel effectively reduces the octane of the fuel and makes the engine more likely to detonate. In a diesel engine, it can result in a runaway engine. Note that the crankcase ventilation system does put a light oil mist into the intake. This settles in the low spots like the intercooler and bottom of the hoses (like at the turbo outlet hose). It's normal to have a little oil pooled in the bottom of the intercooler but too much oil could be from a leaky turbo. If you drive the car hard and rev the engine to a high rpm, it can blow out a little bit of this oil and burn it up along with any carbon deposits. This will often create a small puff of smoke when you accelerate hard. It's possible that a short burst of acceleration which stops on its own is from a little pooled engine oil being burned up. The line between a little burst of acceleration and a runaway engine is how much oil was just consumed and if it leads to the feedback cycle of higher rpm leading to more oil consumption. Some less common causes of runaway are overfilling the engine oil by so much so that oil mist floods back into the intake or worn piston rings creating too much blowby which sends an oil mist back into the engine. Because of the modern cyclonic oil separators on modern TDI, oil from blowby mist is more likely to settle back into the engine. As mentioned before, ambient combustible gasses could also cause a runaway. If the engine inhales natural gas or propane, these will be burned in the engine and increase RPM until the gasses are no longer present or air is shut off (or the engine breaks). How to stop a runaway diesel engine An engine needs fuel, air, and compression/spark to run. You can't control compression and a diesel has no spark plugs. Therefore, you must cut off fuel or air to stop a runaway diesel engine. When you take your foot completely off the accelerator pedal it helps cut off the fuel but if the runaway is strong, the engine is already feeding off the engine oil and won't stop on its own. Again, the driver's first priority is to maintain positive control and safe operation of the vehicle through braking, steering, and power control. Traffic and conditions permitting, the first reaction to a runaway TDI engine is to apply braking and turn the ignition key to OFF . As mentioned above, drive by wire will reduce engine RPM to a high idle if you step on the brake and accelerator pedal at the same time after about a half second. You are also conditioned to pull the key out of the ignition slot when you shut the engine off but don't do that (explanations below). Do not hit anything with your car in order to stall the engine or stop unintended acceleration if it will result in injury or damage to you or others. The engine will continue to runaway but it's not worth saving the engine if it means possible injury, death, or damage to you or a 3rd party from intentionally hitting something. No matter the cause of acceleration, shifting the transmission into neutral (applies to all transmissions like auto, manual, or ) will prevent power from the engine being transmitted through the transmission and immediately stop any further acceleration from engine power. Shutting off the fuel to stop the runaway engine In mk3 and mk4 TDI that used the Bosch VE injection pump (see for details), turning the key off will close the fuel shut off solenoid and cut fuel to the fuel injectors. (The solenoid is basically an electrically controlled valve). Mk3 TDI don't have anti shudder valves so you know the fuel cut off solenoid is working or else your engine would never shut off. If you have a mk4 with injection pump, you can test the function of the solenoid by having a helper turn the ignition ON but without starting the engine. This will give 12V to the solenoid and you will hear a small click, meaning it opened. Turn the ignition off and you will hear it click closed (the default position). The location of the solenoid is shown below. The right picture is a closeup showing the solenoid wire. In mk4 pumpe duse TDI and newer TDI (model year 2004 and newer in North America), the fuel injectors are controlled by the car's computer. Turning the key to OFF will stop the computer from injecting fuel at the fuel injectors which cuts the diesel and will shut it off if it's not running away on engine oil. Shutting off the air Turning the key to OFF will also close the anti shudder valve or electronic intake flap throttle . This shuts off air to the engine which should stop the engine even if it's still getting fueling by burning its engine oil. Mk3 VW TDI did not have these valves, only mk4 and newer do. If you have a 98-03 mk4 TDI, test the operation of the valve by manually closing it with the car idling. The general location and the lever are pictured below (yellow arrows). The default resting position of the lever/valve is open. The lever and valve will be hot if the engine is also hot so use a glove or rag to shield your finger and hand while you close the valve. Move the lever against the spring pressure and it will close the valve inside. Make sure you close the valve all the way. The engine should shut off. If it doesn't, there is an leak downstream of the valve, the valve isn't fully closing, or you aren't closing it all the way. You won't hurt anything by moving the valve manually to choke the engine. (Disclaimer - don't stick your fingers, loose clothing, hair, necklace, or anything else near the alternator belt or any other moving belts while the engine is running because they could get caught and it could result in severe injury or death.) The solenoid which controls the vacuum operated anti shudder valve in the 1998-2003 mk4 TDI engines gets 12-14V until the engine shuts off or you press the clutch pedal. It's partly based off engine RPM. In other words, when you shut the engine off using the key, the valve closes for only a second because the engine stops immediately. This may be because the car computer knows that the engine is shut down or because the valve is vacuum operated and when the engine stops running there is no longer a source of vacuum. If you shut off the engine while coasting downhill or during a runaway engine, this valve will close until the engine shuts off or until you step on the clutch. This was first tested by someone named Ski in NC and verified by others. The forces acting on the valve should be about equal on both sides (because it pivots in the middle) and it doesn't require much force to close but there are cases in which the vacuum operated anti shudder valve failed to stop a runaway engine. This could be due to the runaway being too strong, carbon buildup preventing full closure of the valve (see for ALH engine, articles for other engines can be found in the FAQ) , a broken vacuum line, or other unknown factors. 1998-2003 engines use a vacuum operated valve (shown below). 2004 and newer engines use a more robust electrically operated valve that should be better at stopping an engine runaway. Because the later ones use an electric valve you can only test it through a VCDS tool output test. Start the software and select Engine . There is a button for output tests which will cycle this valve to test it. You cannot close it by hand. It's possible the gears inside the flap assembly that move the valve get stripped due to wear but this should throw an error code for the intake flap valve if it's not working. Manually choking off air to the engine It's possible to manually close the anti shudder valve on 98-2003 mk4 TDI to starve the engine of air. Again, the tests mentioned earlier show that a normally operating valve stays closed until the engine is stopped. I would also be cautious of manually closing this valve during a runaway because if the engine fails in a manner which cracks it open (not likely but possible), metal bits could be forcefully ejected from the engine and injure you. If the engine really does blow open, my total guess is that standing to the passenger side (for left hand drive cars) of the engine and near the windshield may shield you better and reduce the chance of injury vs. standing in front of the engine (in front of the car). This is because you are somewhat shielded by the fender and wheel well and you don't have to reach over the engine to manually close the anti shudder valve. In addition, standing to the side means you are only facing the #1 cylinder. All 4 cylinders are facing you if you stand in front of the engine. Some remove the valve to remove the EGR and restriction in the intake but I would leave the valve in place since every little bit helps. See for more info on the EGR system. While it's possible to starve the engine of oxygen by flooding the air intake with something like a CO2 fire extinguisher. If the intake manifold hose happens to be off or you could overcome the spring clamps and pull it off, you could hold a rag over the intake to choke off the engine but I personally wouldn't. Light diesel engines rev much quicker than larger engines and can runaway so fast that by the time you've recognized the problem, stopped the car, and opened the hood, the engine is already damaged. The other steps on this page are faster and safer and should work for other possible causes of runaway. If you decide to carry a CO2 extinguisher in the car, make sure it's securely mounted in the car to avoid being a crash hazard or getting stuck under the pedals. A cloth crammed into the air intake will get sucked in and jam the turbo/slow the airflow. It will damage the turbo but it's already damaged so no harm done. Don't risk personal injury by grabbing hot hoses, accidentally getting caught by any exposed running belts on the engine, or be exposed to scattering projectiles if the engine were to fail catastrophically. Stalling the engine with a manual transmission All manual transmission VW and Audi TDI can also stall out the engine by upshifting into top gear and applying the brakes. This is a very effective method of stalling the engine. When you push in the clutch pedal or put it in neutral during a runaway the engine has no resistance from having to move the car. Therefore, the engine would continue to rev higher until it died. If you upshift or downshift the car may accelerate. An upshift to top gear with firm application of the brakes will stall the engine because the brakes have much, much greater force than the engine can make to move the car. Again, don't risk getting into an accident just to save the engine so only brake when it's safe and practical, conditions permitting. If it damages the clutch or flywheel, this is preferable to damaging the engine or risking personal injury. Hazards when shutting the engine off, pulling the key out while moving, or responding to unintended acceleration The first hazard of shutting the engine off is removing the key from the ignition slot and activating the steering wheel lock. With the car parked and key off and out, try turning the steering wheel left or right. You will hear a click past a certain point and the steering wheel will not return to center. This is the steering wheel lock activating for parking the car. The steering wheel lock is why on some cars, you have to turn the steering wheel a little to release a key stuck in the ignition switch - the steering wheel lock is on the edge of its mechanism and is jamming the key. After you turn the key to the OFF position (if it was previously ON), turning the wheel shouldn't activate the steering lock - try it to confirm. However, just inserting the key in the OFF position will not unlock a locked steering wheel - you have to turn it ON. You are conditioned to pull the key out whenever you turn the car off and physically and mentally practicing this will help unlearn that habit in the event of an emergency situation. If the car was in the middle of a turn and you pulled the key out by habit, this could lock the steering wheel to the side and result in loss of steering control and a crash. If you accidentally pull the key out of the ignition slot, make sure the steering wheel won't lock by putting the key back in the ignition slot and turning it to the ACC position and not ON, RUN, or START. When the key is off or out, the brake lights will still work as normal. The headlights may shut off and the turn signals may not work. The hazard lights (emergency flashers) will. If the car is having a runaway there will be a big cloud of smoke behind you from the burning oil so if possible, turn on the emergency flashers. If a car is following too close or can't see you, maximum braking could also cause an accident. Again, it's not worth having an accident to save the engine but the sooner you can brake and stall the engine and halt any further acceleration or runaway, the better. You may also see or hear a low engine oil buzzer and warning message or light on the instrument cluster. The normal reaction is to shut the engine off but because it's running away your focus should be on keeping the car under control and safely stopping it as soon as possible, conditions permitting. The power assist on the brakes comes from the vacuum operated brake booster. If engine isn't turning over because you shut it off and the transmission is in neutral, it doesn't make vacuum for the brake booster which results in only having power assist of the brakes until vacuum brake boost is depleted. This is normally about 1-2 pumps of the brakes. If there is no power assist on the brakes, the brakes will still work but the pedal will be very stiff and require much more force to actuate the brake calipers to slow the car. Without power assist, it takes a lot of effort to slow the car at all. All TDI that I can think of get vacuum from a vacuum pump that is on the driver's side of the camshaft. Anytime the engine is turning over, the vacuum pump is running. Assuming that everything is working correctly, vacuum for the brake booster means you have normal power assist on the brakes. An example where the engine is turning over but not running is if the engine is off and the transmission is in gear while the car rolls down a steep hill. The kinetic energy of rolling down the hill is what's turning over the engine. The engine will only stop turning over if you take the car out of gear. To test how the brakes feel without vacuum boost, with no traffic or people around, find a small hill that you can roll down safely with (disclaimer) plenty of room to the side and adequate runoff at the end in case you can't apply the brakes. Testing under controlled daytime practice conditions and with a driving instructor is the safest way to test no-power-assist braking feel. In neutral gear, shut off the engine but don't pull the key out for the reasons mentioned above. Step on the brakes. You'll find that the first pump and maybe the second pump feels normal. After that the brake pedal will get much harder to press but it's still possible to stop the car. You just have to press the pedal really hard and stopping distances will be much much longer. If you have a manual transmission you can also test the system in gear with the engine off and the car coasting. As long as the engine is turning over, it will make vacuum for the brake booster. On a side note, very few gasoline car engines have a vacuum pump because they get vacuum from the intake manifold. The pressure difference (vacuum) is present because the throttle is partially shut on most gasoline cars during normal operation. If a gasoline engine experiences a runaway (like from a stuck throttle pedal), the throttle is wide open and there is little-no vacuum present in the intake manifold. This means the brakes will only have power assist until the vacuum reservoir is depleted. This could be a contributing factor of why people who experience runaway engines on the highway say they lost their brakes - if they only halfheartedly pump the brakes they will lose power assist for later brake applications resulting in a rock hard brake pedal. Again, the TDI vacuum system is the opposite of most gas engines because they get vacuum from an engine driven pump - it makes vacuum whenever the engine is rotating. Once the engine is stopped Once the engine is off and stopped it won't restart on its own. If the car still has momentum it should be able to roll forward in neutral gear to the side of the road - pull over as soon as is safe and practical. If you've stopped a runaway, don't start the engine until the engine has been examined by a diesel specialist. Seriously. Many people experienced an uncontrollable runaway immediately after stopping a minor runaway because they continued to drive the car. Have it towed to a diesel specialist and explain that the diesel engine had a runaway. If the car is not stopped in a safe place, leave the car when possible and it's safe and wait for help away from any moving cars. The smoke cloud or a stalled car could distract other drivers and it's not safe to be close to moving cars since you or the car could be hit. The aftermath - don't restart the car! If you immediately stopped the engine and the engine oil level didn't go down it's possible that the engine will run fine after replacing the turbo. At best, there may have been a little oil pooled in the intercooler that got sucked into the engine and was consumed by the engine but with no drop in the oil level. If that case it's really not a runaway because it didn't go into the feedback cycle amplification of a runaway. You should do further diagnosis to make sure the turbo isn't leaking oil into the intake path and that nothing else was damaged. If you have a mk4 car, see for more details. Search the FAQ for the DIY for newer engines. If the engine revved far above redline, it's possible the valves floated and were smacked around and damaged. If the engine raced for a while and then stopped on its own, it's probable that something was damaged. The engine either sucked enough oil that the engine seized from lack of lubrication or bent something. If enough oil goes into the engine cylinders, the engine will hydrolock and probably bend the rods first. Low engine oil and high revs may have also damaged the turbo, camshaft, or crankshaft bearings. Further diagnosis is needed. Always drain the intercooler of oil as well. If lots of oil comes out it's very likely that the turbo oil seal blew. Remember, you can replace an engine but you can't replace yourself or others so always react to the runaway with safety for people first, then property. Although a runaway diesel engine is rare, it does happen so be prepared. Why doesn't Audi or VW include an emergency procedure in the owner's manual for stopping a runaway engine (just for TDI)? People would at least be aware of this potential problem but they really don't include detailed procedures on how to react to any emergency situation. I don't know if it's for legal reasons, if it falls within the realm of driver education and training, or because runaway engines is bad press. It won't help sell cars but all gasoline cars could catch fire and blow up from the flammable gas vapors igniting (static electricity) during fueling and I don't think this is common knowledge either. As a final note, this cause of runaway engines is possible on any diesel engine and even gasoline engines can experience uncontrolled acceleration. Have more questions on why the TDI engine and all diesel engines can experience unintended acceleration or race on its own? Please ask in the Volkswagen and Audi TDI discussion forum linked at the top and help improve this FAQ.

How to do a compression test - TDI engine

This article shows how to do a compression test on a VW TDI engine or Audi TDI engine.

Introduction A compression test will tell you the compression of the engine. It is not to be confused with a leakdown test, which puts air into the cylinders and measures the rate that the air leaks out. A leakdown test is another test to determine the condition of the engine. It's also not a which tests for air leaks upstream of the engine. VW compression for all 1.9L diesel non pumpe duse (ALH AHU,1Z) and pumpe duse engines (BEW) New: 363-450 psi Minimum limit: 276 psi Max difference between cylinders: 73 psi Note - it's normal to get readings of up to 500-550 psi on a TDI engine, this is considered normal. The specs above are on a new engine, after the engine is broken in you may see higher compression. Keep in mind that high altitude will lower compression test readings. Excessively low engine compression can be piston/cylinder wear, bad valve, bad head gasket, or a cracked engine. Diesel fuel is an oil so the pistons and cylinder walls don't wear out as fast a gasoline engines with the accumulation of mileage. For the , see this article. If you have a PD engine (BRM, BEW, BHW), also see the Passat article since some tips apply to your car. Procedure Clean the area around the glow plugs. The glow plug wiring harness is marked in red below, the green mark is for another writeup. The area around them tend to collect dirt and sand, things you don't want falling into the engine. You can use compressed air or wad some paper towels and use some carb cleaner on the metal to clean up. Always wear eye protection! Warm up the engine to operating temperature. The metal parts of an engine expand when they get hot, so ice cold and warm engines will have slightly different compression. Remove all the glow plugs. Refer to for more details. The below picture is from another how to so ignore the red circle. It illustrates the glow plug harness and #1 glow plug removed. Note that the #1 spot was cleaned, the other spots were still dirty. Take your compression tester and find the correct adapter. Remember: do NOT use a gasoline car compression tester because the ranges are completely different. If the compression tester isn't holding pressure, a common problem is the stem inside the adapter coming loose. Use a valve stem tightening tool or very thin pliers to turn the spring loaded stem inside the adapter clockwise. Test by threading the adapter GENTLY into the glow plug hole. If it does not go in smoothly for at least a few turns, you may be stripping the threads - STOP and check it. In some cars, the glow plugs do not go straight into the cylinder head, the threads are at an angle, so beware of parallax (viewing error)! Please read for more details on viewing errors. One trick you can try is to turn the screw/adapter/bolt/etc., counterclockwise to loosen it and get the threads seated, and so you can feel the threads, then turning clockwise to tighten. Attach the compression tester and disconnect the fuel pump relay or plug. On 2003 and earlier VW diesels, just follow the wires coming out of the fuel injection pump to find the plug. In the above picture, removing the black plug at the center-bottom of the picture will keep the fuel shut off solenoid from letting fuel pass and keep the pump off. Mk4 cars are similar. You DON'T want fuel getting injected into the engine while you are testing it because the engine will try to run on its own! Again, make sure there are no sources of ignition or sparks nearby! Make sure the car is in neutral or Park before cranking the engine. Note that you want all the cylinders not being tested to have their glow plugs removed so that they are not building compression. This absorbs the energy of the engine cranking, and can affect the compression readings and unnecessarily drain the battery. Use an assistant to turn the engine to start for 4-5 engine cranking revolutions so you can note how far and how fast the compression tester needle moves. Keep cranking the engine until the compression does not rise any further. Then do it again to double check. Move to the other cylinders and write down the values so you can compare them later. Unlike a gasoline engine, adding oil is not recommended due to the high compression in the cylinder. You risk having the compression tester be damaged or personal injury due to the cylinder firing. Remember, a diesel engine can run on oil and the peak compression reached from the combustion process is in the thousands, way beyond the range of the compression tester. In addition, if you do a compression test and the results are bad, you can do the test again. There would be no point in adding oil since you already know there is some problem either with the gauge or engine. If the readings are still unsatisfactory, replace the glow plugs and start the engine. Run it until the engine is fully warmed up and repeat the test. If the readings are still unsatisfactory, then there may be a problem with the compression tester (may be inaccurate/broken), a poor seal or stripped threads around the glow plug hole, bad fuel injector seals/washers. More serious would be bad valves, rings, pistons, or worn cylinders. At this point, you can be sure that something is wrong with the engine or compression tester. Also keep in mind that two different compression testers may show different readings on the same engine. Professional grade testers tend to be more accurate then cheaper gauges which can show slightly higher or lower readings. In this case, don't worry about a slightly low reading within spec- as long as the compression is consistent across all of the cylinders and the engine idles well, starts in the winter, and isn't pouring smoke, it is acceptable and I wouldn't worry about it. Keep in mind that high altitude will also lower compression test readings. For example, VW diesel engines have a spec of 360-450 psi with new engines. It is only considered a bad engine if the reading is below 276 or there is a difference of more than 73 psi between cylinders. That is a lot of allowable variance. To put it in perspective, gasoline engines typically can have no more than 15 psi difference between cylinders on engine compression of about 125-180 psi, depending on the car. If you need more detailed information about the condition of the engine, then a leakdown test or a better compression tester is recommended. Consulting a mechanic would also be a good next step.

Car detailing index: exterior and interior, polishing paint, chip and scratch repair Introduction Congratulations on getting a new (or at least new to you) car. This section details with interior and exterior car detailing and care. Why take car of your car? It enhances resale value, looks nicer, and helps prevent damage due to corrosion and oxidation. If you just bought a used car, you would be surprised by how much cleaner it will look with a through cleaning. Since the interior and exterior are the parts of the car that you touch and look at the most, proper care and restoration will really enhance your enjoyment of your car. If you are about to sell your car, which do you think is more likely to sell for a higher price: a dirty car or a clean car? There are also a few spots like behind the plastic wheel well covers (shown below, click to enlarge) and the(since recalled), that can cause rust or water leaks if they are not clean. 2369 Exterior care: You cannot wash and wax your car too many times. But too little or improper washing and waxing can cause damage, see this article for some tips to prevent damage. Improper washing, automated car washes with dirty brushes, or just normal oxidation can put swirl marks and scratches into the paint. Polishing your paint removes these scratches. If you're not convinced, see the pics inside. Run your hand over your clean and freshly washed or waxed car's paint. Is it rough or smooth as glass? After waxing, you may notice that your towels are dirty even though you just washed the car. Clay bar treatment will pull the dirt out that is stuck in the paint, that you previously have been sealing in with wax. Don't like bumper stickers? Don't use scrubby pads, use this method to safely clean them off. Glass headlight lenses are no longer used in non-sealed beam headlights due to safety regulations. The stock plastic headlight lenses will pit and oxidize with age and wear. Polishing can make the lenses more clear again. Optilens is a UV protectant coating which prevents re-fogging of the headlights once they're polished. It will also make your new headlights last much longer by applying extra UV coating to them. You probably have white stains on the trim from wax or aging. Using this method will restore black trim to a nice black color and get rid of those stains. How to fill in small paint chips and sand them flat If you have a minor scratch, you will be able to reduce or eliminate the scratch with these tips. Interior care: Some general tips on taking care of leather, cloth, and cleaning the interior. Supplies: At the most basic, the supplies you will need are microfiber towels, a soft washcloth/sponge/mitt, auto soap, and wax/wax applicators, and 2 buckets for washing. Some other supplies I recommend are the porter cable random orbital polisher with a variety of polishing pads and compounds, tire cleaners, low-adhesion painter's tape for the rubber trim and weather stripping, and rain-x rain repellant for glass. If you have these, you will be able to take care of all your own car detailing. If you have dents, you can also get a ding-king or pops-a-dent suction cup/glue dent pullers. They help reduce the appearance of minor dents and dings, but don't use them on a repainted car or they may pull the paint off. These products also don't work as well as a experienced paintless dent removal professional, but they are also a lot cheaper too. Pictured is a porter cable random orbital polisher, 1 wash bucket, 1 chenille sponge, 2 polishing pads, and 1 microfiber cloth. I also suggest a few more cloths and 1 rinse bucket. Microfiber towels Before I learned a lot about car detailing, I just used paper towels and old cloths on my car. Paper towels are made from wood pulp and can cause micro scratches in paint. Old clothes don't hold very much water and don't do a good job at buffing and can contain synthetic fibers that can cause scratches. Microfiber towels are towels whose fiber cross-sections are star shaped instead of round. This holds much more water and holds dirt particles in suspension, whereas old clothes would just scrape them across the surface, adding micro scratches. Microfiber is suitable for all surfaces and is the best product for car paint and glass. The plush microfiber towels at Costco look pretty decent. Cheapo ebay or autozone microfiber towels are more suited for cleaning glass or trim. They are great for household use but they are not the best for auto paint because they have hard plastic stitches and tags, and shed loose fibers. The best towels have a plush construction and edgeless stitching. If you are still not convinced, I used to use a wet paper towel to clean the dust off my television until I tried a swiffer cloth. If anyone has used a swiffer cloth, they know what I am talking about - it's the difference between a long job that requires two passes to get it done and a quick job that takes less time and creates less mess. That is the difference between using old pajamas and using good quality microfiber cloths. Porter cable random orbit polisher This is the only real tool you need to start doing auto detailing. It is sold under a variety of labels (meguiar's) and model numbers, but they all look like in the above picture. Do not confuse it with a single axis rotary buffer. Rotary buffers rotate on a single axis and are much more likely to damage your paint due to uneven polishing. Unlike the cheapo 10 large random orbit polisher you can find at discount stores, the porter cable has a large, dual axis orbit and freewheels on a bearing. The 10 orbital polishers do not have a very good motion and you will find that they are not very effective at anything other than removing wax. It effectively mimics hand polishing but 1000 times faster. Polishing pads These are accessories for the porter cable random orbit polisher. Can be found on ebay or an internet search. They come in different colors but I can't list them here because different pad makers use different colors for different grades. You really only need soft, polish, and medium. You only need heavy cutting pads if your car has bad paint with some very noticeable scratches. The grades come in: Softest - this is for waxing or removing wax, no cutting action Polishing - this is for polishing paint. It can be used with either polishing compound or light rubbing compounds for machine use. Medium cutting - for heavy polishing compounds or rubbing compounds Heavy cutting - for use with rubbing compounds , faster cutting action, the roughest pad. Even though heavy cutting makes it sound like sandpaper, it is still much less abrasive than even 2000 grit sandpaper (very light). Heavy cutting is for use after wetsanding paint or removing noticeable scratches. Mother's powerball This is a buffing ball that fits onto your cordless drill. Use the mini size for spot polishing of metal or headlights. For paint, use the powerball for paint. Polishing/rubbing compounds I like 3m finesse it because they work very well. Other common names are meguiars, mothers, poorboys, they all work great. Turtle wax also works great but I don't like their polishing or rubbing compounds for machine use. The turtle wax polish and rubbing compounds tend to be much harder than the other brands because I suspect that they were designed for hand use. Turtle wax polish is only slightly softer than 3m rubbing compound, and turtle wax rubbing compound (in the red plastic can) is so heavy and rought that it's for hand use only! A good set of basic supplies. Turtle wax rubbing and polishing compound for hand use. 3m polish, rubbing, and wax for machine use. Armor all car wash and (not pictured) armor all for the interior. See the polishing paint article for a longer list of supplies.

Clearing the sunroof drains, fixing a broken line, or the Audi and VW sunroof recall

Clogged or broken sunroof drains can let in water. This resulted in a class action lawsuit and recall from water damaged interiors.

Introduction There are water drains at the corners of the sunroof that let water drain out to an exit at the door hinge. This was added to VW's maintenance recommendations after a class action lawsuit. The drains should be checked once every 2 years or 40,000 miles and cleaned as necessary, whichever occurs first. If you park under a tree or leave the sunroof open it gives a greater chance for clogging due to debris. In that case I recommend actively cleaning and checking twice a year. If it gets blocked, the water will back up and empty into the driver or passenger side footwell, causing possible water damage to electronics, mold, etc.. Regular cleaning will help prevent this. Other common places for water to leak in is from a bad windshield gasket (if you recently had the windshield replaced) or the shelf area under the windshield. Checking just involves pouring a cup of water down the drain to flush out any buildup that could block it. Cleaning involves pushing out any debris. Mk3 Passat sunroof drains exit into the fender. All other VW TDI drain into the door hinge area as pictured below. Mk4 Passat (1998-2005) also have drains under the windshield area. Lift up the plastic cover and there are 2 drains - one under the battery and one under the brake reservoir. Leaves can clog these and cause pooling of water which can enter the cabin and damage the CCM (comfort convenience module). This module controls functions such as windows and keyless entry. Mk5 cars: 2005/6-2010: the sunroof drains into the fender in the front and at the bumper in the rear. Caution: pour water in the center of the sunroof drain channel and not the corners where the drains are. There's an area just above the drain area which is not weather sealed (German engineering?) so any water there will go onto the headliner. A very heavy rain can overwhelm the drains and cause water to backup into that non weathersealed area and into the interior. Also see . Warning - if you do poke a hole into the line or it's already broken, feed a new line into the old line as pictured below instead of taking the interior apart.

Sunroof drain testing

I left my 2006 Jetta w/sunroof tilted for ventilation because it's really hot and humid in the NE. It rained heavily and the next day, I saw the brake lights were on which drained the battery. Disconnected the battery and saw there was water around the accelerator pedal and brake switch. Blew it dry, problem fixed. Traced the leak to the front left sunroof drain and here's what I learned. At least on the mk5 cars, when you test the sunroof drain for leaks by pouring water down it, pour the water in the CENTER of the sunroof channel and pour slowly. Do not pour the water at the drain (corner) because some will splash onto the rail area. There's an area just above the drain area which is not weather sealed (German engineering?) so any water there will go onto the headliner. I dropped the front of the headliner and water tested the sunroof drains and blew some LIGHT compressed air to check for debris clogging the line. It passed both tests. Therefore, I concluded that the rain was too heavy - water went above the drain area into the front of the rail which is not weather sealed and got into the interior. Solution: close the sunroof if it's going to be anything more than a light drizzle or turn on rain closing if your car is equipped with the sunroof. I had it turned off because I was going to leave the car for more than one day. To prevent any possible future drain failure, I added some silicone sealant to the drain hose. It's normally just sitting on the drain nipple with a clear flexible piece of hose that acts like a union. Below is a picture of one of the front corner drains. Parts weedwacker line or something stiff and flexible but not hard or sharp like a coat hanger (too hard) some water to flush out the drain Sunroof drain cleaning procedure Open the sunroof and front doors. There are 4 drains at the sunroof, one at each corner. A weedwacker line is pictured sticking in one of the drains. In the mk3 passat the drain outputs are in the fender well and not visible. Mk4 VW Jetta and VW Golf drains are in the door hinge as shown by the weedwacker line. You can clip the tip of the drain to let water exit easier. This is the modification of the drains as a result of the class action lawsuit. The New Beetle's drains are by the front-lower windshield trim corners. If you can't find the drain output, pour a little water at the top of the drains and see where it exits. Pour some water into the sunroof drain at the top and check for proper flow out the drain. This will also help clean out any small particles. I don't recommend compressed air because it might blow loose the line. If this happens, you have to remove the interior panels to repair the line. If it's okay, pour a lot of water in there to flush any particles out. If the line gets dislodged or you find water leaking into the interior, repair it using the steps below. If it's not flowing well, use a weedwacker line to poke it clean little by little or twist the rubber exit drain with your fingers to open it. Do not use a coat hanger or anything that could puncture the drain line or else you will have to remove the interior panels to repair it! Don't force the weedwacker line! As mentioned in the introduction, the mk3 and mk5 sunroof drains are behind the fender. Repairing a broken sunroof drain line If you find that the line is broken, you must repair it to prevent electrical and interior damage. The normal procedure is to take the interior panel A pillar, the one by the windshield apart and replace the line. If your car is equipped with head curtain airbags there's also an airbag in there so disconnect the battery and follow all applicable cautions in your factory service manual before doing any work. An alternative is to put a new line inside the old line. Snake a hose into the sunroof drain and out the drain. Then trim to fit. If it doesn't want to go in through the top, snake the line in through the bottom. Pictures from volksbloggin. Put a fitting in the end of the hose to prevent it from falling in any further. Clean the area thoroughly. Use silicone sealant to hold the upper end in place and let dry. Some broken sewer lines can also be repaired with a liner instead of having dig out the line. Here is a picture of what the sunroof drains look like on the inside (mk5 shown). I put a little gasketmaker around the drain to help hold it in place.

How to wash and wax a car properly Difficulty: 1/5 Introduction Here are some tips on how to properly wash your car. I used to think that washing your car just meant scrubbing off the dirt with a brush and that's why my first car had so many micro-spiderweb scratches in the paint. Improper washing technique or taking the car through brushed automatic car washes are the most common reason for paint scratches. This article will show you how to avoid scratching the paint when washing your car. If you look at the reflection of light in the paint, you will probably see a halo of fine lines in the paint. These are spiderweb scratches and are caused by washing. Good technique will minimize the amount of scratching and prevent major scratches. If you go to an automatic car wash the brushes will put a lot of microscratches into the paint, so if you want to use an automatic car wash, only go to touchless car washes. The worst automatic car washes try to save on water which causes the brushes to be more dirty and scratch more. These spiderwebs can be removed by polishing the paint, see to remove them. Here is an example of spiderwebs caused by poor washing technique and automatic car washes. The spiderwebs are halos of micro scratches. Here is a picture of after a wash, polish, and wax. See the difference? Procedure Materials and preparation To wash your car, first get two buckets and a soft cleaning sponge or cloth to clean your car. Your washing sponge should be something that holds a lot of water and soap, reducing the chances of tiny pieces of dirt scratching the paint. I would not recommend using a brush except for rockguards or lower plastic cladding because brushes don't hold enough water and soap to prevent scratches. One of the buckets should be used to contain clean soap and water, the other bucket for rinsing the cleaning sponge. If you were to use the same bucket to rinse the sponge, dirt and contaminants would stay on the sponge and scratch the paint. If you want to be really careful, place a few layers of screen mesh or other trap at the bottom of the rinse bucket to prevent dirt from getting back onto your washing sponge. For soap, do not use dishwashing detergent because it is designed to clean grease and baked on food off dishes and will strip all wax and sealants off your car's finish. Also make sure that the car is out of strong direct sunlight because it can cause spotting. If you park on a slight incline, it will help water run off the car. If your driveway is level, you could push a 1x4 piece of wood against the front or rear tires and drive the car's wheels onto the wood to tilt the car. Make sure that the wood is not under the drive wheels, as this could cause the wood to shoot out or slide out of place once you start moving. Also make sure that no one is around the car or holding the wood as you drive onto it. This trick can also be used if you have a low car and can't fit a floor jack under the proper jack points. A porter cable random orbital polisher, 1 wash bucket, 1 chenille sponge, 2 polishing pads, and 1 microfiber cloth. I also suggest a few more cloths and 1 rinse bucket. Washing Tips Once you have all your materials ready: First thoroughly rinse the car to remove large dirt and to wet the car. Do not use hot water because it strips off the wax. Always move the cleaning sponge in the direction that air would move over the car, starting at the top of the car, the roof. Moving in a back and forth motion instead of circles seems to reduce the appearance of micro scratches. Starting at the top and move around the car before moving to the bottom prevents the crud and sand from the bottom of the door sills, normally the dirtiest part of the car, are not put on top of the car. Starting at the top also helps keep the car wet and presoaks the lower part of the car. If you want to invest in some good cleaning tools, get a foam wash gun. These spray suds which stick onto the car and soak the dirt before cleaning. Drying Your Car You can use a drying chamois, water blade, or microfiber towel to dry your car. I recommend waffle weave microfiber towels because an errant piece of sand blown onto your car could cause a water squeegee to push the particle, creating a scratch. Plush microfiber towels trap it in the deep fibers. Cleaning the Wheels and Tires At this point, you can use the leftover soapy water to clean the wheels. Wheel cleaners tend to be harsh on the paint and tires, so I use them only if I have some tar or buildup that cannot be removed with regular soap and water. There are also lots of easy rinse off or scrub free wheel cleaners. They all work 100% better if you do scrub the wheels. If you still have some tar stuck on, detailing clay can remove it. Make sure to clean the wheel BEFORE using detailing clay, otherwise it's too much dirt for the clay to trap and it will cause scratches. Tire dressing: Some tire manufacturers recommend against tire dressings, some do not address it at all. Some claim that tire dressings contribute to tire sidewalls cracking. Meguiar's Endurance is one brand that claims to not do so. Some dealers claim that's why your brakes creak but then they apply it to the cars on the lot. Applying an excessive amount of tire dressing can cause the excess to fling onto the car paint once the car is moving, and this is bad for the paint. Personally, I avoid tire dressings - I just scrub the tire sidewalls with soap and a brush. Once the tires are a few years old, tire dressing will restore that deep black color of new tires. Cleaning the Glass For glass, just use the same soap that you use on the paint. Some owners use (the red jar). After washing the glass, I highly recommend using Rain-X or a similar product to make water bead off the glass. It is the one cleaning product that also enhances safety. I apply it with a paper towel to the front windows, the side view mirrors, and the front and rear windshields. It makes it so much easier to see in the rain that after using it, you will wonder why everyone doesn't use it. You have to buff it off with another paper towel or else it will cause streaking. Unfortunately, it is not permanent. Rain-X needs to be reapplied every few months to the windshield and driver's window (at a minimum) because the wipers and opening/closing of the driver's window rub the Rain-X off. Rain-X also has the added benefit of reducing bug splatter and making ice easier to scrape off. Do not use Rain-X on clear plastic as it will make it less clear. It is for glass only. Waxing the Car Before you wax the car, run your hand over the paint. If it's smooth, go ahead and wax. If it's rough and grainy, you could wash your car again or try . Waxing just seals in these contaminants. Waxing the car also helps preserve the finish of the paint. First make sure the car is dry, then apply the wax as directed. It's pretty self explanatory: apply, let dry, buff off. If you have black plastic trim, avoid putting wax onto it as wax on black trim will discolor the trim and make it appear chalky and milky. Blue painter's tape works great at protecting black trim. To save time, I use an electric buffer/polisher over the large areas and then cover the smaller areas by hand. See the article on polishing paint, since the technique is basically the same. Choice of Wax Waxing is as necessary as washing because it lays a protective layer on top of the paint and can make paint appear more shiny. If you don't keep the car waxed, road salts and acid rain could damage the paint. Some people prefer carnauba wax and some people prefer synthetic wax. I prefer synthetic wax because it lasts longer, between 4-6 months. Carnauba wax may only last 1-2 months. As a side note, I have seen liquid turtle wax that says 100% pure carnauba. This is incorrect because 100% pure carnauba is solid-the turtle wax has at least additives to stay in liquid form. To save time, I use a great tool for waxing and buffing the paint: the porter cable random orbital polisher. Unlike a rotary polisher which spins on a single axis, the random orbital polisher moves on a free floating head which spins on a moving axis. Because of it's random motion, it greatly reduces the chance of burning, or over-polishing the paint in any one spot. If you went to a dealership or professional auto detailer, they all use something similar because for a business, time is money. And it is can be used for sanding, polishing, waxing, buffing, etc.. It not only saves time, but it is a necessity if you want to polish the paint.

Clay bar treatment for VW TDI paint Introduction Run your hand over your car's paint immediately after washing it. Is it rough or smooth as glass? If it's not smooth as glass, you would benefit from a clay bar treatment. It will improve the look and smoothness of the paint. Using detailing clay bar on your can remove contaminants stuck in the paint - how it works Instead of coating over impurities stuck in the paint like wax does, a clay bar actually pulls them out by grabbing them. No amount of washing will clean these particles because they are stuck in the paint. After waxing a freshly washed car, you may have noticed that the towels and pads have black dirt even though it should be clean. Modern waxes contain slight amounts of polish and managed to pull out some of the dirt that you just waxed and sealed over. If you clay bar and then wax, you'll see the pads come back clean. How often should you clay bar the car? For a daily driven car, I recommend using a clay bar once every year or every other year. If you just bought a car or are about to sell it, a clay bar treatment will really help the paint shine. If the car is your baby or you're very particular about detailing, twice a year is fine. After you use a clay bar, I suggest following it up with a porter cable polisher and , since clay only pulls out dirt - it does not remove scratches. Procedure First, thoroughly wash the entire car. Refer to the article: . As always, stay out of direct sunlight. There's no need to dry the car because you want it wet for the clay bar. Depending on the clay bar you have, it may come with a spray bottle of lubricant. You can also use a fresh bucket of clean soap and water. It is very important not to be stingy with the lubricant or water because it lets the clay glide over the paint and pull out any contaminants. If you don't wash the car before you clay or don't use enough lubricant, it will scratch your paint, so use plenty of lubricant! Never use just water as a lubricant. Move the clay in a back and forth motion over a small section section. When you begin, you may feel a scratching, bumpy feeling - this is normal. Keep it wet when moving over a new section. After a few swipes, the passes will smooth out and will start to have no resistance - this means that you have removed all the contaminants from the paint! Feel the paint with your hand and it should be as smooth as glass. Before moving onto the next section, wipe the surface of the clay to remove any big dirt particles and then fold the clay in half to expose a fresh cleaning surface. I suggest starting at the roof and moving down, claying the section behind the wheels last, as this is the dirtiest section. I recommend using clay only by hand because it lets you feel and control the application. Any machine could increase the likelihood of scratches and you won't know when the paint has been sufficiently cleaned due to lack of feel. This whole thing is pretty self explanatory, but here is a picture anyways. Just keep the surface very wet, move in the direction of the arrows, and you will be fine. After finishing each small area, look at the clay's surface. If it looks dirty (which it will) or has large particles stuck in it, pick them out and fold the clay to get a fresh cleaning surface and continue. You can also feel how bumpy the gliding is - lots of bumps mean lots of contaminants. If it feels really rough, clean and fold the clay more often to keep the cleaning surface fresh. If you drop the clay onto the ground, throw it out or cut off the entire outside surface. The clay will have tiny bits of dirt and sand too small to notice stuck to it and it will scratch the paint. Because of this, I normally cut the clay bar in half to extend each half's life. After you're done, you can wash and dry the car again or , depending on how much clay or dirt is on it. But wait there's more! Save your old clay and you can use it to remove the flecks of dried stuff on the wheels or rock guard. It could be road tar or baked on brake dust. You can use your old clay to clean these surfaces as long as the clay does not contain large bits of sand, etc. What brand of clay do you find produces the best results? Share your knowledge in the forums

How to polish car paint with a porter cable polisher and use rubbing or polishing compound back to This article shows how to use a porter cable polisher 7424 on auto car paint to remove scratches Polishing the paint means to smooth the surface of the paint by polishing away material. Polished paint will appear clearer and more vibrant. Reflections will appear sharper and spiderwebs will be reduced. Waxing hides imperfections in the paint by covering them over to create a smooth surface, polishing removes them and lets the wax do a better job to let the paint pop. This can also repair stains that have etched into the paint like bird poop or vandalism. Polishing does remove a very, very thin layer of clearcoat or paint, so how often you polish is ultimately up to your preferences. I suggest once or twice a year. For polishing plastic or headlights to clear up cloudy lenses, see . If your just purchased a used car and want to do a full detail, first to remove contaminants stuck in the paint. Can your auto paint benefit from polishing? Here's how to test and polish out swirl marks. Here's a quick test to see if your car could benefit from polishing. Take a bright light and look around the reflection. The reflection of the sun also works. Do you see lots of circular spiderwebs or swirled scratches? These can be polished out. If you can feel the scratches you need stronger treatment or a series of polishes over time to reduce them. Swirl marks or spiderwebs are caused by dirty washing materials, dirty tools, and automatic car washes (I only use the brushless washes). Below are some pictures of spiderwebbing (click to enlarge) 2368 2367 Where do spider webs come from? Harsh cleaning materials or towels, improper cleaning, or normal wear and tear create tiny scratches. I have never seen a used car that couldn't benefit from polishing unless that car was just polished! Polish and rubbing compound Using a polish on the paint should be the extent of removing material from the paint under normal conditions Only if there is a noticeable scratch or severe dulling should you try using a light rubbing compound such as 3m finesse it over a larger area such as a panel. I have also tried Meguiars Step 1 scratch remover and find it to be similar to the 3m finesse it rubbing compound in strength. Turtle Wax's premium rubbing compound, (NOT the red colored paste in a can, that is way too strong, it's in a green plastic tube and is light green in color) is a little stronger than the 3m and Meguiars product and would be good for a first polish if your paint has some scratches and imperfections. If you have a scratch, isolate the use of rubbing compound to the affected area only. Polish is often called swirl mark remover but each brand and even combinations with different pads will produce different results. Even some paints tend to be softer than others. The turtle wax regular polish in a can is not very good for machine use because it is formulated for hand use and is only slightly lighter than their premium rubbing compound. It's decent for spot use on scratches. You should never put a hard rubbing compound such as turtle wax regular rubbing compound (the red stuff in a can) to an entire panel since it is best for spot use by hand only! Here is a list summarizing my guesses of strength, starting from lightest to harshest, please note that this changes according to what pad you are using and is my subjective guess. There are also many other brands that I have not tested, this list is my opinion only. Lightest 3m finesse it polish turtle wax premium polishing compound (in a tube) Meguiars Step 2 polish Meguiars Step 1 paint cleaner - swirl mark remover 3m finesse it rubbing compound Turtle wax premium rubbing compound (in a tube, is light green in color) Turtle wax regular polishing compound (in a can, is white in color) Turtle wax regular rubbing compound (in a can, is red in color) Harshest I suggest a very light machine oriented rubbing compound for the first ever detailing if your paint has some imperfections. The turtle wax premium rubbing compound or 3m rubbing compound works well for a more dull finish the first ever application. Remember, t he premium turtle compound is in a tube, the regular is in a can, is red in color, and is way to harsh. After that, use light rubbing compound on spot scratches and then a full car light polish once or twice a year. Heavier rubbing compound is not appropriate and the more material you remove, the less you have to work with later. To put it into perspective, the entire thickness of the paint may only about 5/1000 of an inch think. It is better to polish less over a series of applications rather than more aggressively in one application. If you use too hard foam or too hard compound, you will end up with holograms. These are spider marks that appear in one direction. You can't see them in dark light but in direct sunlight from the right angle or under certain lighting, it looks like streaking on top of the paint. If you get these, follow up with a softer polish and foam pad. To avoid these, do not polish until the compound is dry, it should always stay moist. More on technique below. The porter cable polisher and other tools If you want good results, I would also recommend using a porter cable random orbit polisher and a spot treatment polisher. It's also sold under the Meguiar's name and as the ultimate detailing machine. The advantage of a porter cable polisher is that it is suitable for use by beginners and advanced users. It makes it very unlikely to damage the paint unless you are being extremely aggressive and misusing the tool. Unless you are polishing only a small spot, I do not recommend polishing by hand unless you don't mind tennis elbow. Polishing an entire car by hand would take all day, which is not my idea of fun if there is a faster and easier way. Note that the porter cable random orbit polisher is probably the best tool out there for home use. It's reasonably priced, works very well, and is compact enough to get into tight spaces. Unlike the cheapo 10 large random orbit polisher you can find at discount stores, the porter cable has a large, dual axis orbit and a free floating head. The 10 orbital polishers do not have a very good motion and you will find that they are not very effective at anything other than removing wax. The porter cable is also not a rotary buffer. Rotary buffers rotate on a single axis and are much more likely to damage your paint due to uneven polishing. The reason power drill or a sander attachments don't work well is because they're too fast. The ideal rpm is around 1000-5000 rpm and going too fast will dry out the compounds and cause uneven results. A good spot treatment polisher is the mother's powerball for paint. If you only have a powerball mini, that will work for spot treatment. It is a foam ball that you attach it to a drill. It's the right size for polishing out the scratches under the door handles and for the lights. The powerball for paint is a softer foam and is the correct tool for paint, the powerball mini is a hard foam and you should use it with softer polishes to avoid holograms. Below is a porter cable polisher. I didn't put the microfiber towel on the ground - you don't want it to pick up dirt! Also below are some of the compounds that I like to use. If you skipped the section above, the turtle wax can products are for spot use by hand only because they tend to be too rough for machine use. Below: a porter cable random orbital polisher, 1 wash bucket, 1 chenille sponge, 2 polishing pads, and 1 microfiber cloth. I also suggest a few more cloths and 1 rinse bucket. How to polish the car's paint to remove spiderwebs or swirl marks First wash and dry the car. As simple as it seems, there are tricks to properly washing your car. See for more details. If the car is dirty, you will only rub contaminants into the paint and damage your polisher pads and paint. Tape over rubber trim or anything else you don't want stained white. Black rubberized trim or the black trim around the sunroof tends to become stained white if you don't tape over them. Working on a section at a time, apply polishing compound to the polishing pad and spread it over the dry (or nearly dry) car to prevent splatter once you turn the polisher on. You want to use enough compound to cover that section with a light coat, not enough to be flinged around when you turn on the buffer. Remember that the car should be freshly washed and dry, a few water drops are fine. If there is a lot of water, be prepared to have a lot of polish get flinged around and to waste a lot of product. Always use more polish rather than less. Not enough polish causes the applied polish to dry out and causes excess wear on the pad. Once the polish dries out, it is no longer effective and can cause holograms. Over time, you will learn how much polish is appropriate. The amount of polish pictured below was enough for the both doors and a little bit on the roof. If you have some scratches, use a powerball mini or powerball for paint for spot treatment before doing the whole car. If you just washed the car, the ground will also be wet. The extension cord that you are using is on the ground and covered with dirt particles. Make sure to avoid letting that dirty cord touch the paint, or else you will cause lots of scratches when you try to polish the paint! The dirt may also get caught on the polishing pad and cause more scratches. I suggest putting the cord over your shoulder. Your clothes will get some splatter on them, so wear work clothes that you won't mind getting dirty. I suggest moving in a back and forth overlapping pattern which will cover the entire section evenly. You did smear the compound around, right? Otherwise it will get wasted when it gets flinged all over you and onto the ground. Try left-right, then diagonally one way, then the next. There is no need to press down on the polisher as only very light pressure is needed to let the pad do its job. If the pad stops rotating, you are either pressing too hard or need to add more speed. The speed adjustment goes from 1 to 6. I find that 5 is the maximum that you really need to use. 6 will cause excess vibrations, make it harder to control the tool, and build excessive heat. If you find that the compound is drying out too fast, add more compound if the problem is insufficient compound or spritz a few drops of water on the paint to keep it wet. The picture below is the initial application, polish until the compound starts to dry to a haze. You don't want it to dry to the point where it is flaking off. When turning the polisher on or off, I suggest holding it gently on the surface of the paint. This prevents an over speed of the pad. It's less stressful on the bearings and helps prevent compound that's already on the pad from getting flinged off from no resistance and high speed. For the corners or under the door handle, use the powerball mini and follow up with a polish. The powerball mini is a hard foam and is best for spot use. Be careful not to pause on ridges or corners as this will cause more material to be removed from those spots. Many cars have ridges or raised areas on the hood. Because they are raised, the polishing pad will apply more action to these areas and remove material much faster than from flat areas. If you plan on having your car looking its best, it will need occasional polishing. It won't go through the paint as long as you are very mild, but remember that the ridges and high spots will prevent the low spots from getting polished. More aggressive pads and compounds can go through the paint if there's a very sharp crease or raised area and you sit on it for a while. The newest BMW and other cars have sharp creases in the sheetmetal, so avoid polishing the raised folds at all. Once you're done, wipe off the polish with a microfiber towel and wax the car the scratch - free way, as seen in the article: . Final polishing note Don't try to take a scratched up car and try to make it 100% perfect the first time polishing. If there are light scratches, you may just have to be happy making it less noticeable for now. When it's time to polish the car again, you can give those scratches some spot treatment and polish the car again. Do less now otherwise there won't be anything left to polish away later! If it's not noticeable from a few feet away, I would leave it alone for now. After you have used the pad, put it into a bucket of clean, soapy water. Let it soak for a while, then wash and rise clean. Let it dry completely before you use it again. Don't try to machine wash the pads or else they can be damaged! With proper care, the pads will last a long time, so get good pads and take care of them. Using rubbing compound to restore more severe paint If you have serious scratches or marring of the paint, you have to determine if rubbing compound is more appropriate. For most people, a light rubbing compound designed for machine use would be appropriate for a first polish. Never use harsh rubbing compound because it is not designed for machine use and will probably dull your paint! If you still have questions on whether or not your brand of rubbing compound is appropriate, the answer is NO! It's always best to be conservative when removing material. Using more polishing compound for a longer period of time is a better than using less rubbing compound for a shorter period of time. Rubbing compound could be slightly or much more aggressive than polishing compound depending on the brand or formula and will remove material more quickly. And since you follow rubbing compound with polishing compound, it's another reason to be conservative. If in doubt, always start with the least aggressive compound first, then determine if more polishing or rubbing is needed. I would suggest using a Meguiars step 1 or Turtle Wax premium rubbing compound with the powerball mini for spot treatment. Testing scratch depth First, determine the severity of the scratch and see if rubbing compound is appropriate. If you drag a fingernail over the scratch and you don't feel the edges, take a step back and try to polish out the scratch first . If you drag a fingernail over the scratch and your fingernail gets caught by the scratch, the appearance of the scratch can reduced by rubbing compound but not eliminated. If you see that the scratch goes through the paint into the primer or metal, you must have the scratch repainted or touched up. Remember that your goal may not be to erase the scratch completely as it may not be possible, first try to reduce the appearance of the scratch, then decide from there if it's worth it to remove more material. If you determine that the scratch can be reduced with rubbing compound but doesn't need touch up paint, wash and dry your car first. Because rubbing compound is more appropriate for spot application, I recommend using a clean towel to apply the rubbing compound and to rub the area. If there is an improvement in the scratch, try rubbing the scratch some more and seeing if there is more improvement. If there is no more improvement, you have already rubbed off all the edges and should now clean and polish the area. The best way to treat small scratches is with a powerball mini and light rubbing compound designed for machine use. This will fix or reduce the appearance of 95% of scratches. It might not end up perfect but it'll be close enough and not noticeable. This is the easiest and most cost effective solution. If you determine that the scratch is too deep to be rubbed out, you can try touching up the scratch with paint. Personally, I would rather live with a not noticeable scratch than a large area with a botched touch up job, so be conservative whenever possible. First, sand the scratch with light grit sandpaper, 1500-2000 grit should be enough. You do not want to sand the area around the scratch, so I suggest taping off the paint around the scratch. Wipe the area clean with rubbing alcohol to clean the scratch of dust. Then, using a pin, apply touch up paint to the center of the scratch. Never use the paintbrush that comes in the bottle because it will leave a big blob. The paint will move into the scratch through capillary action and fill it in. Overfill the scratch slightly. Once it dries for at least 24 hours, sand the scratch flat and polish or use rubbing compound as necessary. This is a similar technique as in . The difference is that a scratch is narrow and can polished out most of the time. A chip is too wide and large and cannot. Black, silver, and metallic seem to be the most difficult colors to touch up, so if you want a perfect repair, I would suggest taking it to a body shop and seeing what their opinion is. Normally, their opinion is to do the most expensive repair that is worth their time. Polishing paint before and after results Here are some before and after pictures with flash and without flash. They are all from the same angle and with and without flash so that you can see that this is not a camera trick. I took the pictures under a fluorescent light because fluorescent lights let you see all the scratches. These scratches are from improper car washing and an automated car wash that uses brushes instead of a no touch car wash. It received a clay bar treatment and then polish. This didn't produce satisfactory results so it received light rubbing compound for machine polishers, then polishing again. It wasn't perfect but it was a huge improvement. Before and after polishing with flash (there's some compound spread on the lower left hand). While there are still fine scratches, it's a huge improvement. (click to enlarge) Before and after polishing without flash (there's some compound spread on the lower left hand) 2366 2362 After the car was parked outside and waxed, you can see the mirror-like result of polishing! 2365

How to remove sticker or glue from your car's paint back to Introduction This article shows how to remove a sticker without damaging the paint. A sticker is worse than tar or gum since the adhesives have cured and baked in the sun. Always remove any tar or gum as soon as possible! Dealers use 2 kind of badges: a straight sticker or a 3-d badge. If it's a badge, use a heat gun to soften the adhesive and then use a fishing line to cut the badge off at the adhesive. If the sticker is on glass, just clean the area and scrape it off with a new, sharp razor. A razor will damage paint so here is how I remove stickers. You could buy special adhesive remover buffers but using auto paint specific and will not cause microscratches and even in the process of sticker removal. Don't use any kind of scotch brite or scrubby pad since this will cause major scratches to the paint. I've found that WD-40 or Goo Gone can remove some adhesives but this is a much more gentle method for the paint. 3M also sells car specific adhesive remover spray. Parts medium auto detailing clay clay lubricant polish/light machine rubbing compound microfiber polishing cloth mothers powerball mini Sticker removal procedure First clean the area around the sticker thoroughly. The sticker might have bits of sand stuck to the edges, make sure it's clean or else it will causes scratches later. Peel off as much of the sticker as you can. Clean it again. Use the clay to pull off the adhesive. Clay is normally used with lubricant but depending on how thick the sticker is, you may want to use it dry to get the adhesive to stick to the clay and be pulled off. Experiment with and without clay lubricant to see which works best in your case. I used some goo gone for auto paint to help soften the adhesive. The car specific 3M product is also shown above. Follow up with polish. A mother's powerball mini with medium polish or light rubbing compound for machine use will pull off any clay/adhesive and polish the paint. You could do it by hand but the powerball mini is 100x faster. The powerball mini is on the harsher side for paint but is great for spot use. You can also use it for polishing headlights and taillights with plastix polish so it's a good investment. Do not use red turtle wax rubbing compound (in the white plastic can) since harsh rubbing compounds which are meant to be applied by hand will cause scratches. A light rubbing compound for machine use is lighter and will pull off the adhesive without causing scratches. Final results - no scratches or evidence of the sticker. Depending on how long the sticker was there, you might notice a faint outline in the right angle/light due to aging of the exposed paint vs. the aging of the covered paint. It was hard to get the camera to focus on the paint so I put a piece of tape below the repair - no trick photography or lighting tricks here. Follow up with wash and wax. It was hard to show the shine without the right light so here is a different angle. The hazy area is dried polish.

How to polish the headlights and restore the foggy pitted plastic lenses to clear Introduction This article shows how to polish and clean your foggy dull yellowed headlight lenses to clear. I also review the 3M headlight polishing kit. Glass headlight lenses are no longer used in non-sealed beam headlights on most US cars. All plastic headlight lenses will pit and oxidize with age and wear. Polishing will restore their clarity and make the car look much better. It's not just a cosmetic issue, it's also a safety issue for you and oncoming cars. Cloudy or hazy headlights diffuse the light and create glare for oncoming cars by scattering the light. HID lights will have unacceptable dazzle if the lenses are cloudy. Here is an example of before and after polishing. You can see speckled pits in the plastic which catch the light in the before picture. In the after picture, the city light (the small parking light) and its reflection are sharp and there's a lot less scattered light and glare from the foggy lens. Less glare from clear lenses means more light onto the road. The picture angle is slightly different but the results aren't a camera trick - it's clear that the amount of glare and lens fogginess is a lot less. Headlight lenses may also have a hardened or UV layer. If you have to sand the lens to this layer to get to clear plastic, they will fog up more frequently. Once you polish the headlights, I suggest buying thin vinyl headlight protecting film with UV resistance so that you don't have to polish them again for a long time. Professional installation of the film is suggested, especially if they're curved. The other option is to do a final polish once a season to keep them clear. There are headlight polishing kits available at auto parts stores but I suggest using the ones that use power tools. Power tools are much faster and produce much better results than hand polishing. I strongly suggest a mother's powerball mini and plastic headlight polish. Even if you do buy the polishing kits I still prefer the powerball mini over their foam polishers. Its rotation and contact surface is more consistent, easily controlled, and will give better results because of the many fingers and attaches to any power drill. The full sized powerball or porter cable polisher pads are too large and the powerball for paint is too soft. How to polish the taillights Taillights are not exposed to the same pitting but could still benefit from polishing. You use the same materials so it only requires a few more minutes. After you're done with the headlights, use the mother's powerball mini on the taillights and side corner marker lights. It'll make the colors pop more and clear up scratched plastic. Don't use any sandpaper on them unless they are extremely bad. 3M headlight restoration system review It's a good value if you find it on sale or have a complex curved headlight. The foam pad follows sharp curves better than a flat electric sander. Here is what's included in the 3M headlight polishing kit: headlight polish, polishing pad, disc attachment for the power drill, 3000 foam pad, 800 sanding disks, and 500 sanding disks. I found better and faster results using a power sander and a mothers powerball mini. The main problem is that the 3M kit's 500 sandpaper is pretty rough and the 800 seems soft. There's twice as many 500 sanding disks than you would ever need and too few higher grit. After the 800 they go up to 3000 pad and a polishing pad that is too soft. I found it left swirls because the change in grit is too great. If you buy the 3M kit avoid using the 500 grit paper and start with the 800. I also still recommend a powerball mini if you buy the kit because it works better. The 3M pad rotates as a flat pad perpendicular to the drill's axis. The outside diameter of the pad moves much faster than the inside diameter of the pad which is barely moving at all. The powerball mini rotates parallel to the drill's axis and gives more consistent force. The powerball also has many foam fingers that polish each stroke vs. the 3M foam pad which uses a flat surface. Optilens UV coating review Optilens is a clear permanent coating which restores UV to the lens. I tested it and reviewed it here: /. It works and as a disclaimer, they didn't send me anything or pay me anything. I suggest using this, especially if your headlight lenses aren't flat in shape (hard to apply film). My recommendation on parts for DIY headlight polishing kit Because the 3M kit is designed to be sanded dry and because of the big change in grit, I recommend putting together your own kit. The 3M kit works well if you start with 800 and use a powerball mini. It's also good if you are only going to sand the headlights once and the only tool you have is a power drill. I've tried it a few times and but the best and fastest results I've gotten are always with a DIY kit. I recommend a power wet/dry sander starting with 800 grit wet/dry sandpaper, then 1500 wet/dry, then the powerball mini with plastic polish. Pictured is my DIY kit - plastX plastic polish, a powerball mini, and a wet/dry electric sander. Parts and tools or if you want to buy a kit OR 800 grit wet/dry sandpaper for the first stage and 1500 for the second stage small handheld sander approved for wet/dry use (optional) - don't get the sander wet unless you know it's approved for wet/dry use or else it could result in serious injury, death, and/or property damage from among other possible causes, electrical shock. plastic polish - or works well (if not included in the above kits) microfiber cloth painter's tape - not masking tape or duct tape - any tape that is removes easily and cleanly and isn't too sticky Here are some video demonstration of the Meguiar's headlight lens polishing kit and 3M headlight restoration system in use so you can review them for yourself. Below are more pictures and details on how to polish foggy lenses. The 3M headlight polish system works well on highly curved lenses but after using it I still prefer a flat sander and powerball mini. The 3M kit with a powerball mini works best for curved lenses. Zw5KSum28dc _t1RBw0IGXA Procedure First, is the inside of the lens clean? Some projector headlights tend to get dusty on the insides. Use a grabber tool like craftsman 41322 and wrap the end in tape to prevent scratches. Then use the grabber to hold a clean microfiber cloth. You can also use a lint free cleaning cloth. Make sure the metal grabber fingers are covered and wrap the grabber in tape if you are concerned about scratches. Put a small amount of no residue window cleaner on it. Remove the light bulbs and stick the grabber tool through the bulb holes to wipe the lens clean from the inside. You shouldn't be able to see through projector headlight lens but you should be able to tell if it's dusty or clean. Don't use water or alcohol to fill the inside of the housing to clean it because some headlights have a moisture absorbing tablet. If it gets totally soaked it can break up and cause lots of dust particles inside to float around. Then wash the exterior of the lens. If the headlights are in good condition without fogging, just use a powerball mini and some plastic polish. Move the polisher up-down, left-right, crosshatched and in a diagonal pattern to cover the entire lens. That should be enough to polish the lens. If you have the 3M kit, just use the 3000 gray pad (softer than sandpaper) and follow up with polish. If there are visible pits or fogging you'll have to sand them down as described below. Start by taping off the paint around the headlights with painter's tape. The headlights below needed stronger sandpaper in the first stage to remove the surface defects and the yellowed oxidized layer of plastic. Don't spend too much time with 500 grit since it's pretty rough. If you are putting together your own kit I would start with 800 sandpaper. You can see the final result with these lights at the bottom of the page. If you're using a flat electric sander, move it back and forth, up and down, and diagonally. Wet/dry sandpaper is supposed to be wet and form a slurry as you sand. This prevents the sandpaper from getting loaded. If you are using the 3M pad, hold it at a slight angle to the surface instead of perfectly flat to the surface. This puts the sanding surface over one edge and gives better contact control over the pad. This is because as the circular pad rotates, the center moves slower than the outer diameter. Don't pause in any spot too long or else it will burn the lens. If the pad is getting loaded then brush it clean. This headlight isn't as foggy and only needs 800 grit to smooth it out. Use the minimum grit required to smooth out your lens. Any stronger will result in swirl lines and scratches later on. If you see wavy lines after sanding, the surface of the lens isn't completely flat. The wavy lines are from the high spots getting sanded down and the low spots not. Go back and sand them down. The headlights should appear cloudy but uniform. Rinse off the slurry and determine if you need to sand some more. Use a higher grit sandpaper at each step. The 3M kit tells you to use 800 grit, then the 3000 foam pad. If you are using your own materials I would suggest using 800, then 1500. Examine the lens - there should be no wavy lines. If there are, go back and sand some more. Once it's smooth and uniform, polish the lenses. The powerball mini is just the right size and shape for the headlights and I prefer it over the pad provided in the 3M kit. Push the polish into the powerball and spread it around to avoid flinging and wasted polish. Move it up/down, rotate the powerball rotation axis and move it around left/right, rotate it again, and move it around again. The final result is clear headlights! To prevent the lenses from getting pitted again, use UV resistant plastic film to protect from future damage or specially designed headlight protectors. These are difficult to apply without bubbles or defects so professional installation is recommended. If you buy a new car, get headlight protectors so it will never need polishing in the future. At some point the headlight protectors will wear down but you can just peel off the old layer, wipe away any adhesive, and apply another protector. The problem with films is that unless the lens if flat, they're hard to apply properly. If your headlight is a complex shape, forget using them. I suggest using optilens : , a clear, permanent UV protectant coating. If you insist on installing the film yourself, here are instructions and tips for installing most vinyl lens covers. Use a spritzer of water with a tiny drop of soap in it. Mist the surface to help the film adhesive glide on. Start at the top and use a squeegee to press the film flat as you press it on to squeeze the water out. Lubricate the outside of the film as you squeegee. The film can be pulled up and reapplied as long as it's wet. You can use a hair dryer to shrink any wrinkles and tighten the film around curves but too much will burn or wrinkle the film. Below is a video demo. It take practices to get good at it and the more curved the lens, the harder installation will be. The film should last at least a few years before it needs removal and replacement. -7iLzwpdaIQ The powerball mini can also be used on the turn signals or side markers and rear taillights. Since the taillights are not bombarded with road debris, you'll only need to polish. After polishing, the colors will appear much more vibrant and pop more due to smoother plastic. Here is another example of headlight polishing. The originals were seen at top. Here is after a rough sanding with 800 grit. Light sanding with 1500 grit. Final results after polishing. Did this work for you? What brand of headlight polishing kit works best? Share your experience by posting in the Volkwagen diesel forums linked at the top of the page!

Removing wax stains from the car trim Introduction This shows how to remove white wax stains from the black trim on your car If you regularly wash and wax your car, you have probably gotten some wax or polish on the trim. Once it bakes in the sun, it will set into the trim and cause a white stain. Good detailing is all in the details, so restoring the trim will make a big improvement in the appearance of your car. The below picture is an example of trim that has been half restored. This cannot be achieved by just washing or scrubbing the trim. To prevent wax stains in the first place, wipe off wax if it gets on trim or tape ff the trim before polishing/waxing. As trim ages, I've noticed that it gets dried out and the micro scratches cause trim to become more susceptible to wax stains. If it's really bad, replacing the trim with brand new trim will make a big difference in the appearance of the car. Below is an example of white wax stains on trim and an after of restoring the trim to black. Parts paper towels wax remover - gr-40 from topoftheline works well (I haven't tried wax blaster or peanut butter as wax remover but I hear it works - the oils soften the wax. 3M also sells adhesive and wax remover for cars.) painter's tape black restore or black forever (optional) Procedure Tape off all the paint next to the trim. Do not skip this step, you don't want the black dye to get onto the paint! Clean the trim with wax remover and a paper towel. Repeat as necessary. Let dry and see if it's dark enough. If you want it darker, apply black restore or black forever. Because you taped off the paint, it lets you apply the black color safely to the edges of the trim. Let dry and remove the tape. Let the black color set in and well after it sets, you can wipe down the trim with a paper towel to remove any black color that didn't adhere properly. Before - the soft rubber trim here was vulnerable to wax stains because it gets baked by the sun. After - not 100%, but much better. Since the trim is on the top of the car it gets the most sun exposure and is weather worn. Additional coats of black applied later can helped.

How to repair paint chips and touchup the paint yourself Introduction Your car will get chips in normal driving. This article shows how to repair minor chips yourself. Repair the chips as soon as practical to prevent rust or further damage. This article shows one way of fixing chips. Many people don't like car bras because they give cars an 80's look. Clear adhesive paint protection films are currently the best passive protection against chips. Although there may be pre-cut film kits for your car, professional installation is highly recommended. Much like window tint, it's very easy to mess up applying the film and it will just waste your time and money. Please note that most clear adhesive paint protection films are perfectly safe for factory paint but should not be applied over a repainted area. You can actively decrease chips by increasing following distances, especially when you are in construction zones or other areas where debris is on the road. If you have a mk4 TDI and noticed flaking paint on the fender wheel wells, see . The main difference between a chip and scratch is the width. If it's a scratch, I suggest using a paint pen and then polishing it out. See for more details. Don't bother using the brush because it'll just leave a wide splat of paint. If the chip is wide and is too noticeable or is through the primer, you should repair it and fill it in. You could take it to a body shop but I don't suggest this unless you want the car to be perfect or have many chips on 1 panel. It's not cost effective to take it to a pro for 1 small chip, a shop can make more money by doing a large area, and if they are professionals, this is honestly the best way to get a professional looking repair. Your results may vary! It's extremely difficult to spray a small spot on the hood and have it blend into the rest of the panel. As the repair fades due to sun exposure and age, it will also look different from the rest of the panel. Good repairs blend the paint up to the edge of the panel (ie., the hood-fender gap) or fade into curves. Lastly, some colors are harder to blend than others. Flat red, black, or blue are easier colors and a repair should not be noticeable. You don't even need to use a clearcoat on top of a small repair, just polish it. Metallics and pearls are harder colors to match and a clear coat sometimes helps with silver metallic. Pearl white is a very hard color to perfectly match. Parts sanding block thin wire to use as a paintbrush 800 grit wet/dry auto paint sandpaper 1500 or 2000 grit wet/dry auto paint sandpaper microfiber towels VW touch up paint, see to help find your paint code rubbing compound and polishing compounds (3M perfect it rubbing and 3M finesse it polishing compound or equivalent quality compound recommended) porter cable random orbital polisher (optional but highly recommended, see for polishing technique) Paint chip repair procedure First thoroughly clean and dry the affected area. Use 800 grit sandpaper to clean away loose paint chips at the edges and smooth down the area. Make sure you use wet/dry automotive sandpaper and use plenty of water to keep the sandpaper from loading up. Many people like to use a pencil eraser to limit the area of sanding, I just use my finger or something else if it's too small. You just want to remove any loose paint chips and rough up the area to ensure paint adhesion. If the chip only goes down to the primer, try to avoid sanding through the primer. If you can see rust it means that it is exposed down to the metal so sand all the rust away first. It's best to try to get the edges of the chip as sharp as possible to hold the paint and get a clean edge as seen below. The 3 basic steps are illustrated below in a side view. The gray represents the lower layers of primer or metal, the green is the top coat of paint or clear. The blue is the touch up paint. If the edges are too smooth, it will be harder to sand the edges. You want the edges to be defined so the repair sticks and a defined edge helps to hold the paint within the boundaries of the chip. The idea is to build up the paint and then sand it flat. Step 1 - sand and loosen any paint chips. I sanded a bit much here because there was a scratch next to it anyways. I recommend using only 1500 grit maximum here, start with 2000 grit if you're not sure. The edges needed to be cleaned up a little here too. Use rubbing alcohol to wipe the area clean. You must remove all wax and grease or else the paint will not stick properly! If the paint is below 60oF, use a heat gun to warm the area. You want the paint to flow into the chip properly. The touch up paint should also be fresh. Old paint loses thinner and doesn't flow properly. Dap the touch up paint onto a paintbrush/wire for small areas and scratches. I like to bend the tip into a V or loop to hold the paint. A larger loop can hold more paint. That huge sloppy paintbrush in the bottle cap is ok if you have a large area to paint like the chip shown. You want the paint to fill in the chip, little by little by capillary action for small chips. For large chips you want to keep the paint within the edges of the chip. You can use a heat gun to help the paint flash and dry to apply the next layer. The idea is to build up the chip with more paint than is necessary and sand it flat later. Keep in mind that the paint will shrink as it dries, so apply plenty of paint. If it's too cold, the paint won't flow properly to fill in the gaps. A sharp boundary will help hold the paint, which is another reason why you want to remove any loose chips and clean the area well. If it is a really large chip, you may have to apply a few coats over a couple of days to let it dry properly. Many thin coats are better than a few thick coats. If a small chip, let the paint dry for at least 24 hours and sand it flat with the sanding block and 1000-800 grit wet/dry. Always use plenty of water during sanding to make sure there is no dirt that could cause scratches. If you skip using a sanding block, the area will not be flat and it will be more noticeable. The repair will appear wavy if try to use your finger as a sanding block so don't skip buying the correct supplies! Avoid sanding the edges and corners too much because you might sand through the new paint or the transition between the touch up and original paint. The corners can be polished out later. If there are any low spots or bubbles and fisheyes , you have to fill them in with more paint now because they will be much more noticeable later. If not, then you are ready to do the final sanding with 1500/2000 grit sandpaper. If you do see bubbles or fisheyes, this is normally due to wax, grease, or water contamination. Next, use rubbing compound to finish the area and then polish. Give it a final wash and then wax. Here is an extreme close up of the final result. It's most visible at certain angles but from 5 feet away you can't tell that it's there. It's not perfect, but it's still a huge improvement over the rusty chip and this will prevent any further rust. A further view - not noticeable unless you are looking for it.

Spot scratch and chip touch up and repair - also for deeper paint defects and marks Introduction Many cosmetic defects on the paint can be repaired by just polishing or minor touch up, saving you the trouble of repainting the car. If the scratch is only visible under light and you can't feel it with your fingernail it's easily repaired. If you see primer or bare metal it cannot be fully repaired, just made less noticeable. In many cases, it can be polished to the point where only you'll notice it. If you're not sure, start with the lightest treatment and see if the results are satisfactory. Only then should you use more abrasive and aggressive treatments. Remember that it might not be possible to erase the scratch completely. First try to reduce the appearance of the scratch, then decide from there if it's worth it to remove more material. Using touch up paint (for heavier scratches) If the scratch is still noticeable but doesn't go down to the primer, I would just leave it alone or try using the rubbing compound again. If the scratch does go down to the primer and you have determined that you want to use touch up paint, remember that it might look more noticeable with a messed up repair than before! First wash and dry the area. Use some 1500-2000 grit wet/dry sandpaper, and using water to lubricate the sandpaper, sand the edges of the scratch slightly. I suggest using a small piece of sandpaper and folding it around a pencil or stick to isolate how much of the area you are sanding. You just want to rough up .5 cm around the scratch, not the whole panel. Follow the same basic idea as , but instead of filling a chip you are filling a scratch. You can also try taping off the area around the scratch so only the area you want to sand is exposed. Wipe the area clean with rubbing alcohol to remove any traces of oil and dirt. Never use the paintbrush in the bottle of touch up paint. It will leave large blob if you do. I suggest using a thin piece of wood or tiny, very thin tapered tip disposable paintbrush to apply the paint. Don't worry about filling the corners, the paint will spread out due to capillary action. Give it 5 minutes and apply again. Repeat. You want the paint to fill in the scratch so that it is raised above the rest of the paint. Remember that as the paint dries, it will shrink down, so make sure to overfill the scratch sufficiently! After a day or two of drying time, you can now sand it down with the same 1500-2000 sandpaper. Your goal is to even out the surface of the repair with the surrounding paint. Silver and any pearls or metallic paints in general are more difficult to match. You may want to make the last few coats of touch up paint a clearcoat to help make it match. If you have a white pearl or light metallic, it will be pretty much impossible to match the paint flawlessly. Even a professional can never perfectly match a white pearl, so set a reasonable goal. Non touch up paint treatments (for lighter defects) If you can only see scratches under certain light or angles, use some polishing compound and a porter cable polisher to lightly reduce the appearance or try to eliminate it. If it is severe, you can try using a light rubbing compound to test if this reduces its appearance. I recommend 3M finesse it or turtle wax rubbing compound for machine use (it comes in a green plastic squeeze bottle, not the red compound in the white plastic can)! First wash the car. If your fingernail catches on the scratch, you need to use a 2000 or higher wet/dry sandpaper followed by strong polish or light rubbing compound. The sandpaper will smooth the edges and remove some material and the polishing compound will remove all the fine scratches from the sandpaper. You could use a mother's powerball mini or powerball for paint with a light polish. The powerball mini is a stronger foam and will leave some minor marks so you need to follow up with polishing afterwards. See for more details. Here are some before and after pictures of a paint scratch. Someone inconsiderate person put a dirty heavy object on the hood of my car and dragged it across. Before: It's hard to pick up scratches with a camera unless the lighting is just right but I assure you the scratches were very noticeable in perosn. Halfway through polishing most of the scratches are removed. Here I wiped away most of the polish to identify the deepest scratches which needed more work and concentrated on those. The final results. The deepest scratches are still visible but only from the right angle and right light. Here is another angle showing the scratches from another angle. They are invisible. There was a dent but it can be repaired later. Here is the same car after a kind person with a handtruck left their mark. This scratch was wide and down to the primer and could not be fullly repaired, only made less noticeable. The only way to completely repair this defect would to spend hundreds at a paint shop repainting the entire upper panel. After polishing, the scratch is still visible but the scuff mark below the handle is gone and the lines of the scratch aren't as strong.

The interior is the part of the car that you see and touch most often, so take good care of it! General cleaning tips: First, vacuum the entire interior. Before applying any of the detailing products, make sure to first test on an inconspicuous area for any color changes or damage. If so, do not use that product any further! Some basic detailing supplies - armor all, carpet cleaner, brush, hand vacuum attachment Vinyl or plastic: I recommend armor all or a wet microfiber towel. Over time, UV light will dry out and crack or curl the plastics, normally at the front of the dashboard. Door bottom sills and really dirty plastics: I would use a paper towel since it will save wear and tear on your microfiber towels. Glass: first make sure the car is out of sunlight and cool or else there will be lots of streaking. For cleaning, I recommend a wet terry cloth or a microfiber towel. Some professional detailers use newspapers to dry glass, but it might cause micro scratches. Some say that it won't cause scratches over time, but why not err on the side of caution? In addition, if you use newspapers to dry, you get ink all over your hands that may rub off onto already cleaned parts of the car. Again, just use a microfiber towel. If you have aftermarket tinted windows, do NOT use any ammonia containing cleaning products on glass, it will damage the tint. I say aftermarket tint because all automotive laminated glass has some light tint naturally built in. Since it is sandwiched inside the glass, you don't have to worry about scratching or damaging it. In general, I do not recommend windex for automotive use. The ammonia may also overspray and damage plastics and rubber seals. Two small drops of hand soap in a spray bottle filled with water will work fine. I personally just use a damp microfiber towel, then dry with a dry microfiber towel. Seat care and stain removal Seats: I actually prefer cloth seats because they grip better than smooth leather seats and are low maintenance. On a hot summer day, I sometimes have to put a cloth over black leather seats so I can actually sit down when I come back to the car. A windshield sun shade or tinted windows will help with that. If you have cloth seats, some Mr. Clean or soap diluted with water will do a great job on getting out that dirt. Carpet cleaner will also work once it's scrubbed in with a brush and then vacuumed out with a hand vacuum. Just make sure to let them air dry by leaving the windows open. Just vacuuming cloth seats is all the regular maintenance they really need unless you have stains. Coffee stains: these are among the most difficult stains to get out. First, as soon as the coffee is spilled, try to absorb as much of the liquid as possible. If you are driving, make sure that you give full attention to driving first, as you don't want to cause an accident. Blot the stain, don't wipe because wiping spreads the stain. When you have a chance, mix a 50/50 mixture of vinegar and cold water and blot it into the stain. Use a clean towel to clean, then another clean towel to absorb the moisture. If the stain still remains, test a small inconspicuous area with hydrogen peroxide first, then try it on the stain. Do NOT use hot water on coffee. Coffee stains settle into the actual fibers and can come out again if you use hot water. The hot water reactivates the stain and can even make the stain set in further. If you want to get a very deep clean with a coffee stain, be prepared to remove the seat fabric entirely and wash it separately from the seat. Here's an example of before and after coffee stains. You can only see the worst stains in the before picture. The after picture doesn't do justice to how clean the seat is. Vinyl or leatherette seats are basically plastic, so use a vinyl seat safe cleaner and scrub away. Leatherette is not as breathable so it's almost always perforated on VW and Audi seats. If your Audi or VW seats are solid leather they're probably real leather. Leather seats: these require the most maintenance out of all other seat styles and are often the most abused. When you clean leather, keep in mind that it is basically cow skin, and requires to be cleaned gently. Dirt and oils from your skin soak into the leather and damage it over time. If you look at your seat and the leather is shiny on the seat and dull on the back of the headrest or parts that you normally don't touch, it because the contact areas are soaked with oils from your skin. Cleaned leather should have a dull sheen to it. I do not recommend an all-in-one cleaner for leather. You can't thoroughly clean and moisturize your hands in one step, so why would you try to do the same with a cow skin? Use separate cleaners and conditioners. Clean the leather one section at a time with a soft brush. Then rub in conditioner with a sponge. Wipe off any excess with a microfiber cloth. It is best to clean and condition when the leather is warm and can absorb more conditioner, so try closing the windows and letting the interior of the car heat up before cleaning. If you just got a used car and the leather seats are hard and cracked, you may be wondering what you can do to restore them to like new condition. They can be softened to a degree, but once the leather is cracked, it is permanently damaged. There are glue-like products that can close the crack, but they need to be painted over and may crack again. If my seats had small cracks, I would immediately clean and condition the seats to stop any more damage, then begin a series of softening treatments. There is an oil called leatherique that supposedly can make hard seats soft again if the oil is allowed to soak into warm leather. I have not tried it, but many people swear by it. Topoftheline auto detailing supply also sells oil reconditioner for leather seats.

VW Jetta and VW Passat transmission removal DIY Introduction This article has tips on how to remove and replace the transmission in the mk3 Jetta and Passat TDI. Removal is required for clutch, flywheel change or rear main seal replacement. The Jetta and Passat are pretty much the same except the Jetta as a little more clearance, differences are noted below. You have to remove the transmission if you want to al. If you want to replace the 5th gear with a taller gear to improve mileage and lower rpm/noise, this would be a very good time to do it, see for more details. It is also a good time to change the transmission gear oil, see . The mk3 TDI only came in manual in the US. This article is only notes and is not a substitute for the factory service manual, refer to your factory service manual for the official instructions. An engine support is needed because you will be removing 2 of the 3 . It's also a good time to replace the or CV boots if they are worn or cracked. Here are some more notes on transmission removal in the forum. Parts (click links to compare current prices) transmission jack (optional but suggested) metric socket set and wrenches scissor jack 8mm triple square (12 point) bit for the driveaxle bolts, see 12 point sockets (optional, for the clutch and flywheel replacement) transmission driveaxle seals 2x VW# 084 409 189 b make sure the seals are 62mm outer diameter, 48mm inner, 7mm height *Napa, Autozone, and Carquest, all have the wrong seal for the TDI transmission! Insist on double checking the seal dimensions if you order at the local store! 12x driveaxle bolts (optional) VW# 893 407 237 (8x 50mm) new paper gaskets for the driveaxle/flange seal (optional) VW# 8d0 407 309 engine support (pictured below, available from harbor freight or northern tool) hose clamp pliers (optional) ProcedureSummary: there are 3 basic steps: remove shifter cables, starter, clutch slave cylinder, etc. Raise engine and remove driver's side and front motor mounts. Unbolt transmission and lower the trans. Detailed steps below. Secure the car and raise the front on multiple pairs of jack stands and . Using wood blocks gave me a little more clearance under the car for the transmission jack. You will be shaking the car a bit, so make sure the car is stable and secure on level, solid ground. Chock the wheels and apply the parking brake. Remove the battery and battery securing bracket (1x 13mm bolt). You can screw the bracket back in place to avoid losing the bolt. Set the battery aside, don't bother putting it on wood since it doesn't make a difference in discharging. Optional step : If you are going to be doing a 5th gear swap while the transmission is out, remove the end cover and get the large torx bolts loose now. You can step on the brakes and put the car in gear to hold those torx bolts. Once the transmission is out, it'll be much harder to counterhold the bolts. See for more details. Remove the 2 intercooler-intake manifold and turbo outlet-intercooler pipes that are directly over the transmission. It will give you much better clearance. Hose clamp pliers like the ones pictured above do a much better job or removing spring hose clamps than regular pliers. I prefer taping over the exposed piping rather than using a paper towel since paper towels can get stuffed down and forgotten. Unplug the reverse/backup sensor (by the shifter cable ends) and the speedo sensor (by the firewall side of the transmission, on top). Put some bright tape on them so you remember where they are. In the pic below, the transmission ground strap was removed. You can remove the strap anytime (1x 13mm nut threaded on top of a 17mm bolt). I suggest putting the nut back so you don't lose it. Remove the slave clutch cylinder (2x 13mm bolts) and unbolt/remove the shifter cables. One shifter cable will slide out if you lift up the plastic clip, the other is bolted under the counterweight. You can also access some axle bolts from the top, take this opportunity to loosen some. Suggested: remove the reverse sensor housing so it won't get damaged. There are 2x 10mm? bolts holding the black thing the reverse sensor plug plugged into. Cover the exposed hole. Remove the shifter bracket (3x 13mm bolts), tie it and the slave cylinder out of the way. Go under the car and remove the brick (4x 14mm bolts, 4x 13mm nuts). Pictured below is a Passat. The Jetta has 2 bolts/nuts holding the counterweight. My best guess is that the weight is there to balance and tune the car body. I also had a CV boot heat shield - it did not come stock on the mk3 but you can add one to prevent early wear on the boot. Also pictured below (red line) is the flange where the service manual suggests nudging the engine to shift it for transmission removal. As you can see, the transmission flange (that I suggest removing later) is blocked by the L shaped flange on the engine below, marked with the red line. Removing the flange later will give you more room to get the trans out. Remove the power steering loop from the transmission bracket. (1x 10mm). The bracket doesn't have to be removed; if you loosen the bolt, the bracket will rotate out of the way. Remove both driveaxles from the transmission flange. You will have to rotate the wheels to get access to the 12 point triple square bolts. Do not use an allen or torx bit, they will strip the bolt heads! You can get access to the driver's side axle bolts from the top. For best results, mark the alignment of the flange to the driveaxle with paint or tape. Also use saran wrap or clean plastic to cover the exposed inner CV joints. Make sure to retrieve the paper gasket that seals the driveaxle to the flange. If it tears, have a replacement handy. Also remove the 2x 11mm bolts that hold the lower clutch inspection plate. There is 1x 10mm bolt holding the upper inspection plate. Remove the wiring from the starter and the bracket. The bracket is held by a 13mm nut and you may also be able to unclip it as seen in the lower pic. Optional but suggested : Here are additional steps that are not in the service manual but I found necessary to remove and replace my Volkwagen Passat's transmission. Any non oem part or deviation from the instructions in your factory service manual are done at your own risk. You don't have to do them but after the hassle of removing the transmission, I didn't want the new pressure plate, etc., to get mangled when putting the trans back in because they will make handling the transmission much easier. Remove the driver's side driveaxle completely. To do this, expose the driver side axle nut on the outside face of the driver's side wheel. It is a 30mm self locking nut (torque is 195 ft lbs). The car and the tire must be on the ground to counterhold against the nut so do this before jacking up your car. Once the axle is disconnected from the transmission flange and the axle nut is removed, the axle should come out with some maneuvering. You may have to turn the wheels to get a little more room. If you can't get the axle out, remove the ball joint and the wheel hub should tilt and let you pull the axle out. The other suggested step is to remove the passenger side transmission flange to get more clearance. This makes it much easier to remove the transmission. After disconnecting the driveaxle, clean out some of the grease in the flange. There is a 6mm allen bolt in the center of the flange as seen in the below pictures of the transmission after removal. You may have to counterhold the flange if you already disconnected the other side. Stuff a paper towel into the hole so that gear oil doesn't spill out when you maneuver the transmission. The Passat doesn't have as much clearance, pictured below left is a Passat showing the metal body blocking the transmission. Below right is a Jetta transmission showing a lot more room. Support the engine from above with a support and the transmission from below with a transmission jack. Remove the transmission ground strap (1x 13mm nut holding the cable). The nut is sitting on top of a larger 17mm bolt that is holding the transmission. I suggest hand threading the small nut back once the ground strap is removed so that you don't lose it You may want to raise the engine using the support. This will take the weight off the motor mount brackets for easy removal. Disconnect the connections on the starter and remove the starter. (long 2x 16mm bolts). See if you need more tips. Remove the front motor mount bracket. There is 1 small bolt and 1 large bolt on the side and 1x 17mm? bolt holding the mount bracket to the mount. Remove the transmission/driver's side motor mount bracket. There are 2 long bolts and 1 short bolt in the middle that hold the bracket to the transmission. Also remove the 1x 17mm bolt holding the mount bracket to the mount. Below is a pic after transmission removal. The manual calls for a scissor jack placed between the frame and a flange on the engine (where the oil pan/lower block meet) to shift the engine for clearance. I couldn't figure out how to place it correctly so I must be missing something. Below is a picture of how I think it's supposed to work. When done correctly, it gives you more clearance to maneuver the transmission out. I ended up placing the jack between the frame rail and the end of the transmission for clearance. Separate as necessary and at no time should you position yourself to get pinched if the jack slips. Remove the bolts holding the transmission. Below is a pic after removal. There are (3x 17mm) bolts holding it in (other than the starter and motor mount bolts): 2 on the top and 1 on the rear bottom. I put some paint on the bolts for quick identification during reinstallation. The blue numbers in the below picture are referenced in a later step. Also see for tips on torque wrench use. Push the transmission away from the engine. It should come out easily. If it doesn't, check for interference with the frame, hanging wire/cables, or the top-front bolt (the one that is hiding under the 13mm nut). At this point, you will find a lot more room if you removed the driver's side axle. Carefully lower the transmission. You may find that rotating the differential end (the end with the flanges) up will help you get the transmission out past the motor mount. Removing the driver's side axle and the passenger side flange should help too. While the transmission is out, it would be a convenient time to do clutch or rear main seal servicing, swap out the 5th gear, or replace the transmission input and output seals. CAUTION: the transmission output driveaxle seals sold by local parts stores is wrong! The correct seal is 62mm outer diameter, 48mm inner, 7mm height, VW# 084 409 189 b. For some reason, the parts reference that they all use is wrong and you will get the wrong part unless you verify. They may have corrected this error since then but double check it yourself! I like to paint the flywheel TDC stamp red as seen below. This makes it easier to see in the future. The red dots on the bolts were so I would remember their position to avoid having spare parts at the end of a project! Installation is the reverse of removal. You should lightly grease the input splines and inspect/replace the clutch throw out bearing. Do not wash the bearing, just wipe it down. Less grease is better than too much grease. When installing the transmission, start with the differential side up and rotate it down. Once it's into position, you can replace the driver's side transmission/motor mount bracket and pass side flange. Lubricate the pass side flange before putting it in the oil seal. Use a new paper gasket (VW# 8d0 407 309) on the transmission flange/driveaxle. If any of the 12 point bolts were stripped, use a new one (VW# 893 407 237 (8x 50mm). Always double check the torque on the driveaxles by rotating it and double checking. You may find that the driveaxle was slightly off or there was some other reason that caused the bolts to be slightly loose and back out later. For this reason, I suggest re-tightening the driveaxle bolts after a day of driving. I tighten them to a slightly higher torque because they have a tendency to loosen later. I believe they might be single use bolts but garages never replace them. Even if you stuffed a paper towel into the removed flange, you may find that you lost some transmission gear oil. This is a good time to change the gear oil. See for more tips. Even though I marked the bolts with red paint dots, some bolts still ended up in a pile. Here are the size of the fasteners and their torques as seen in the above picture (number is in blue) 1. 17mm --M12 x 55---59 ft-lbs 2. 17mm?--M12 x62---59 ft-lbs 3. 16mm --M12 x62----59 ft-lbs 4. ??mm --M12 x46----59 ft-lbs 5. 16mm --M10 x160--44 ft-lbs 6. 10mm --M7 x12 ----about 8ft-lbs (89 in-lbs)

Mk3 clutch or flywheel removal and rear main oil seal replacement, for VW Jetta TDI and Passat TDI Introduction This article gives tips on removing the clutch/flywheel and replacing the rear main oil seal. Most Jetta and Passat were built in the mid/late 90s, used as daily drivers, so they probably have high miles, and it couldn't hurt to replace the seal if the clutch is being serviced. The only additional step is flywheel removal. This project is rated 3/5 difficulty only because it requires transmission removal - once the transmission is out it's a very easy job. Here are some more notes on There are two types of rear main oil seals (RMS) on the mk3 TDI, rubber lipped with spring or the flat paper-like teflon/PTFE seal. The rubber RMS has two lips and has a metal spring on the inside edge. The disadvantage of the rubber spring type is that if there's already a groove worn into the crankshaft from the old seal, this seal may not seal it completely unless it sits into the same groove. The teflon type (pictured below) is a papery-plastic like seal with no metal spring and should be applied dry with no oil. Most replacement parts will be telfon. The advantage is that it has a wider lip that sweeps across the running surface of the crankshaft and leaves no groove. If there is a groove, the seal can bridge over a small groove and seal better than a rubber type. Teflon seals are also more durable and slippery. Although a teflon seal can be more difficult to install, your RMS should come with a plastic guide sleeve installation tool. It only fits one way and guides the RMS onto the crankshaft by stretching the seal a little bit for installation. Related links: , Parts and tools for rear main seal replacement 12 point sockets 10mm sockets torque wrench flywheel holder (or make your own) 6x 12 point bolts (one use only) VW# n 101 010 01 6x flywheel bolts (one use only) VW #n 902 061 03 For rear main seal replacement T-40 torx rear main seal VW # OR rear main seal VW # 068 103 171 f oil pan gasket VW# 044 103 609 d misc notes and optional part list The stock clutch was a 228mm sachs clutch with a solid flywheel. The clutch and pressure plate (and part number) is specific to the TDI. stock pressure plate VW# 044 141 025 x or #074 141 025 b (Sachs p/n: 021141025F) optional upgraded clutch pressure plate (1996 VW Golf VR6) VW# 021 141 025 F (Sachs p/n: 021141025F) stock clutch VW# 028 141 035 c or #028 141 035 bx (037141033B -- SACHS P/N) stock flywheel VW# 028 105 269 b (rebuilt so it has an x suffix) clutch pivot ball pin VW # 02a 141 777b clutch fork VW# 02j 141 719 c clutch fork spring VW# 012 131 741 release bearing is VW# 02a 141 165 g 6x 12 point bolts (one use only) VW# n 902 061 03 6x flywheel bolts (one use only) VW # n 101 010 01 Click links below to compare current pricing: Procedure Clutch/flywheel removal Remove the transmission. See for more details. I don't suggest using air tools inside the bellhousing since it blows clutch dust all over where it can be inhaled. Use a wet rag to wipe off the dust. To remove the pressure plate, use a 12 point socket to remove the 6 bolts. Below is a picture during installation, the bolts were already removed. I put a socket in the middle of the clutch to align it. Since this picture was taken during installation, you can see the CV joint covered with plastic wrap to keep it clean. To remove the flywheel, counterhold the flywheel and remove the 6 bolts holding the flywheel. Do not counterhold it by the 19mm bolt at the harmonic balancer/serpentine crankshaft bolt at the other (front) end of the crankshaft. It's ok to use that bolt to gently turn over the engine but it's a 1 use only stretch bolt and you don't want to use the crankshaft to counterhold when there is a correct way. To counterhold the flywheel, thread some of the transmission bolts back into place, use a (a lock that bites the flywheel and threads into 1 bolt hole), or a generic flywheel holder (pictured below with the breaker bar on it). The flywheel will only bolt on at one orientation due to the bolt hole alignment. An offset bolt makes sure that the TDC mark is at the correct spot. If you are installing a new flywheel, make a mark on the engine to note where TDC is. This lets you double check the position of the TDC mark on the new flywheel against the old flywheel. An easier way to counterhold the flywheel is to use a holder made to fit the teeth and bolts on the car. desiged for this engine and tooth spacing. Below is a thumbnail, click to enlarge. As mentioned in , the TDI clutch is pretty robust and the flywheel on my car (street use only) did not show much wear when I removed it. Although a dual mass flywheel (DMF) and clutch kit could replace your single mass flywheel, I don't think it's a good idea due to cost and reliability. I reused the single mass flywheel by scrubbing it with scotch-brite pads and then thoroughly cleaning it with brake cleaner. Disclaimer - this was what I chose to do on my car only, have your flywheel inspected by a professional for cracking, warping, and hot spots. You may need to have it resurfaced with a grinder stone before attempting to reuse it. Don't use a lathe to resurface a flywheel since it can skip over the hardened spots. Before putting it back on, I marked the TDC notch with paint for easy identification. For installation, use all new flywheel and pressure plate bolts. You can put a very thin smear of high temp grease on the splines. If in doubt, less is better since you don't want grease on the clutch. Wipe down the flywheel and pressure plate surfaces with brake cleaner before installation to remove machining oil. Again, the flywheel bolt holes will only align in one position so that the TDC mark is in the correct position. The VW flywheel bolts come with threadlocker, I would also suggest medium strength threadlocker on the pressure plate bolts since you don't plan on removing it soon. flywheel bolt torque: stage 1: 22 ft-lbs. stage 2: 44 ft-lbs. final stage: additional 1/4 turn (90o turn) pressure plate bolt torque: hand tight, then tighten diagonally or in a pattern, in stages, to a final torque of 15 ft-lbs. Tightening the bolts in stages like 2 turns each bolt in a star pattern diagonally across the pressure plate keeps it flat while tightening. Rear main seal removal Remove the shield (3x 10mm bolts) circled in yellow below. Remove the RMS flange. It uses (2x T40) torx bolts on the oil pan. Do not pry close to the flange surface! The area outlined in red is a safe place to pry it out. Below is the end of the crankshaft exposed. Note - I didn't cover the CV joint with plastic wrap because I was going to replace it anyways (the earlier picture with plastic wrap over the joint was taken during installation). Scrub away any corrosion on the block and wipe clean. The correct method to replace the RMS flange is to remove the oil pan, install the rear main seal, and then install the oil pan with a new oil pan gasket. This ensures that the flange is sealed correctly at the corner. I put some gasket maker at the corners before putting the new flange in and there are no leaks. Scrub the rust off with scotch brite and wipe clean. There was a paper gasket in the ETKA (the VW parts catalog) that goes under the flange but during removal, mine didn't. The replacement flange had a rubber seal against the engine block. If your situation is the same, I would not use the paper gasket. If you are using a teflon type seal, install it dry (no oil or grease) and always use the install guide sleeve to prevent damage to the seal. From what I've heard, teflon works better on diesels so don't worry if you had a rubber-spring type seal and were sold a teflon seal. Torque for the rear main seal flange is 7 ft-lbs. There is no torque listed in the bentley manual for the oil pan-rear flange torx bolts so use an educated guess.

How to change the manual transmission gear oil on: VW TDI 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Introduction To keep your VW Jetta TDI or VW Passat TDI transmission shifting smoothly and prevent excessive wear, make sure to change your transmission oil regularly. Anywhere between 60,000-100,000 miles is a good gear oil change interval. Related links: . (A common problem is mixing 1st and reverse gear). Parts 17mm allen wrench catch pan gravity pump (siphon), or compressed air tank, hose and funnel, or some other way of getting the oil into the transmission 2.0 Liters of gear oil (the transmission and differential share the same oil in the manual transmission) 75w90 synthetic gear oil (VW# g 005 000 is the .01 liter size) (VW# g 005 100 a1 is the 0.5 liter size), this is aka G50 gear oil paper towels and basic kitty litter or spill absorber Note: your transmission should use GL-4 for best results. Refer to your owner's manual for the most precise answer. Older VW transmissions should only use a GL-4 gear oil, not a GL-5 gear oil which includes Mobil 1 75-90. Many people have success with or (click these links to compare current pricing) or Royal Purple Max gear. I have tried a few different gear oils including the VW synthetic, I prefer Redline. If you want to play with different gear oils, below is a chart of gear oil viscosities from tdiclub. G50 is outlined in red. VI [email protected] [email protected] 128 159.0 18.3 = AMSOIL CTL SAE 50 Powershift GL-1 ..............16.7 = Motul MOTYLGEAR 75-90 GL-4/-5 ..............15.6 = VW G50/G51 GL-4 185 90.0 15.6 = Redline MT-90 75-90 GL-4 ..............15.2 = Mobil 1 Synthetic 75W-90 GL-5 ..............15.2 = Motul Gear 300 75-90 GL-4/-5 ..............15.0 = Elf Tranself Synthese FE 75-90 GL-4/-5 132 116.0 14.9 = AMSOIL AGL 80W-90 GL-5 177 84.5 14.7 = AMSOIL MTG 75-90 GL-4 ..... 76.6 14.2 = VW G052-911 133 76.2 11.0 = AMSOIL CTJ SAE 30 Powershift GL-1 183 56.2 10.6 = Redline MTL 70-80 GL-4 194 47.1 9.6 = AMSOIL MTF Synchromesh Trans fluid (GM/Chrysler) GL-? 208 41.6 9.1 = Penzoil Synchromesh trans fluid GL-? 198 34.0 7.5 = Redline D4 ATF Dexron III / Mercon / API GL-4 138 40.5 7.1 = AMSOIL CTG SAE 10W Powershift GL-1 ..... 31.2 6.5 = VW G-052-171-A2 GL-? ..... 35.1 6.4 = VW G-055-726-A2 GL-? ..............6.3 = VW G52 (part numbers G052726A2 / G05272601) Procedure To drain the gear oil and flush the fluid Engage the parking brake, jack up the car using the factory jack points, rest car securely on jack stands, chock the front and/or rear wheels as necessary, and make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. Make sure that the car is level so that the fluid in the transmission is level. Important: if the car is not level then the fluid level will not be accurate. Remove engine plastic under cover. Clean the area around the fill and drain holes - don't skip this step or else dirt may get into the transmission! Use 17mm allen wrench to remove the fill hole, circled in yellow. Always loosen or remove the fill hole first to make sure that you can refill the transmission. Loosen drain plug, circled in green. Put a catch pan under the drain plug, remove the plug, and let drain. Below is another view (from a later generation TDI, it's pretty much the same thing). Do not dump used gear oil onto the ground or into the water! If you can't find a dump for used coolant/antifreeze, engine oil, gear oil, or other car fluids, here's a search for your local waste drop off: . If some gear oil spilled onto the driveway, first wipe it up with towels. Then pour some driveway spill absorber or basic kitty litter on the spill. Step and grind the litter into a fine gravel or dust and then let it sit to absorb the stain. When the dust is wet, sweep it up and throw it out. To refill the transmission gear oil and fluid Clean the drain plug and put it back. Torque to about 20-25 ft lbs Once the gear oil comes out of the drain hole (assuming the car is level) or you have added enough gear oil, stop and put the cleaned fill plug back. Torque the fill plug to about 20-25 ft lbs. If you foamed the oil at all, add slightly more fluid to the transmission to compensate for the foamed fluid (the foamed fluid contains air). There are a few ways to get the fluid back in. You can use a gravity pump or siphon, where the bottle is higher than the fill hole and connected with a hose. You can also use a hand pump designed to force fluid out of a container. The easiest method is to use a funnel and hose, and snake it into the transmission fill hole from above. I feel that this also wastes the least fluid. Below is a picture of the yellow tube going into the fill hole, sorry that it isn't that great but it's not terribly interesting and if you got this far you know where the fill hole is. If you spilled some oil on the ground, first wipe it up with towels. Then pour some driveway spill absorber or basic kitty litter on the spill. Step and grind the litter into a dust and let it sit for a while. It needs time to soak up the stain. When it's saturated, sweep up the gravel/dust. Another method is to use compressed air to force the fluid into the fill hole. It's not possible to use a funnel on many cars so I originally made this for my Audi and on other cars. To use the compressed air method of adding fluid, take a compressed air tank and regulate the pressure down to a reasonable amount, just enough to get the fluid flowing. If the pressure is way too high, the bottle could pop, so start low and then increase the pressure if the fluid isn't moving fast enough. Use a short length of hose, just longer than what is needed to go from the bottom corner of the bottle to the transmission fill hole. Make sure the hose has at least 1/4 diameter, otherwise the fluid will have a hard time flowing through the hose. If you can't breathe through the hose, it's too thin. Poke a hole slightly smaller than the hose in the cap (smaller is better for a tight air seal), and a small hole (again, smaller is better) in the top of the bottle, marked by the green arrow in the below picture. Obviously the air input hose has to be above the fluid level or else it will leak out. Now stick the hose into the cap, making sure the hose goes all the way to the bottom. Make sure that the hose goes all the way to the bottom of the bottle otherwise you will get just foam instead of fluid. Too much foam will fool you into thinking there is more fluid than is actually in the transmission. If this happens, let it settle down and overfill it slightly. Also make sure the hose has a large enough inside diameter because thin hoses will transfer fluid at a snail's pace. Since a picture is worth a thousand words, here you go. Now press the compressed air nozzle into the hole in the top of the bottle marked with the green arrow in the picture above. Warning! Do this step last because you may accidentally press the trigger on the compressed air nozzle before the hose is in the fill hole. If this happens, your expensive fluid is now all over the ground. Apply gradually increasing amounts of pressure until the fluid is gone. If the bottle stretches a little that is okay. If you think it's going to pop, stop applying pressure. I put my gloved hands around the bottle cap and nozzle to prevent any fluid from hitting me in case the bottle cap blows off. As always, wear protective safety goggles. Like this tip? There are many more tips for the mechanic at . Note that the fill hole end of the hose has a coat hanger bent into an s-shape (so it stays in place) with a hook at the end. I did this so that I could use the same hose for both manual and automatic transmissions and to minimize dripping at the end of the hose. Some Audi transmissions have a cap on the fill hose which requires a 90o bend at the tip. Once the gear oil comes out of the drain hole (assuming the car is level) or you have added enough gear oil, stop and put the cleaned fill plug back. When you go to the next bottle, just poke another air intake hole in the next bottle and transfer the cap. Don't let the hose touch the ground because it will collect dirt. If it gets dirty just thoroughly wipe it off. When putting the fill and drain plugs back, you can wrap the threads once or twice with teflon tape to help ensure no leaks. After you're done, hang the hose with a paper towel or two on the end and let it drip dry.

Clutch FAQ for VW and Audi TDI engines

This article explains how a manual transmission TDI clutch works, the basics of the VW TDI clutch, and tips for choosing clutches. The first section lists your stock clutch part numbers/info and suggested replacement clutches. The later sections describe flywheel resurfacing and break in, and different clutch styles and materials. This article discusses the clutch/flywheel - for more on how a manual transmission works, see. For more on how a DSG transmission works, see . related links:

Choosing a clutch kit- quick suggestions

First, you need to figure out what the clutch will be used for and the estimated torque it needs to hold. The overwhelming majority of TDIs are used as daily drivers. The best clutch for this is a full faced street disk. In a gas car, torque capacity for the disk should be at least 10-20% greater than your target torque. Unlike gas cars, it's normal for a TDI to get large torque spikes so plan for excess capacity. About 25% should contain any spikes and allow for tweaking your setup in the future. Some aftermarket kits also rate their clutch kits by the highest possible torque they've tested, some rate their clutch kits by a more average sampling. Some rate flywheel and some wheel torque. Make sure to ask your vendor specifics about the exact clutch you are considering. Also avoid mixing valeo and sachs g60 clutches with the other's brand pressure plate (PP) since the height may be slightly different and is designed to work with the same brand clutch/PP. Most clutch kits include both the clutch and PP anyways. If putting a new clutch kit on your old DMF, sachs clutches won't fit luk DMF flywheels, etc. If using a valeo SMF clutch kit, their throwout bearing is also slightly thicker. For a quick answer to what clutch upgrades are available for your car, see below. If your car has more than basic power mods, consult your parts vendor to see what other clutch kits there are. Below are more clutch/flywheel FAQ. If changing a clutch and you have higher mileage, I also suggest a new clutch fork/release arm, along with the normal clutch kit components. You can also replace the pivot ball or fork spring but these seem to hold up well in the TDI. The fork is inexpensive and sometimes fails under normal use - replacement requires transmission removal. Pictured below left is a VW TDI fork (it's supposed to be straight) and another car's fork broken through normal use, below right. If you are putting in a much stronger clutch/stiffer pressure plate or have high mileage, you should consider replacing the fork with a new one. Suggested torque specs: If your clutch kit did not come with torque specs, here are some suggested specs for the G60/vr6 kit. These specs are superceded by any kit specific instructions. Medium strength threadlocker is suggested on the bolts and your new flywheel bolts should already have threadlocker on them. *According to the Permatex blue medium strength Loctite technical sheet, no adjustment in torque is needed. This is only for this exact product, always check your specific threadlocker's technical sheet for any adjustment torque when threadlocker is used. G60 flywheel: stage 1: 22 ft-lbs. stage 2: 44 ft-lbs. final stage: additional 1/4 turn (90o turn) VR6 pressure plate: hand tight, then tighten diagonally in stages to a final torque of 15 ft-lbs. (this keeps the pressure plate flat while tightening)

Mk3 VW TDI, 1996-1997 passat, 1997-1999 jetta

Stock clutch: These cars came from the factory with a 228mm sachs clutch with a solid flywheel. The clutch and pressure plate (and part number) is specific to the TDI. Misc parts list stock pressure plate VW# 044 141 025 x or #074 141 025 b (Sachs p/n: 021141025F) optional upgraded clutch pressure plate (1996 VW Golf VR6) VW# 021 141 025 F (Sachs p/n: 021141025F) stock clutch VW# 028 141 035 c or #028 141 035 bx (037141033B -- SACHS P/N) stock flywheel VW# 028 105 269 b (rebuilt so it has an x suffix) clutch pivot ball pin VW # 02a 141 777b clutch fork VW# 02j 141 719 c clutch fork spring VW# 012 131 741 release bearing is VW# 02a 141 165 g 6x 12 point bolts (one use only) VW# n 902 061 03 6x flywheel bolts (one use only) VW # n 101 010 01 Stronger clutch kits A basic upgrade would be the same sized 228mm TDI clutch with a pressure plate from a VW vr6 (6 cylinder gasoline engine). It looks similar to your existing parts but they are not the same. It will bolt directly to your existing flywheel and I suggest reusing the flywheel if it can be reused. If you are using the sachs clutch/pressure plate kit, the older suggestion was to use the vr6 pressure plate with a vr6 clutch. When used with a vr6 clutch/vr6 pressure plate, it can hold about 330 ft-lbs torque. Some report more driveline chatter in neutral. The sound is most noticeable when at a drive through. If you are not heavily modified, the current suggestion is to use the sachs TDI kit because it uses the vr6 pressure plate with a different, TDI specific clutch to reduce driveline chatter. This is the TDI/g60 kit from sachs. The stronger pressure plate gives more clamping force and the clutch disk is the same size. The coefficient of friction of the clutch should be about the same. Clutch pedal weight will be slightly less than stock versus the stock pressure plate, read the full FAQ article for more details. The 1990-1992 VW Corrado G60 solid flywheel will fit all model years and will also bolt up to the vr6 clutch kit. Note: you can use the vr6 clutch but cannot use the vr6 flywheel because 6 cylinder engines use a different bolt pattern. There are also clutch kits that use longer clutch hub springs that help smooth NVH.

Mk4 VW TDI, 1998-2005 new beetle, 1999.5-2003 jetta, 1999-2006 golf

Stock clutch: ALH engine TDI came with 2 different clutches, both are solid hub and used with a DMF 1998-2000 cars used a 220mm Luk clutch, stock PP is VW# 028 141 025 p, clutch is # 028 141 036 L 2000-2003 cars used a 228mm Sachs clutch, stock PP is # 038 141 025 d, clutch is # 038 141 031 h or 038 131 032 dx Model year 2000 cars may have either clutch but they probably have the sachs clutch. The Luk clutch/pressure plate is not the same clutch used in the VW 1.8T gas engine but they look similar. The 1.8T engine 220mm PP is #06a 141 025 e, the 1.8T clutch is #06a 141 031 d. The 1.8T engine also used a 225mm clutch kit. The Luk TDI clutch can hold more torque (about 250 ft-lbs) than the Sachs TDI clutch (about 190 ft lbs) before slipping. These suggested torque limits are conservative and on the low end, some can go higher without slipping. A power chip alone may be enough to cause the later clutches to slip, depending on the specific driver, car mods, power curve, etc. Your car may be slightly different. Clutch fork is VW# 02j 131 719 c, clutch fork spring is #012 131 741, clutch pivot ball pin is #02a 141 777, release bearing is #02a 131 165 a, pressure plate bolts (quantity:12) are #n 907 253 01, flywheel bolts (m10x1x22,3) #n 906 650 0 Stronger clutch kits The 228mm vr6 clutch is a good choice but will not bolt up to your existing DMF. The 228mm 1990-1992 VW Corrado G60 solid flywheel will fit all model years and will bolt up to the vr6 clutch and is the basic choice. Note: you can use the vr6 clutch with a G60 flywheel but cannot use the vr6 flywheel because 6 cylinder engines use a different crankshaft bolt pattern. Also double check the flywheel diameter. The clutch kit can hold about 330 ft-lbs torque. Clutch pedal weight will be slightly less than stock, read the full article for more details. There are also clutch kits that use longer clutch hub springs that smooth NVH but it will not be as great as a DMF. Also remember that you can't mix/match the valeo and sachs clutch kit with a different brand PP. Most clutch kits include both clutch and PP anyways.

Mk5 VW TDI 2005.5-2006 Jetta and 2009-2010 Jetta

Stock clutch: The car came from the factory with a DMF with solid hub clutch. Note: you can use the vr6 clutch kit with the 4 cylinder flywheel but cannot use the vr6 flywheel because 6 cylinder engines use a different bolt pattern. The 1990-1992 VW Corrado G60 solid flywheel will fit all model years and will bolt up to the vr6 clutch and is the basic choice. There are also clutch kits that use longer clutch hub springs that help smooth NVH but it will not be as great as a DMF. NOTE: there is a TSB on the sachs clutch wearing out early. See this on coverage of the sachs clutch until 4 years or 50,000 miles, whichever occurs first. This does not apply to the Luk clutch. Cars made after production date: CW 08/07 should use the Luk clutch. The best way to tell what clutch you have is to look through the clutch inspection window. Above the right axle flange on the transmission, there is an 8mm bolt holding the inspection window. The sachs and luk clutch have different shaped clutches, one is rounded and the other is more square. stock flywheel kit VW# 03g 105 264 [g or d] *(caution: #03g 105 266 be is the flywheel for the DSG transmission), 12 point flywheel bolts (quantity:6) n 903 207 01, clutch and pressure plate kit # 03g 141 015 n (luk) or 03g 141 015 k (sachs), clutch pivot ball pin is #02a 141 777 or 02a 141 777 B, clutch fork spring is #012 141 741, clutch fork is # 02j 141 719 c, release bearing is #02a 141 165 [a or m], 12 point pressure plate bolts for sachs clutch #n 903 207 01, pressure plate bolts for luk clutch #n 907 255 01 Stronger clutch kits Mk4-mk5 clutch kits are interchangeable.

Symptoms of a worn clutch

The TDI clutch is pretty sturdy. The most common reason for replacement is because it slips or it's broken. Clutch slip is when you notice the rpm move up without translating into forward motion (obviously not when the transmission is in neutral or if you have an automatic transmission). If you notice the rpm flutter and then go up with speed, you are slipping the clutch before it catches. This is more likely when you suddenly mash the accelerator pedal down because it's probably due to a torque spike. Once the torque spike subsides, the clutch grips and the rpm stabilize. This is most likely to occur in high gear. The best way to avoid large torque spikes is to apply power smoothly instead of mashing the go-pedal down. Due to the torque curve of a TDI, shifting at too low an RPM and giving too much load can aggravate slipping. There could also be glazing or oil leaking onto the clutch from the rear main seal which lowers the coefficient of friction. Regardless of the reason, you have too much torque for the clutch. If it's slipping occasionally, try to not apply accelerator pedal too aggressively and some of the clutch glazing will wear off over time, restoring some of the lost grip. If the clutch is simply not working, it could be a few things. If the clutch pedal goes to the floor or the shifter won't go into gear, it could be a problem with the clutch hydraulic system or shifter and not the actual clutch. The clutch springs (if using a solid flywheel) or spring holders can break off and damage or jam the clutch system as well. The clutch fork/bearing can also fail and cause poor clutch release/shifting. If quickly pumping the clutch pedal or bleeding the hydraulic system makes a difference, the problem is most likely with the master, slave cylinder, or hydraulic lines. The slave normally goes first because water and contaminants settle at the low spot which is the slave cylinder. Noise could also be the motor mounts, flywheel, or a loose slave cylinder. If the noise is growling only when the clutch pedal is pressed enough to make the release bearing touch the pressure plate, the sound is probably coming from the release bearing. The VW TDI clutch pedal does not have any adjustment screws or levers. How long can a clutch last? In theory, the clutch disk could last forever if you perfectly rev match every shift. However, the pressure plate springs that clamp the clutch disk can get worn, oil can leak onto the clutch, your friend goes drag racing when you ask him to pick you up at the airport, etc... I wouldn't replace a clutch on the TDI unless it's slipping. On some high performance cars, clutches might not last past 150,000 miles, some exotics only get 15,000-30,000 miles out of a clutch. The TDI has a pretty reliable clutch when power is left at stock power levels. With mk4+ cars, the DMF sometimes breaks and causes problems and the mk5 cars with a sachs clutch may be defective, see the TSB mentioned above. When I removed my TDI clutch due to excess power modifications at 160,000 miles, it was thick and was in excellent condition. Most pressure plate springs actually increase the amount of holding force as the clutch disk wears. However, if it passes the optimum point, holding force decreases. Glazing or oil on the clutch surfaces can further reduce holding force.

The purpose of a clutch

A clutch is a brake like disk sandwiched between the flywheel and pressure plate. It couples power in a manual transmissions. The flywheel is bolted to the crankshaft, and the pressure plate is bolted to the flywheel. The clutch is the only part that is connected to the transmission, through a splined hub at the center of the clutch. If you separate the transaxle from the TDI engine, you'd see this: (flywheel-pressure plate on left) In a TDI, when the clutch pedal is down, the pressure plate springs release the clutch and the clutch spins independently of the flywheel and pressure plate. When the clutch pedal is up, the pressure plate springs clamp the clutch, and the clutch, flywheel, and pressure plate are spinning as one. All TDI and most imports use a diaphragm type pressure plate. All TDI clutches are dry clutches, this article does not discuss the wet clutches used in the DSG manual - automatic transmission, please see for more details on the DSG transmission. On left is a short video explaining more on how a clutch works. To the right is a long video on how a clutch works. 6BaECAbapRg GRDWO5qo_iI

Resurfacing the flywheel and new clutch break-in

If the flywheel is warped (extremely unlikely for a TDI), has excessive hot spots, or cracks, it must be replaced. If it's in very good condition you can use scotch brite to clean the surface and remove any built up glazing. If you have a DMF (see below for more details), I recommend replacement in most cases instead of reuse. When I removed my non-DMF TDI clutch (shown above), it had a few marks but no unusual damage or wear. After scrubbing it with medium green scotch brite and washing with brake cleaner, it was reusable as is. Wash until the paper towel comes back clean to remove grease. You can use 3M roloc pads or scotch brite to clean the surface. I would recommended resurfacing the flywheel if you have any doubt if it's reusable as-is. If you have very high mileage, it's also a good time to replace the rear main oil seal. If the seal leaks oil onto the clutch, it can cause your brand new clutch to slip. If you have lower mileage I would leave the oil seal alone unless it is leaking. A professional flywheel resurfacing involves removing the alignment pins and using a blanchard grinder on the friction surface that the clutch touches and the outer step/shelf that the pressure plate bolts onto. Below right is a picture of a resurfaced flywheel (non-TDI). You can see the pattern the blanchard grinder left on the surface. A lathe is not a good way to resurface a flywheel because the cutting tool can skip over hardened spots and leave an uneven surface. Below left is a picture of an unusable flywheel with hot spots and cracks. A TDI doesn't rev that high and you should get wheelspin in drag style launches instead of excessive clutch slip, so most TDI flywheels can be reused. Note: wheel hop quickly kills differentials and shocks the driveline in a really bad way so if you feel the wheels quickly catching and bouncing while doing drag style acceleration, immediately let off the accelerator pedal. Never use the clutch to hold the car on a hill! It won't burn up the clutch to the degree shown below but it causes totally uncessary heat and wear. When resurfacing a stepped flywheel, they must remove equal amounts of material from both the friction surface and the outer step/shelf that the pressure plate bolts to. This keeps the lever arm relationship between the pressure plate and friction surface equal. Failure to keep this relationship equal changes the force that the lever arm of the pressure plate springs. If you go to a machine shop, tell them that you want to measure the step and runout after they're done. Double check their work by measuring it yourself before and after. If the step or runout is off, you'll have a poorly operating clutch or you'll have to pull the clutch again to have them fix the step height. This can be prevented by quickly verifying the step height before and after. If the flywheel step is too shallow or lower than the correct measurement, the pressure plate diaphragm compresses more and the springs are going to be more flat. This may lead to release problems if the travel of the clutch release fork and throw out bearing is maxed out when the clutch pedal is fully depressed. The clutch might also slip since the diaphragm is compressed beyond the point of its maximum torque capacity. If the flywheel step is too deep or high, the pressure plate diaphragm compresses less and its fingers are going to be less flat. The clutch will disengage better (since the clutch fork will have enough travel left), but the pedal will be heavier as the maximum torque capacity point has to be passed when disengaging the clutch. The installed height of the pressure plate will decrease with the clutch disc wear and the maximum torque capacity will consequently decrease. Shimming the pivot bolt of the clutch fork or excess wear on the clutch fork or pivot due to a heavy clutch pedal can also change the distance that the throw out bearing moves when you press on the clutch pedal. Some general tips: when putting on the clutch kit, wipe down the flywheel and pressure plate with rubbing alcohol or brake cleaner to remove any grease or oil from machining or your hands. Use a clutch alignment tool when centering the clutch. Use a THIN layer of high temp grease on the input spline. When tightening the pressure plate bolts, tighten in a diagonal pattern and in stages. If you have an even number of bolts you can do 2 turns on each opposite bolt, moving around the plate, until almost at final torque stage. Once they're all loosely tight, tighten them to the final torque. Skip 1 bolt, skip 1, skip 2 also works depending on how many bolts there are and in what pattern. This ensures that the pressure plate stays flat while you tighten it to the flywheel.

Clutch break in

To break in the new clutch, use lower load/rpm operation with smooth engagements and avoid excess slipping. 300 miles of city driving should be enough. Harsher materials such as feramic or puck clutches will wear into the flywheel and pressure plate more than softer materials such as organic disks, so plan for longer break in before full clutch clamping force is available. Harsher clutches need to wear into flywheel and pressure plate before they will hold their full rated force. Some minor chatter upon clutch engagement is normal, especially for harder clutches, it should go away as the clutch breaks in.

Flywheel and clutch types and materials

Solid flywheel

This is the type of flywheel used on most older cars. It is the factory flywheel on the mk3 TDI. It is a solid piece of cast iron with a starter ring gear that is heat shrunk onto the outer diameter. When you turn the ignition key to start, the starter engages the ring gear which turns the flywheel. It rarely fails but does not dampen any engine vibrations. Because of this, street clutches used with a solid flywheel have damping springs on the hub. The flywheel is typically lighter than a DMF but because the clutch has springs, the clutch is heavier. Even though it's very rare for the flywheel to break, the clutch used with a solid flywheel has springs that can break out of their spring windows and cause problems. Here is a picture of a lightened racing aluminum flywheel. The starter ring gear is on the outermost diameter. This specific flywheel is made of aluminum with steel inserts for the friction surface. Since it's aluminum, the pressure plate holes use helicoils. The reason it has segmented plates instead of a solid ring is so the segments can withstand abuse and expand independently without warping. Lightened aluminum flywheels can warp the friction surface when overheated due to the differences between the inner and outer diameter. Since the outer diameter travels a greater distance in one rotation than the inner diameter, a slipping clutch will heat and warp the outer diameter more and decrease the amount of surface area that is gripping, leading to more slipping. This is not a factor for a daily driver, but if you plan on drag racing the car, a non lightened solid flywheel will act as a better heat sink and hold more kinetic energy, giving better 60' times in drag racing. A lightened flywheel is more suited for road racing or autocross. For daily driving, I recommend a stock weight flywheel since most will find it gives better drivability, comfort, less noise/vibration, and because it's more economical to reuse the stock flywheel. A diesel relies on compression to ignite the fuel and a stock weight flywheel will also prevent loss of rotational inertia. If your car already uses a solid flywheel, my suggestion is to reuse it. Stock TDI flywheels weigh about 20 lbs and help act as a damper to the jerky power delivery of a diesel. This is also why you should avoid lightening the injection pump sprocket or other TDI sprockets. Heavier sprockets act like flywheels and help dampen the jerky vibration of the injection pump and crankshaft on the timing belt and other components. Don't forget the pressure plate Your clutch kit normally includes a pressure plate. The pressure plate clamps the clutch on the opposite side of the flywheel. The pressure ring, the contact surface of the pressure plate, is normally made of a single piece of cast iron (pictured below).

The dual mass flywheel (DMF)

A dual mass flywheel (DMF) is a flywheel which is 2 pieces connected with a damping system. Because the flywheel handles damping, the clutch can be made without a spring hub which makes the clutch lighter. A lighter clutch reduces synchronizer wear. The tradeoff is increased complexity and a heavier flywheel because of the addition of internal dampers. If you replace the DMF with a solid flywheel, it is suggested to use a clutch with a spring hub. A solid replacement will chatter more than your old flywheel because even though the spring hub is helping absorb energy, the overall effect is not as great compared to a DMF. These low RPM vibrations are best dampened by a DMF. There is a harmonic balancer pulley on the other side of the crankshaft but these are most needed at higher RPM and won't dampen idle chatter. Almost all new German cars (manual transmission) come with a DMF. Because they're 2 big pieces and many small pieces instead of 1 solid piece, it's possible for the dampers to fail. Typical failure modes in the TDI DMF are a separation of the DMF causing failure of the damping system and sometimes even liberation of fragments, flying pieces of the flywheel which can damage the transmission. Black leaking oil (actually DMF grease) could from a leaking flywheel instead of a oil leaking out of the rear main crankshaft seal. The real problem with the DMF is that they are tuned to a diesel's specific resonant characteristics, power levels, and can overpower the springs inside the flywheel if you raise the energy absorbed by the flywheel too much. A heavily modified car might exceed the original design limits so it's suggested to use a solid flywheel on a heavily modified car. If the flywheel is damaged and the layers slip too much, it can even break and cover the flywheel bolt holes, making removal a real problem. If this happens, you can sometimes use a prybar to move the bolt holes into the correct position. Other times it's completely jammed and you have to cut holes to access the bolt heads. An example of this from twotone is pictured below. If it's really jammed like this you have to cut away some metal to access the bolt heads. If your car uses a DMF, my suggestion is to replace it as necessary with a direct replacement or a regular flywheel. Select a solid regular flywheel or DMF depending on your power modification level, personal tolerance for increased NVH, and car history/mileage and driving style. I do not suggest buying a used DMF with an unknown history because the internals are considered a wear part. Some DMF are rebuildable and DMF can be resurfaced, but the TDI DMF cannot be rebuilt with new internals. Most people report that the VW TDI DMF has very hard surface and successfully reused it after a good cleaning and scrubbing with scotch brite. Unless you are using the car for drag racing, it's likely that the flywheel surface is reusable. Almost all people who switch to a solid flywheel are happy with it but notice slightly more NVH in idle and a clutch pedal engagement slightly closer to the floor. Below is a cutaway illustration of a manual transmission DMF and some pictures (click to enlarge thumbnails). 2376 2377 Below is a DMF from a 2006 DSG transmission (automatic) taken apart. Please note: DSG flywheels and not interchangeable with manual flywheels! (click to enlarge thumbnails) 2373 2374 2372 2375 Here's a video of a bad DMF in a DSG. If you need to replace a bad DSG DMF, the BRM 2005.5-2006 and CJAA/CBEA 2009+ flywheels are all interchangeable even though the CJAA/CBEA flywheel is 1mm thicker. 0zrO9K0KSmQ Other dampening factors Something else to consider is the front crankshaft damper, the harmonic balancer pulley. This also has a small effect on reducing NVH, especially on the serpentine belt, alternator, AC, power steering, etc. Some engines can safely use a lightened pulley or underdrive (smaller diameter) pulley to reduce parasitic power losses on the engine. I do not recommend using a lightened or underdrive pulley on the TDI engine. The power pulses in the 4 cylinder TDI engine are abrupt and it's partly why a TDI engine has more vibration than a comparable 4 cylinder gas VW engine. I believe that the stock weight pulley is needed to dampen the greater stresses that a diesel engine sees. In addition, the moment of inertia is close to the pulley axis, so there is probably only a very small power increase by using a lighter pulley. The mk3 pulley will slip over time and will make a chirping noise, especially on cold starts. If your mk3 TDI makes a chirping noise that increases with lower temperatures and cold starts and higher electrical load, the pulley and tensioner should be replaced with the revised pulley. See for the detailed procedure. The mk4 pulley used 2 different harmonic balancers, 1998-2002 pulleys are slightly heavier than the 2003-2005 pulleys and are interchangeable as long as you use the correct length allen bolts for the pulley. Early mk4 harmonic pulley allen bolts are slightly longer than the later mk4 allen bolts.

Clutch types and materials

There are a few types of clutch designs. Keep in mind that clutch feel, chatter, drivability, and smoothness is very subjective. Don't buy more clutch than you realistically need since it's normally at the loss of drivability. If you are using a solid flywheel I suggest using a full face sprung hub clutch. If you are using a dual mass flywheel you should use a full face solid hub clutch. Most TDI are not being used for racing, so a full faced clutch is a better choice than a puck clutch for street use. A full face means that the clutch is shaped like a ring with the splined hub in the middle. All TDI clutches are dry clutches, this article does not discuss the wet clutches used in the DSG manual - automatic transmission, see the DSG FAQ here for details on the DSG transmission. A full face sprung hub clutch uses springs in the center splined hub and a marcel spring (looks like a thin wavy ring) between the plates to help absorb energy transmitted from the engine and make clutch engagement smoother. It is held together with rivets that go though one face, through the marcel springs sandwiched between the faces, and to the other face. With a solid flywheel, a sprung hub with full face will give the smoothest clutch engagement. Pictured below left is a full faced sprung hub. The springs soften driveline shock. The only disadvantage is that the springs could break out of the spring window, pictured below right. A clutch like this one was used on all mk3 TDI. Clutches used with DMF normally use a solid hub because the DMF does an even better job of absorbing energy than a sprung hub clutch. Because a solid hub clutch has less mass, it puts less wear on the transmission synchronizers. Since there are no hub springs, it's also less likely to break and damage the clutch system. All mk4+ TDI used a solid hub full faced disk. In theory, switching to a solid flywheel and using a sprung hub clutch increases transmission synchro wear due to heavier clutch disk weight, but the difference is minimal. The same basic transmission is used in the mk3 cars, and they all came with sprung hub clutches, so in reality, driving/shifting style is a far greater factor in synchro and transmission wear. A solid hub looks like the hub in the puck clutch pictured below. A puck clutch (pictured below) is a clutch that has a star shaped friction surface instead of a disk. Some are solid hubs, others are sprung. It's better than a full face disk for racing use because it clamps faster and harder due to the materials used and the design. They could be used for street use but have lower lifespan and an on-off engagement because the design and materials used make it hard to slip. People watching you parallel park with a puck clutch may think you don't know how to drive stick because trying to slip one will cause the car to buck. I don't think many TDI drivers are drag racing enough to warrant a puck clutch so I do not suggest a puck clutch. A twin disk system is a clutch kit that uses two clutch disks, more on this below. In my opinion, this is overkill for any 4 cylinder TDI. If you had a 6 cylinder AWD drag racing TDI, a twin disk would be a great choice to avoid constantly frying clutches.

Clutch disk materials

Keep in mind that some disks have one side made of one material and the other side made of another. Keep in mind that clutch feel, chatter, drivability and smoothness is very subjective. Old cars used clutches that contained asbestos, I don't think anyone sells these in the US anymore but the general precaution when working on an old car, especially pre-1990, is to treat it as if dust inside the transmission bellhousing could contain asbestos. I don't use air tools on the flywheel to keep dust down. Pictured on the below is a kevlar disk in yellow, copper disk at bottom left, and black organic face disk at bottom right. All use sprung hubs. Some clutch material terms are misnamed because of marketing. Most street disks are made with organic faced material. This is similar to brake pad material. It has the smoothest engagement but can slip if it overheats. If you are shifting under high rpm and heavy load, this can overheat an organic disk, resulting in a burning smell and a lower coefficient of friction. Typical stop-go driving is not enough to overheat this disk but excessive slipping can. Full throttle drag races with heavy clutch slipping can glaze this type of disk. The nice thing about organic disks is that if it starts to smoke, let it cool and drive normally. It may regain most of it's clamping force. It is probably the best choice for a smooth, long life, lightweight clutch on a daily driver. Feramic is a good choice for mild drag racing and street use. It is a mix of ceramic and sintered iron. It's normally found in a full faced disk and can become hotter than an organic disk without weakening, about 900o. Because of this, it's a good choice if you want a smooth street disk and plan on doing an occasional drag race. However, since it is also heavier than organic disks, it will wear out the transmission synchros faster than a lighter disk. It will also not rev as fast but the effect will not be very noticeable on a TDI. Some clutches also use feramic on the flywheel side to withstand slipping and organic on the pressure plate side for smoother engagement and weight loss. It is also a good choice for AWD vehicles used in drag racing because an AWD launch involves more slipping than a 2WD vehicle. Sintered iron is harder than feramic. An iron clutch will have more grip than a feramic clutch but will wear out the flywheel and pressure plate faster and are heavier. An iron clutch will be slightly softer than a ceramic clutch but both are considered aggressive clutches. Expect a short clutch/flywheel life, I do not recommend for the TDI. Kevlar clutches can be more expensive than an organic clutch. Engagement depends on temperature and like feramic, it can withstand a lot more slipping and higher temps than an organic clutch. This clutch is resistant to glazing but once it does, will have a hard time recovering. For a more modified car, this may be a good choice and it should have a longer clutch life compare to other aggressive clutches. Ceramic clutches are harder than sintered iron and is part of what feramic clutches are a blend of. A ceramic clutch is considered a hard clutch and is very grabby. It is more of a race clutch than for street due to it's hard engagement. Bronze alloy is often used for puck clutches. Because you normally find this on a puck clutch, it will have harsh engagement. It will also wear into the flywheel more and have a shorter lifespan. It will also have a shorter lifespan, not recommended for a TDI. This is more of a race clutch than a street clutch material. Carbon clutches are normally used for racing applications where it is expected to slip a lot. They can withstand up to 2000o temps without destruction. Engagement changes a lot depending on temperature and they normally slip a bit under normal street use. This is a clutch that needs to slip and heat up before reaching maximum holding force. It's actually a clutch which you can slip without damaging the clutch material. Again, since drivability is a very subjective term, these suggestions are conservative. I would not use this on a street car.

Bearing wear vs increased pressure plate clamping force

You may be asking yourself, to keep smooth engagement and increase clamping force, why not just use less aggressive clutch disks with a stronger pressure plate? There is room for the designers to adjust clutch material and pressure plate strength, but in general, you don't want to increase pressure plate clamping force too much for a number of reasons. The VW TDI engine is only 4 cylinders and doesn't make a huge amount of torque compared to much larger performance engines, but it's part of why you don't want a clutch kit that is overkill. Again, modify your car with a goal. First is increased clutch pedal effort. Everything else being equal, your clutch pedal will be harder to actuate with a stronger pressure plate. However, all clutches and pressure plates are not equal. When moving from a stock TDI clutch kit to a stock vr6 clutch kit, you use the vr6 pressure plate. The diaphragm spring lever arms are not at the same fulcrum as the TDI spring arms, so it actually reduces pedal effort. Below is a cutaway picture from luk.com of a pressure plate. The side view shows the diaphragm spring pivoting on a fulcrum. By changing the fulcrum, you change pedal effort and clamping force. A very heavy pedal also takes a toll on other clutch system components. If you are building a setup with a very heavy pedal, depending on mileage, you should rebuild the clutch/slave cylinders as preventative maintenance and replace the fork pivot ball with a hardened piece with the same dimensions. I've broken clutch forks and noticed wear on non TDI fork pivot balls/pins as well. Due to the relatively low power levels of the 4 cylinder TDI, there are not a large number of broken forks but it's a good idea to replace it at the same time as clutch replacement if you have high mileage. Clutch pedal bushing wear and flexing of the firewall where the clutch pedal is mounted can also be a big problem with heavy clutch pedals by affecting clutch pedal action. This is not a significant factor with the 4 cylinder TDI due to the relatively light clutches used. Here are some pictures of the front and back of a pressure plate. The release bearing was placed on top of the PP springs. Your TDI clutch may look different. Another big reason why it's better to use a more aggressive clutch material and a lighter spring is because it reduces axial loading on the crankshaft bearings. The disadvantage is that a more aggressive material tends to have a hard engagement and/or shorter life. A heavier pedal, especially on cold starts where the crankshaft thrust bearing is not getting lubrication, does wear parts more than they were designed for. The increased load on the crankshaft bearings and hydraulic system is only when the clutch pedal is down. This is because when the clutch pedal is up and the clutch is engaged, the force of the pressure plate is working against the pressure plate bolts which are attached to the flywheel. When you press the pedal down, the release bearing is pushing the pressure plate which is pushing the crankshaft. This is another reason why it's better for engine wear to leave the shifter in neutral and clutch pedal up when you are sitting at a stoplight. This also prevents the car from suddenly moving forward if the clutch pedal suddenly fails but it slows your reaction if you need to quickly move forward, like if you are about to get rear ended. If your car has a low oil pressure problem, this makes the problem even worse. Again, the VW TDI uses a pretty light clutch with a pretty stout engine, so this issue does not appear to be a major factor for the TDI. To reduce pressure plate load and increase clutch strength, a twin disk is a good option. This doubles the friction surface area which doubles the torque rating with the same clamp load. It lets you use a less aggressive friction material which also increases drivability. In my opinion, this is way overkill for a 4 cylinder TDI. Here are two examples of twin disk clutch kits, from and .

How to adjust your VW-Audi shifter cables

This article shows how to adjust the shifter cables on your mk3 (3rd generation), mk4 (4th gen), mk5 (5th gen), and mk6+ gen VW

Introduction Mk3 is shown first and is different from mk4 and mk5. The mk6 is probably the same as mk5 cables. Poor shifting could also be improved by changing the gear oil with new oil or using a different thickness oil. Thinner oil will let the synchronizers engage quickly, especially in cold climates. For tips on flushing the gear oil on a mk3 VW Jetta TDI or Passat, see For tips on draining the manual transmission on the mk4 VW Golf TDI, Jetta, or New Beetle, see For the tricky procedure on the mk5 VW Jetta TDI, see There is no clutch pedal or clutch master cylinder rod screw adjustment. It is a hydraulic system so there are no cables. If there is poor clutch pedal action it could also be caused by a worn clutch pedal assembly (unlikely), worn/bent clutch slave cylinder rod (unlikely), bent clutch release lever, worn release lever pivot. This assumes the stock setup and not a shimmed pivot or different specification on the flywheel step. For a review and installation of the dieselgeek sigma 5 short shifter, see . Procedure Mk3 Jetta and Passat shifter cable adjustment Remove the air intake filter box or battery as required for access. A common problem is not being able to shift into 1st gear. Another problem is getting reverse when you shift into first. These may be due to cable stretch and play in the plastic shifter bracket. Loosen the nut (yellow arrow) and move the cable a hair towards the front of the car. Retighten the nut. Go for a test drive and make sure that you aren't getting reverse when you shift into first. If so, you adjusted it too far. Just move it 2 millimeters per adjustment. The plastic shifter linkage has also been known to break due to age and wear. To replace it, remove the adjustment nut and slip the cable off the end by lifting the retainer up. If you remove it, grease the pivots. Mk4, mk5, and mk6 shifter adjustment procedure The factory service manual says that on the mk4 and newer, you have to remove the center console and lock the shifter knob to adjust the shifter cables. This is shown in the video at the bottom. I suggest only adjusting the cable ends because it's easier and faster to pull the spring back and move the shifter cable end forward or backwards 1 thread. If it's still not working then try the method in the factory service manual. Have a helper move the shifter inside the car while you watch the shifter assembly on the transmission (shown below). Fore-aft adjustment should be the cable on your right when standing in front of the car, looking down, and shown in the picture. Left-right adjustment should be the cable on the left. On the mk4 you should have enough room to reach in there. On the mk5 Jetta and the mk6 Golf you must remove the engine air filter box for clearance, see for details. Below left is a mk4 shifter assembly (2002 model linkage shown earlier versions (2000) have slightly different cable ends that the Bentley manual recommends be replaced each time they’re removed from the knobs on the shift levers as they utilise a press fit; earlier designs (1998 New Beetle) are closer to the MkIII design.) Below right is the mk5 with the battery box removed for illustration. Pull the black ring back to compress the spring (removed for illustration). This will expose the shifter cable end and release its threads from the threads on the cable. Move it forwards or backwards 1 thread/notch to skip over the threads and then release the spring to clamp the end onto the cable threads. If you wish to lock the springs in the compressed position, turn the black plastic ring. This is not necessary if you're just moving the end slightly - just pull the ring back, adjust, and release. You can also grease the pins on the linkage to make the ends move smoother. Release it by lifting the center tab on the clip. I suggest doing it while it's secured to the cable so that it stays indexed to the cable end. Go for a test drive and check for proper shifter response. Here is a video from showing more details on adjusting the 5 or 6 speed manual transmission shifter. sheTKD03hmo

Shock and strut replacement on a mk3 VW Passat TDI (due to special tools required and rusty bolts) Introduction This article shows how to replace the struts and shock absorber on your mk3 VW Passat or VW Jetta 1996-1999. Shocks/struts, springs, and other suspension bushings and mounts weren't meant to last forever. Carrying heavy loads, rough roads, or a damaged shock/strut boot may cause the suspension to wear out faster than normal. If you want to return to a like-new ride, replacing these parts will help. However, to fully restore your suspension to new levels, you should replace all of the suspension bushings in addition to the shocks, springs, and mounts. Shocks/struts, springs, and other suspension bushings and mounts were not meant to last forever. As a rough test of strut condition, push down on a corner of the car. If it bounces and returns in one or two bounces, it is probably in good shape. The second bounce should be a lot smaller than the first. Also look at the shock/strut damper piston. If you can see the metal piston, consider changing the boot because the boot serves to protect the seals from dirt. Your VW TDI came stock with gas dampers. If you switched to liquid shocks, check for pooled or a noticeable amount of liquid around the shock piston which indicates bad shock seals. The OEM Boge/Sachs shocks are vilified because they're soft but their construction quality is good. But because they're so soft and combined with worn bushings, worn shocks result in a poor ride. Note that shock/strut/damper are often used interchangeably. A damper is any shock absorber . A strut is a damper that replaces the upper suspension arm and normally carries the spring. This is called a McPherson strut and is what VW uses. A shock is normally just the damper. Struts do not control the ride height unless the perch is different from stock. The springs carry the weight of the car and control ride height, the struts just dampen the motion. The passat sedan, passat wagon, and jetta shock/strut replacement are all about the same. However, in the passat station wagon, you must remove some interior trim to get access to the strut upper retaining bolts. The jetta's strut is mounted slightly differently. This article will show strut replacement in a passat wagon, differences are noted. Here are some brand/models that people have been happy with in the past but remember that ride quality and harshness are highly subjective! Someone's soft ride may feel hard to you. Sporty to one person may be kidney bruising to you. Brands that many people are happy with are Bilstein, Koni, and Monroe. The Monroe sensatracks are said to be comfortable. The Koni reds are a premium stock-like ride, the koni yellows are a sport-ride and comparable to the bilstein HD. The Bilstein TC (touring class) shocks are an economy twin tube design and is a close to OEM but stiffer ride. The Bilstein HD are a stiffer monotube shock and a good choice for a sportier (stiffer and rougher). Both are for stock height suspensions. There are also TC sport suspension, which are designed to be used as replacement with the sport suspension. These are a lowered design and to be used only with lowered or sport suspensions, these are N/A for the mk3. I avoid the OEM VW sachs or boge replacements because they are more expensive and softer than the TC touring class shocks. For the Mk4 cars, many people say that the Bilstein TC shocks tend to be harsh, especially in the rear. Most people do not experience this with the shocks for the Mk3 cars, probably because of the 14 wheel instead of 15 wheels and different springs. Tire sidewalls are an important part of the suspension, taller tire sidewalls (higher aspect ratio) will dampen more than thin short sidewalls. This is also a good time to inspect the brakes, anti-roll/sway bar bushings, and lower control arm (LCA) bushings, in that order of priority. The sway bar bushings are worn out by 100,000 miles and should be replaced as needed. A symptom of bad sway bar bushings is a clunking noise from the front when you go over small bumps and potholes. The LCA bushings are the same part across the mk3/mk4 TDI and Audi TT except for the early Audi TT bushings which were discontinued. Your car will need an alignment after strut replacement. CAUTION - do not put the jack stands on the suspension or rear axle. This can act like a fulcrum and cause the car to fall down. You need the suspension to be able to move while you work on it. Always use the factory jack points as specified in the service manual. This page has pictures and tips only and does not supercede the factory service manual. See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Parts 7mm allen wrench for counter holding OEM strut with 21mm nut torx sockets if using bilstein struts for counter holding bilstein 22mm nut 17mm wrench/socket for the lug nuts and caliper bolts 18mm wrench/socket for the lower strut nuts 21mm and 22mm deep offset box wrenches, a 21mm and 22mm pass through wrench such as the gearratchet, metalnerd specialty tools VW/Audi suspension special tools, or VW tool #3186 NOTE: 21mm is for the bilstein strut nut, 22mm is for the OEM VW nut. A 13/16 spark plug socket will also work if it has a way to hold it from the side. metalnerd also sell a tools for counterholding the strut : VW tool #3186 is not recommended if using aftermarket struts since they use different sized nuts. 2 spring compressors (1 set) - these can be rented from autozone for free Pair of shocks/struts. Note: always replace in left and right pairs, preferably front and back as well. strut mounts and bump stops dust boots for the shocks new strut bearings for the front struts Front strut replacement procedure If this is for a passat station wagon, you can either try to pry out the trim or remove it all for easier access. If you don't want to remove the trim, read this article thoroughly and the station wagon trim removal writeup : and you should be able to figure how to to avoid removing the trim. If you can't figure it out then remove the trim. I prefer to remove the trim so that soundproofing can be added at the same time. For all other models, just open the trunk and fold down the seats to get access to the rear struts. To remove the rear struts, first examine the below pictures. The rear seat belt retractor covers the upper strut nuts. The retractor is held in by (1x17mm) bolt, circled in yellow, remove the bolt and retractor. This is why it may be easier if you remove the trim: there are (2x17mm) bolts, locations circled in red, that hold in the rear shock and it is hard to access the rear one unless you remove the seat belt retractor, which you remove the cover, which is easier if you remove the rest of the trim. Engage the parking brake, jack up the car using the factory jack points and as recommended in the factory service manual, rest car securely on jack stands, chock the front and/or rear wheels as necessary, and make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. CAUTION - do not put the jack stands on the suspension or rear axle. This can act like a fulcrum and cause the car to fall down. You need the suspension to be able to move while you work on it. Always use the factory jack points as specified in the service manual. Each strut is held in place by 3 bolts/nuts. The rear is held by 2x 17mm upper bolts, 1x 18 lower nut/bolt, the front by 1x 22 upper nut, 2x 18 lower bolts. Remove as necessary. Rear shock replacement Below is a passat rear lower shock, strut outlined in yellow. Remove the lower 1x 18mm nut/bolt and the 2x 17mm upper bolts. There is also a plastic clip at the top. The lower bolt may be rusty so soak it in PB Blaster beforehand to loosen it up. You can also use a torch to heat the seized bolt. Remove the entire strut/spring assembly from the car before compressing the spring. The springs are not under tension against the car body, they are under tension against the spring seat at the top of the strut. (front is pictured below, rear is similar). Once the strut assembly is out of the car, use 2 spring compressors on opposite sides to compress the spring. It should look like this. Lubricate the threads with WD-40 or grease so that there is less resistance to tightening it. CAUTION: Be careful when using spring compressors since any failure or slipping could result in the sudden release of the spring, strut, or other stuff on the assembly! Don't stick your hands near the springs while the springs are being compressed! You could get pinched or the spring compressors could fail! Always point the spring and strut away from yourself so that if it does fail, it doesn't hit you! I use an air wrench to easily tighten the compressor bolts. If you don't have a spring compressor, they can be loaned at many auto parts stores for free. Then remove the nut holding the upper spring seat. The spring will then come off and you can then put the compressed spring onto the replacement. Note the assembly of each strut before disassembling. For the rears, it goes: plastic cap, (remove with screwdriver pry), o-ring, strut nut, metal mount, rubber mount, strut mount (with foam gasket, it's best not to try to remove it), rubber mount with metal tube, metal cap, washer, bump stop, as seen below. Note where the spring seats against the lower spring seat. Reassembly is the reverse of removal. Do not use the nut at the end of the strut to compress the spring because this can damage the bearing or crack the bearings or set the nut to the improper torque! You must compress the springs with the spring compressor and then use a torque wrench to tighten the nut to the proper torque, and then release the spring compressor. Double check the spring position against the bottom of the strut after releasing the spring compressors. You may have noticed painted dots on the spring, these are color codes to identify spring rate. NOTE - when replacing and tightening suspension components, always do it in the weighted position. This means that the normal weight of the car should be loading the suspension. The suspension and shocks should be in the middle position - not fully extended and not fully compressed. You can place a jack under the suspension arm to load the suspension, just make sure to not shift the car off the jack stands, and do not compress the suspension arm all the way up. Front struts Below is the passat front lower strut and wheel hub. The strut can be slid out towards the engine, just push the strut in the direction of the arrow. Counterhold each nut bolt/while loosening the other side. If you find that you don't have room to get the strut assembly out, just compress the springs a little and push down on the suspension arm. Make sure the car is secure while doing this and any other work on your car. You can use an impact wrench to blip off the 22mm upper nut but don't use an impact wrench for installation! The issue is that the nut must be counterheld against the strut shaft with a 7mm allen wrench or else it will just spin. You can use a deep offset wrench, a pass through wrench, the (pictured again here), or VW tool #3186. I prefer to use the gearwrench pass through wrench because it can use both a 21mm and 22mm socket among other sizes. The advantage of the metalnerd tool is that it has a square cutout for adapting a torque wrench (always mate at 90o angle!), is cheaper than buying a new wrench set, and works. It also has both 21mm and 22mm ends for OEM and aftermarket struts. Below are two views, of a gearwrench, a pass through wrench that lets you stick an allen wrench through it. The third picture shows a wrench with a torx tip going through a spark plug socket that is held with a wrench. If you don't counterhold the shaft then the nut and strut will just spin. Again, you could use an impact wrench to loosen the nut but do not use an impact wrench to tighten the nut! Here is a 13/16 spark plug socket, just remember that some aftermarket struts may have a different size nut. Here is another idea - two nuts tightened against each other can counterhold the shaft - my VW strut did not have enough threads to do this and I had the tools. Reassemble as necessary. Do NOT use the nut at the end of the strut to compress the spring. You must compress the springs with the spring compressor and then use a torque wrench to tighten the nut to the proper torque, and then release the spring compressors. Otherwise, you could damage the bearings or set the nut to the improper torque. For the fronts, it goes: top cap, nut, rubber mount, nut, front strut bearing, bump stop, dust boot. Again, note the dots on the springs and their orientation to where the spring seats against the lower strut spring seat! The dots are color codes to identify spring rate. Double check that the spring is still seated properly against the strut after releasing the spring compressors as it may move when releasing the spring tension. The end of the coil has a matching indentation in the spring seat that it must be snug against. Releasing the spring compressors may cause it to shift. If it does, just recompress the spring and adjust. All done? Double check the lower struts nuts are tightened to their proper torque (70 ft lbs x 2 bolts and nuts) and get an alignment. The struts serve as the suspension uprights and your camber will be off. You may want to drive around for a day to let things settle in before getting an alignment. If you don't know what your camber spec is, read: . For tips on how to use a torque wrench, see . Final note: You may notice the front strut rubber bushings and stops higher are than they were before. As long as you are sure that they are properly torqued, it is fine. When your VW was new, there was about 1cm of play at the top of the bushing mount. Due to age and the car's weight resting on the springs, the springs sag and increase this space. New rubber bushings and stops will decrease this height. Note that the new strut upper bolt may be taller than the old bolt, so this may also raise the height of the upper mount. In any case, the upper mount is designed to hold the strut from falling out and some play is normal. Test drive the car and double check all bolts, then get an alignment!

How to change the front brakes, rotors, pads on a Volkswagen Jetta and Passat (mk3)

Disclaimer: Before you attempt any brake work on your car, refer to the factory service manual and follow all precautions. Any and all information presented on this website is superseded by the official service manual and is not a substitute for the services or advice of a certified professional mechanic. See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. If the brakes are faulty or not working correctly, tow it to a mechanic and do not attempt to drive the car. Faulty brakes can result in an accident or loss of control so have your local garage do it if you're not qualified to work on the brakes. Introduction

This article shows the basic procedure for changing the front brakes on the a3/b4 VW Jetta and Passat.

If brake fluid has not been changed in last 2 years or is contaminated, change the brake fluid. New brake fluid is normally clear, so look at the brake fluid reservoir to see if the fluid may need to be changed. Note that the rear brakes are different and need a special tool. Please read for tips on brake pad and rotor selection, and more. Parts brake pads new or resurfaced brake rotors brake fluid, DOT 4. Do not use DOT 5 silicone based fluid! or (click link to check current pricing) C-clamp or some other tool to press back the brake piston into the caliper (for front brakes only, rear brakes require VW special tool 3272 or substitute) brake grease brake cleaner front rotor wear specs: Check rotor runout, machine rotors as needed or replace Diameter: 256mm Thickness: 20mm Wear limit: 18mm Procedure Secure car as recommended in the factory service manual. Here are some additional tips. Put the car in gear and apply the parking brake. Chock the front or rear wheels to help prevent the car from moving. When removing a wheel, I like to jack it up just enough to get the weight of the car off one wheel, making it a little easier to initially loosen the lugs by 1/2 turn. Once they are loosened, finish jacking up the car, and then secure the car on jack stands. Now that the car is safely secured and raised, fully remove lug nuts and wheel. The carrier is outlined in red, the caliper is outlined in green. There are two options here: change just the pads or change both the pads and rotors. Please read both sections so you can understand what to do and what to leave alone. Changing just the brake pad To just change the brake pad, you can slide the carrier out of the way by loosening the caliper slider bolts. (13mm socket for the end bolt outlined in green, counter hold the bolt with a 15mm wrench at the spot outlined in yellow). I suggest spraying them with PB blaster to loosen the bolts. Just remove the lower one and loosen the other, then rotate the caliper to get access to the pads and piston. The caliper should come off, just pop out the old brake pads and press back the brake caliper pistons with a c-clamp. If your rotors are worn, the old pads could get stuck on the edge of the rusty rotor lip. If this happens, just press back the pads a little for clearance. The new pads will not fit onto the rotor since the new pads are thicker than the old ones and the caliper pistons were set for the old ones. You may want to open the brake fluid reservoir to let some pressure out. I don't like opening the bleeder since an air bubble might get into the fluid system. If you have a speed bleeder it'll be fine but I don't like speed bleeders on brakes. (I do like speed bleeders on clutches since you can't build up line pressure by pumping the pedal like the brake system). If you note, the bleeder nipple (outlined in red in the pic below) is always on the top of the caliper to let air out and help prevent air from getting in, but I still prefer not to open it if you are only changing the pads. Clean everything with brake parts cleaner, re grease the slider bolts underneath the boots, and reinstall. A pic of greased boots is seen a few pics below. Changing both the brake pad and rotor To remove the rotor, you have to remove the entire caliper (and pads). To remove the entire caliper, remove the caliper bolts (2x 17 mm bolts). In the below picture the top one is circled in red, in the 2nd below pic they were located at the red circles. The two pictures were taken at different times so there are some differences. I suggest spraying them with PB blaster to pre-loosen the bolts. The caliper will come off, just pop out the old brake pads and press back the brake caliper pistons with a brake caliper reset tool as shown below. These can be rented or Autozone loans them free with a deposit. When removing the caliper, do not let it hang by the line. Tie it up with some string or rest it somewhere to avoid stressing the brake line. Again, the reason you have to do this is because the new pads will not fit onto the rotor because they are thicker than the old pads and the caliper pistons were set for the old pads. Use brake parts cleaner to clean the slider bolts and caliper, regrease as necessary as circled in red below, and push the slider bolt boots back. Scrub the rust off the hub with a wire brush and wipe a very thin coat of anti-seize to help prevent rusting. This helps ensure that the hub is not seated perfectly flat and helps prevent wheel vibrations and other problems. If you are changing the rotors as well, remove the rotor set screw. CAUTION: The set screws tend to rust and seize in place. Then they strip and you have to drill it out. Before you strip it and make this job harder than it has to be, spray it with some penetrating lubricant like PB Blaster to loosen it. Hit the rotor around the screw with a metal hammer and let the penetrating lube sit. Then use an electric impact screwdriver to loosen it. This always seems to be successful for me. If you use a manual screwdriver, make sure the tip fits correctly into the screw head and press forward (hard) to help reduce the chance of stripping it. If you stripped the first one, go out and buy an electric impact screwdriver because you'll probably strip the other ones too. You can buy them at harbor freight for about the same price as some drill bits and screw extractors from sears. Make sure that the hub seating surface is flat otherwise you will have a wheel vibration! Make sure to not stress the brake line when removing the assembly. Wipe clean all surfaces with brake parts cleaner, replace the old rotor with a new or resurfaced rotor, and reinstall everything. Clean off all of the old grease and any brake dust with brake cleaner, pop in the new brake pads, lightly lube the moving parts such as the slides and back of the pads (do not apply grease to the brake rotor) with brake grease. Lightly coat the bolts and hub mounting surfaces with anti-seize, and reinstall. Note that the rear brakes are slightly different and require a special tool to press the caliper back in AND turn it at the same time.

Removing the center console or adjusting the parking brake on the mk3 Jetta or Passat Introduction This article shows how to remove the center console or adjust the parking brake, parking brake cables, cleaning the area under the armrest, running stereo wires under the console, etc. Procedure Console removal Slide the seats forward and pop out the plastic screw hole covers, 1 each side. Unscrew the phillips screw. Pull the parking brake handle boot partially off,. The plastic trim just pops off with four tabs and pull the handle straight out. You probably don't have to remove the boot all the way off parking brake handle unless you want to replace the boot. There are hooks at the front of the center console. these are visible in the pics below. Lift the plastic console at the front end and pull back to remove. Parking brake adjustment Remove the center console. There is a 10mm adjusting nut and a 10mm locking nut that holds the parking brake cable adjuster. Loosen or tighten them as necessary. Adjust until the parking brake lever on the rear caliper until it just begins to gain tension. Note: picture is of a mk4 Jetta but the way the parking brake works is pretty much identical in the mk3 cars with disc brakes.

How to bleed/flush the brake and clutch fluid on your mk3 or mk4 Volkswagen

Introduction Disclaimer: Before you attempt any brake work on your car, refer to the factory service manual and follow all precautions. Any and all information presented on this website is superseded by the official service manual and is not a substitute for the services or advice of a certified professional mechanic. See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. If the brakes are faulty or not working correctly, tow it to a mechanic and do not attempt to drive the car. Faulty brakes can result in an accident or loss of control so have your local garage do it if you're not qualified to work on the brakes. This article shows a few different ways to bleed the front/rear brakes and clutch fluid. The pictures are from a mk4 VW TDI, mk3 VW are similar. For mk4 Passat or mk5/mk6 cars, please see the related links above. The procedure can be also be used on non VWs except many cars have separate clutch and brake fluid reservoirs. Your TDI uses the same reservoir for both the clutch and brake. If you have an automatic transmission, you don't have a clutch or clutch fluid. For general tips on braking and why you have to flush the brake system, see . To do a brake job on your a4 body TDI, see . The recommended method in the service manual is to bleed under pressure. Pressure bleeding is the easiest so if you've never bled brakes before, just buy a pressure bleeder. Motive sells a pressure bleeder with the correct adapter to match the VW cap. The disadvantage of using home use pressure bleeders is that air pressure and moisture are exposed to the clean fluid. Professional pressure brake bleeders use a diaphragm to separate the pressure and the brake fluid but they also need to hold gallons of fluid for many jobs over a long period of time. The DOT 4 brake fluid used on your TDI absorbs moisture so that water will not concentrate in the corners and form rust. Although most VW fluid reservoirs don't have a weep hole, many types of reservoirs do have a weep hole. If you don't change the brake fluid then corrosion may occur in the brake calipers, clutch slave cylinder, or master cylinder, causing a leak or poor action. Under repeated heavy braking, the brake fluid could boil, causing loss of braking authority. Brake/clutch fluid is poisonous and highly corrosive to paint! If a drop falls onto your paint, stop and dab the drop off, then wipe it clean with a damp towel. Follow up with soapy water. If you don't wipe it clean now, it will eat a hole in the paint down to the metal. Always wear gloves and comply with all safety precautions as specified in your factory service manual when handling the fluid. I suggest putting some paper towels around the master cylinder reservoir and using a funnel to add fluid. Don't be lazy and not use a funnel. Some common issues that can be solved by bleeding the brakes are soft or spongy brake pedal or poor braking action. If you need two pumps to firmly actuate the calipers, then you probably have an air bubble in the brake lines. The air bubble prevents all of the force of the pedal from going to the slave cylinder and fully releasing the clutch. Since air bubbles can be compressed whereas hydraulic brake fluid cannot, even small air bubbles will degrade pedal feel and prevent smooth brake or clutch action. If you just replaced the brake lines or let the fluid level on the fluid reservoir go below min you will also need to thoroughly bleed the brakes because it may have sucked in air. If air got into the lines, also bleed the ABS pump, if equipped. Plug in your and select module 3 - ABS brakes. Go to Basic settings and select group 1. Hit Go! This triggers the ABS pump, during which time you should bleed the system. To build higher pressure than what is possible with a brake bleeder, do the manual helper pumps the brakes while you bleed method method. Do this a few times until there's no air in the brake lines and system. This shouldn't take more than 1 minute of running the pump per corner but your situation may vary so consult a professional if you're not sure. You should also always use the parking brake when parking. This is good practice in any car, but in your VW, it resets the rear caliper self adjusting mechanism. Not applying the parking brake can result in poor braking. Parts (click links to check current pricing) , , Caution: DO NOT use DOT 5 fluid (silicone based) in a VW system - it's not compatible with the seals or DOT 3/4 fluid. DOT 5 (silicone based) is not the same as DOT 5.1 (yes 5.1 was poorly named)! Do not use old brake fluid. Brake fluid absorbs moisture from the air and should be kept in an airtight, unopened container. DOT 3, 4, super DOT 4, and DOT 5.1 brake fluids are fully compatible. DOT 3 has a lower boiling point, DOT 4 has a higher boiling point, and super DOT 4 is supposed to be even higher. Again, DOT 5.1 is totally different than DOT 5 silicone based fluid! -DOT 3 minimum dry boiling point 205°C (401°F) minimum wet boiling point 140°C (284°F) -DOT 4 minimum dry boiling point 230°C (446°F) minimum wet boiling point 155°C (311°F) -DOT 5.1 minimum dry boiling point 270°C (518°F) minimum wet boiling point 191°C ( 376°F) Caution: VW used to recommend FMVSS 116 DOT 4 brake fluid. Your service manual and the fluid cap probably says super DOT 4. For cars model year 2006 and newer they recommend VW specification 501 14 brake fluid. VW spec 501 14 fluid is supposed to have lower cold viscosity compared to DOT 4 fluid which results in faster response of the fluid through the tiny holes of the ESP/ABS (anti slip regulation/antilock brake) system. The problem is that I don't know anyone who sells this new spec fluid and if you go to the dealer they will hand you a bottle of DOT 4 fluid for twice the price. ATE SL.6 and Pentosin DOT4 LV (low viscosity) are probably the closest to the VW spec fluid because they are advertised to be thinner specifically for ABS/ESP systems. If you have an earlier car without ESP stability control I don't think it will make any difference and VW 501 14 fluid is fully compatible with DOT 3/4. Brake fluid that is probably closest to VW specification 501 14 (doesn't say it on the bottle though)ATE SL.6 Pentosin super DOT 4 LV Other fluids that will work if you can't find the above fluids or if you don't have ESP OEM DOT 4 brake fluid VW# b000750m3 (1 liter size) Any DOT 4 fluid from your local auto parts store

Brake bleeding procedure for VW

You may have to jack up the car and remove the wheels to get to the bleeder nipple on the brakes. Securely rest the car on jack stands before getting under the car. See to see how I raised my mk4 Jetta TDI. If you have ramps or a lift, it's easier to get to the brake bleeder nipple without removing the wheel. Here are pictures of the 11mm bleeder nipples. Each is covered by a rubber cap. All calipers have the bleeder nipple on the top of the caliper. This is because it helps let out air bubbles and helps prevent air from getting in. I still try to avoid opening the bleeder unless fluid is moving out, either through vacuum or pressure. Remove the rubber cap and check the size of the wrench around the bleeder. It should be 11mm but aftermarket calipers or replacement bleeders sometimes have differently sized nipples. If the bleeder nut gets damaged, a new one can be purchased at autozone, napa, or any other auto parts store. Below are the 3 ways to bleed the brakes. Don't dispose of the used brake fluid onto the ground! to find your local waste disposal. Remember, brake fluid also eats up car paint so wipe up any spills immediately!

First method to change fluid (manually)

If you do not have a vacuum or pressure bleeder, have another person pump the brake pedal a few times then press and hold the brake pedal down. This pressurizes the system. Then open the bleeder screw to let the fluid out. This will relieve the pedal pressure. Have them keep the pedal down until you close the bleeder. Pumping the brakes when bleeding is okay, pumping the clutch is not recommended, more in the next section. Once fluid almost stops flowing out, close the bleeder screw so that they can raise the brake pedal. Repeat. See how using a vacuum or pressure bleeder is better? The other problem is that the master cylinder seals never go all the way to the bottom of the cylinder - pushing the pedal all the way down (beyond the normal range of travel) wears them out a little bit. The advantage of manual pedal bleeding is that it builds much higher pressure in the brake system to push out any old fluid. If you are bleeding the ABS pump I suggest using the manual pedal method with a pressure bleeder to keep the fluid topped off and moving out. When you press the brake pedal down, a piston inside the metal cylinder (pictured below) gets pushed forward and pressurizes the fluid in the brake lines. If air gets down to the level of the cylinder opening, you will hear a sucking sound from air entering the cylinder. If it gets so low that you hear sucking, bleed the entire system again because air is probably in the brake lines! To prevent this while bleeding, keep the fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir above the min line. About every 2-3 full pedal bleeds is a conservative estimate for the fluid level to go from max to min. If the fluid does not go down easily then the filter on the reservoir is clogged - STOP, remove the filter and clean it before going any further. With non ABS cars, I recommend front brakes, then rear brakes, then clutch. With ABS cars, the factory service manual recommends bleeding calipers in the following order (for mk4 VW Jetta, New beetle, or Golf). 1998-2001 cars Right Rear, Left Rear, Right Front, Left Front 2002-2005 cars Left Front, Right Front, Left Rear, Right Rear Another manual method is to use speedbleeders (I don't like them due to possible failure of the springs or getting jammed/clogged), or with a hose loop. A hose loop is when you tie a clear hose in a vertical loop of sufficient height and SLOWLY pump the pedal. If you pump the pedal quickly, any air bubbles won't slide back. Pictured below is an example of a hose loop.

Bleeding the clutch fluid

Since the brakes and clutch share the same fluid reservoir, you should bleed the clutch at the same time (manual transmission only). However, it should be bled differently if you are bleeding it manually, and this is why. When you pump the brake pedal, the brake calipers press against a rotor and don't go any further. The fluid in the lines is building pressure but not moving too much. When you press the clutch pedal, the clutch piston goes out and comes back in when you release the pedal. Pumping the clutch pedal doesn't build pressure like pumping a brake pedal and will cause large air bubbles to become small air bubbles that are harder to get out and notice. So don't pump the clutch pedal when bleeding - have a helper push and HOLD down the clutch pedal, then you can open the bleeder (circled below in red) to draw out the fluid. This will relieve the pedal pressure, close the bleeder nipple and then the helper can raise the clutch pedal. Otherwise, it can suck in the old fluid or any air bubbles. If the pedal drops to the floor, just pull it up. Again, have your helper press and hold the clutch pedal, open the bleeder, let drain, close the bleeder, and then they can raise the clutch pedal. On your VW, the bleeder nipple is near the top of the clutch slave cylinder but on many cars it's on the bottom of the transmission. This is why I prefer to use the other methods of changing the fluid - they are be faster and have less chance for air to get in. Pictured below is the slave cylinder in green and the bleeder in red. This is on top of the transmission. The nipple should be a 11mm hex.

Second method of changing fluid (using vacuum pump)

Bleeding with a vacuum pump is easier than bleeding manually. The main drawback of using a hand vacuum pump is that it may not be forceful enough to scrape every last bit of old fluid out of the lines. It's also harder to see if bubbles came from inside the system or are being drawn outside because of the vacuum. Therefore, I feel that using a mity-vac type device to bleed the brakes is not great. A hand vacuum pump is a great shop tool but not for bleeding brakes. If the nipple is clogged, it can also cause a blockage for the vacuum pump. You can have someone pump the brake and bleed manually to get any possible blockage out first. The factory service manual recommends pressure bleeding because it can help get air out of the ABS pump. I use an electric vacuum pump with enough force to quickly suck out the fluid. It is very similar to the manual method, only you don't need a helper to pump the pedals. First, apply suction to the bleeder nipple. This is pictured below. Make sure you have suction before you open the bleeder! Loosen the nipple until fluid comes out. Keep suction applied whenever the bleeder nipple is opened so there is no backflow. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir to make sure no air gets into the lines. If you have a helper, have them top off the fluid reservoir. When the fluid is fresh and clean, close the nipple. The only problem with this is that if the hose isnt' tight against the nipple, bubbles will enter the hose so you can't tell if it's air from the brakes or air from a leak around the hose. If you didn't see it above, the factory service manual recommends bleeding calipers in the following order (mk4 Jetta, Golf, New Beetle). 1998-2001 cars Right Rear, Left Rear, Right Front, Left Front 2002-2005 cars Left Front, Right Front, Left Rear, Right Rear

Third method of changing fluid (pressure)

The last method involves using a power bleeder that applies fluid at the reservoir under pressure. This is pretty much the same idea as the last two methods, but the instructions for your specific model of power bleeder supersede any tips here. The factory service manual states that you should not exceed 14.5 psi of pressure due to the proportioning valve inside the ABS system which prevents a good flushing. I would limit the pressure to about 10-12 psi. This is the easiest and fastest method since the bleeder supplies fresh fluid and you don't have to worry about running the reservoir low (as long as the bleeder is full). All you do is open the bleeder nipple and lead the nipple hose to a waste container. The biggest advantage of this method is that unlike a vacuum pump, you won't see any air bubbles in the line unless they came out of the lines. This is also the recommended method by the factory service manual since it can help get air out of the ABS pump. You can use a milk jug to catch the fluid - the hollow handle holds the tubing end well.

Purging air out of the brake or clutch lines

If you did get an air bubble in the lines while bleeding, you must get it out. If your car is equipped with ABS you must use a or equivalent to cycle the ABS pump. After you plug in the cable and start the software, click on ABS pump. Then output tests. Cycle through them and follow the software prompts. This will cycle the ABS pump and it's the only way to get air out of the ABS pump. The service manual doesn't say how long to run the pump so as long as there's no air in the lines, 30 seconds per corner should be sufficient. I don't know the internals of the pump routing so if you bleed the brakes in sequence as before it should completely empty the pump. If air got into the lines, run the pump while bleeding until no more air is in the lines + about another 30 seconds. Your situation may vary so consult a professional if you're not sure if you got all the air out or bled the brakes correctly. If you have fresh fluid and want to purge air out, try a re-circulating purge. This is best for the clutch since the hose is short and the fluid is more likely to be clean after you have fresh fluid. Using a re-circulating purge on the brakes is not a good idea because the brake lines/nipple are much more likely to be dirty and the hose needed would be long. The likelihood of contaminates entering the master cylinder is greater with the brakes but low with the clutch. Caution: this method is ONLY if all your fluid is clean and totally new! If you just flushed the entire system but got an air bubble in the lines during the last pump, you can use this method. If your fluid is dirty or old and not new, do not use this method since it will put dirt, rust, and contaminants into the brake reservoir, damage the master cylinder seals, etc. You MUST have ALL clean fluid in your system and then some before you try a re-circulate purge. Some cars have the clutch slave cylinder on the bottom of the transmission, making it easy to get air into the system. In these cases, getting tiny air bubbles out is very important or else you will lose clutch pedal feel and authority. Most bleeders are on the top of the cylinder to avoid letting air in. Always use a clean tube used only for brake fluid! If the tube is not clean, the brake fluid must be discarded! Also make sure that the bleeder is clean and no dirt is in the fluid that comes out of the hose. The first few pumps should always be discarded. First drain all of the old fluid using one of the methods above. Then connect soft silicone tubing from the bleeder and route the other end back to the brake fluid reservoir. Again, the first pumps should be discarded into a waste container. With the bleeder loosened, slowly pump. This recirculates the fresh fluid back to the reservoir and any bubbles will get worked out. As always, you must keep the fluid level above min . You could also put a small filter at the reservoir if you feel there may be any contaminants in the line. I also suggest taping a paper towel near the tubing ends to catch any drips. Brake fluid will strip the paint if it's not quickly cleaned off. If your hands or tubing have any fluid on them, wrap the tubing in paper towels as well. Since the brake fluid is so important to brake safety, please ask in the before starting if you have any questions.

Car brake FAQ, mythbusting, and why you may not want a big brake upgrade

This article busts some myths about braking repeated on internet forums and describes basic brake system function. Many people ask for brake caliper upgrades on their street car but do you really want a big brake upgrade? Many racing upgrades like race brakes are of no performance benefit on a street car and often make braking worse - see below for the long explanation and proof. What exactly do I mean by a street car? On a street car, there's no reason to ever make more than two panic (0-60 mph) stops in a row during normal driving. Stop-go traffic would be considered light braking since the speeds are not very high and you're not slamming on the brakes. Track use or heavy, repeated braking is not normal street driving, that's track use. A sports car racing through a canyon or a truck towing a boat down a mountain is also not normal street driving. This page also assumes everything else being equal . A base economy car is not designed to withstand the same type of normal driving that a sports car should be, nor is a car with 200,000 miles on the original suspension the same as a brand new car with a fresh suspension.

Common braking complaints

Brakes are squealing This is a common complaint. Brake noise is normally caused by a combination of rotors, cold pads, pad shape, and rotor/pad material. Sometimes it's a whisping or grinding noise and sometimes braking causes vibration which sounds like a high pitched screeching noise. Because the properties of pads and rotors change slightly when heated, as you drive, they warm up and sometimes the squeal goes away. It's normal for some performance pads to screech when cold as well. If you are on stock pads and rotors, try an occasional hard brake to change the bias to the front and heat up/wear down the front pads. If you are on performance pads, try less aggressive pads. Some cars use shims or anti-squeal grease on the back of the pads (not on the friction surfaces!) to quiet the brakes. You may also notice rust on the rotor faces of a car that isn't driven often. This may cause some noise but will quickly wear off after a few brake applications. Brake pedal isn't firm or no braking authority: In any emergency situation with a braking problem, some of your priorities should be to keep control of the car, pump the brakes and brake as needed, steer the car towards a safe spot, and apply the parking brake as hard as possible (without locking the tires) to slow down. The parking brake cable on many German cars actuates the rear calipers with a lever at the caliper. It's not as effective as using the brake pedal but it's something. Some of the newest VWs use an electronic push button parking brake, I'm not sure how effective that is in an emergency situation. Other cars often use rear drum brakes as the parking brake or a shoe inside the rear disc brake. You can try downshifting to use engine braking to slow down the car as well. Do not get distracted from driving when trying to troubleshoot a braking problem, your first priority is to keep control of the car! If you see leaking brake fluid around the wheels or in the footwell near the brake pedal or master cylinder, have the car repaired before driving! If you have no braking authority and the pedal goes straight to the floor or almost to the floor, the car has lost brake fluid pressure. Pump the brakes and if either the front or rear brake fluid circuit is still good, you should get some braking action on the good circuit. Also apply the parking brake as needed. A common cause of this is a bad brake line near the caliper. Another possible cause is air contamination. If you are in a racing environment, the brake failure is probably due to overheated pads/rotors or boiling brake fluid. Another common reason the brakes don't work is because the driver was pressing on the accelerator or clutch pedal or their foot slipped off the brake pedal. It happens more often than you'd think. Lifting your foot and depressing the brake pedal usually fixes this since it forces you to change the incorrect action and hopefully reset the muscle memory. If you have no braking authority but you feel resistance in the pedal, pump the brakes and try to build up pressure and apply the parking brake as needed. Possible causes are bad caliper, master cylinder, or brake pads. If the brake slowly goes to the floor, this is normally a bad master cylinder. Look under the dashboard and at the engine bay firewall for leaking fluid or stains. If the brake pedal feels very stiff and hard but you still have braking authority, press harder on the pedal or pump the brake. This is normally a faulty brake booster caused by a vacuum leak. Shaking through the brake pedal or vibration when you press the brake pedal: Something is vibrating and the force is transmitted through the brake pedal. If you are driving very hard or slamming on the brakes, it could be the ABS pump cycling. You can normally hear the pump humming. Vibration could be the pads, caliper, or hub but it's normally a rotor issue. Check for uneven brake deposits (splotches on the rotor face), rotor runout, and hub runout. Take a runout reading with the rotor bolted to the hub. If it needs to be turned (machined on a brake lathe), that's fine as long as it doesn't go below minimum rotor thickness and specs. Because VW rotors are so cheap, it may be better to just buy new rotors. VW rotors are also designed to wear out shortly after the pads are worn out. If it's due to a bad hub, you must have the rotor machined on the car or replace the hub. This process costs more but a flat rotor on a bad hub will not solve vibration issues.

Brake components and increasing braking performance

Tires: Sticky tires should be the first major or supporting step to upgrading braking force or handing in any way. Any increase in braking force is pointless if you do not have enough tire grip. Otherwise, it will only result in the tires locking up and skidding, (with non ABS cars) increasing braking distance through a loss of control. Again, the car can never stop faster than the tires will allow (unless you have reverse thrusters or you just hit a brick wall)! The average car weighs 3000-4500 lbs and the actual contact area per tire with the road is not much larger than your hand. Below is a thumbnail illustration (click to enlarge) of how the tire footprint changes as the car's balance changes. The other half of tire traction is the braking surface. Snow or loose gravel don't care how good your brakes are, only how good your tires are. Even clean and dry asphalt will have different braking properties depending on the construction, age, wear/tear, and temperature. 2788 A tire with a more aggressive tread compound/pattern will increase how much braking force can be applied to the ground. Don't buy the super cheap tires at your local tire store: they tend to be louder and constructed less sturdy - you get what you pay for! Your car and your safety are riding on the tires so before you upgrade brakes, consider whether or not the tires can handle it. Use a summer tire and if you live in an area which requires you to use winter tires, switch over when needed. All season tires have average performance in summer/winter but summer tires will have better braking performance (except during the winter), everything else being equal. Run flat tires are also at a handling disadvantage compared to non run flats. You can also choose a wider tire on a wider wheel and/or adjust tire air pressure lower. This increases and changes the size and shape of the tire footprint. The drawback is that lower air pressure and wider/more aggressive tires will reduce fuel economy. Because of this, it's best to get a tire that can handle all of the braking force that your ideal brake system will have. For some people, this is the stock brake setup. Some people will choose a big brake kit. As a rough theory, each tire should reach the limit of traction at about the same time to maximize straight line braking. This uses all possible traction on all 4 tires. In reality, the stock rear brakes sacrifice some braking performance to prevent them from locking up and skidding, sending the car spinning out of control. This is also to account for differences in car weight and balance from different fuel and cargo loads, a shifting center of gravity, front/rear brake bias, and changes in tire/brake setups.) Read the scanned articles below if you don't believe me. In the second article, every tested car had brakes strong enough for the [ABS] system to hold its tires on the verge of lockup for at least one full stop. The tested stock Passat even had consistent braking over 25 panic stops from 70-0 mph. Maybe there is something to being tuned for the Autobahn! Under the exact test conditions in the article, that Passat's brakes were not overloaded for it's setup but this doesn't mean that brake performance couldn't be better, just that the brakes are not the limiting factor. With that exact car and identical test conditions, you could increase tire grip to improve braking performance until another component became the limiting factor. The stock setup is good in theory because it's better to have 25 consistent stops versus better braking and then having the pedal go to the floor on the last stop , a condition which will lead you to the site of the crash. In the real world, you will never see 25 panic highway speed stops on the street in a row so there is some room for improvement for most drivers/driving styles with that exact car/test conditions. Suspension: The suspension is another major factor in braking performance. A worn suspension changes the way the brakes are supposed to behave by letting the center of gravity move more during braking and changing the balance of the car. VW-Audi suspensions tend to be on the softer side and after some wear and age, get even softer. The VW suspensions in general seemed to be tuned tighter in the 5th generation cars. New struts, strut bearings, mounts, control arm bushings, and sway bar bushings in the front will do a lot to restore the handling and braking bias on your VW. The rears need new mounts and struts. See the FAQ section 1000q for writeups on how to replace these components. If your car feels like a heaving dinghy in a storm then a big brake kit won't do much. Also note that some brake bias valves on the rear beam axle of mk3 VW are rusted and may not work. It's supposed to change the bias as the car heaves forward during braking. Don't adjust bias by yourself, take it to a VW or brake hydraulic system specialist who has the tools to calibrate it. All mk4 and newer use electronic brake distribution built into the ABS. Brake Pad choice: There are too many brands to list so I suggest a normal street pad for street driving. Most TDI drivers would prefer an OEM-level pad since a normal level pad should make less noise. However, OEM type pads can dust more or less than aggressive performance pads, it totally varies by brand and model. In general, the stock VW metallic pads last longer but are noisier than organic pads. See below for an explanation of ceramic pads. Although more aggressive performance pads can bite harder (due to friction coefficient) and withstand higher temperatures, this normally doesn't translate into shorter stopping distances on the street. It will change bite and feel but in most cars, the pad is not the limiting factor in stopping. In other words, pads on an otherwise stock car may cause you to feel the brakes are better because they bite harder with less brake pedal travel. A higher friction pad can exert the same torque on the rotor with less pedal force but this initial bite does not necessarily stop the car in a shorter distance. With a less aggressive pad, you just have to press harder on the brake pedal to exert the same torque on the rotor. If you've just read this and don't believe me, read the scanned article at the bottom Pulp Friction . Again, this article is written with a focus on street use, not track use. For track use you definitely need performance high temp pads due to the high temperatures seen with track use. Good braking feel is a combination of pedal resistance and travel, different pads change this. You might like how aggressive pads feel, so before buying a big brake kit, try changing the brake pads. If you have cheap aftermarket pads, this could go a long way toward improving braking feel. This shouldn't make the car stop shorter but it should bite harder with less pedal travel and change braking feel. Some aggressive pads that work well for street driving are the Hawk HPS or Axxis metal masters. There are too may brands and types to list, these are just two. Track or race brake pads: Never use race or track high temperature pads unless you are on a track. Race pads are designed only for track use and need to be hot to function well. In addition, the brake dust can become hard if it gets wet and isn't washed off which can damage the wheel finish. I don't like pads advertised for both track and street use like the Hawk HP plus. They stop fine for street use but produce more unnecessary dust and squealing than a street only pad with no increase in street performance. It's always best to use a separate street pad and put in a track pad once you are at the track but this is inconvenient. Like all season tires, they are OK at satisfying contradictory goals but not great at anything. Brake bedding: This is a way of breaking in pad and rotor surfaces to maximize braking force. Although following a strict technique is not mandatory for street use, it is recommended by all brake makers. You probably won't find the technique in your owner's manual so consult your brake manufacturer for the specific procedure. The basic idea is to warm up the brakes and then transfer an initial layer of pad material onto the rotor and heat relax it. This increases braking performance and life. After the brakes are properly bedded, the pads contact a thin layer of transferred brake pad material instead of the rough surface of the rotor. This adhesion between the pad and transferred material on the rotor is a major source of braking force in addition to the abrasion of a pad scraping the rotor. You can read more about this at the Stoptech site's notes on bedding. As a side note, new tires also have a slippery surface that has to be worn away with normal driving, so new brakes and new tires = less braking force.EM vs. aftermarket rotors, cryo treating, zinc or cadmium coatingOEM rotors are made to a certain standard. Some aftermarket rotors are better and some are worse. Some ebay rotors use low quality iron and won't work well compared to high quality rotors. The difference is weight, balance, machining, longevity, and resistance to cracking. Because of this, I recommend name brand or OEM rotors. I would be careful of buying rotors on ebay since they could be counterfeit. Cryo treating does nothing on a cast iron rotor because it's exposed to wild heating and cooling cycles. It's a marketing ploy. Zinc or cadmium coatings can improve the appearance and cooling of the rotor by reducing rust on the rotor hat and vanes. Ceramic or carbon rotors and pads: Carbon ceramic composite rotors are rotors made out of a ceramic resin material. Don't confuse them with ceramic pads or a coating. They are carbon fibers bonded with resin which is baked into silicon carbide. The silicon carbide is where the carbon or ceramic name comes from. To the right is a closeup of a carbon ceramic rotor showing the unique appearance. 2789 You might hear of ceramic coatings on iron rotors - these are marketing ploys. Real carbon ceramic rotors are very expensive: it's about $16,000 for a set of mass produced Porsche rotors and a $30,000 option on some high end luxury cars. They don't make the car stop shorter on the street compared to a cast iron rotor although they do have advantages for street use. For $8,000 (factory option price) you get much longer life, less brake dust, 50% less weight (less unsprung weight increases handling and comfort), and they look really cool. Porsche estimates their PCCB rotors could last over 150,000 miles of normal street driving. Most drivers can expect about 1500 track miles out of PCCB. While they're on the second generation of rotors, there's no warranty on the rotors when used with aftermarket pads and there are still occasional complaints of cracks. Why don't they work better on the street? Reread the section above about tires and stopping force. Multiplied by 4 rotors, you can lose an average of 38 lbs of unsprung weight which is very significant and noticeable. Such a big difference in weight improves both handling and comfort. In theory, this should also result in shorter stopping and greater fuel economy due to less rotating mass but in reality, the difference is well within the normal variations in fuel economy, road/tire surface, driver behavior, etc., so don't expect to see any difference there. For track use, the advantages of ceramic rotors are more apparent. The reduction in unsprung weight becomes more noticeable and they are much more resistant to warping and the high heat levels seen at the track. Because of their high price, you won't see them on cheap street cars anytime soon. Although the huge weight reduction is excellent, my opinion is that PCCB isn't worth stretching for financially since most drivers will not see a noticeable increase in braking ability. There is a handling and comfort benefit but reducing wheel weight is a much better value. For 99% of drivers, spending that money on driving lessons will give far better results than fancy brakes. If you can afford it I would definitely get it but a better value for reducing weight are lightweight 2 piece rotors (see below) and the lightest wheels you can find. Although ceramic pads are not fake , beware of the term carbon or ceramic thrown around as a marketing term. If a single carbon ceramic rotor costs over $5,500 and a set of Porsche ceramic brake pads costs $600, how can I buy a set of four ceramic brake pads for $40 online? One look at the Porsche pads vs. other types makes it obvious which is which. Ferrari just introduced the first true carbon-ceramic brake pads on a street car on the 2011 599. So far, the best advantage of switching to common ceramic branded pads is that they dust less. Drilled and slotted rotors: I recommend blank faced rotors for all street cars. They cost less, perform better, and are less likely to warp/crack. I do not recommend slotted or drilled rotors because they are not the determining factor in maximum braking performance. Before you dismiss that statement, slotted and drilled rotors DO change the coefficient of friction and brake pedal feel but this does not necessarily mean the car will stop shorter. Slotted and drilled rotors do clean overheated and glazed brake pads but this is not a factor in any way for street cars. While they'll change how the pedal feels, the tradeoff is how efficiently they turn brake pads into brake dust with no increase in stopping performance. (On track cars, overheated pads are more common and could be helpful). For more on this, see the section below the truth about big brake kits for the street and read the scanned articles from reliable sources below. The holes in drilled rotors were originally used to vent gas build up from hot brake pads during racing, a problem that you won't see with the materials used in modern brake pads. Drilled holes also don't have any noticeable effect on rotor weight. Using a 2 piece rotor is a much more effective way to reduce unsprung and rotating mass than drilling holes. If you just want to change the look of the rotor, slotted rotors are less susceptible to cracking than drilled. Localized uneven heating of the material along the edge of the holes vs. the rest of the rotor also causes cracking from thermal stress. Although the holes might be chamfered (edge of the hole is smoothed) on the outer rotor face, they are not chamfered on the inner face. If someone says to buy only drilled rotors which have the holes cast, this is misinformation. All holes in rotors are CNC drilled and machined. There are rumors of Porsche casting the holes but this is a myth. If they did, they are the only manufacturer to make their own brakes like this and they did a really good job making cast holes look machined. Nobody has ever proved it and there is a . To this day, it's unclaimed so I hope you too can help this myth die. Casting and precisely machining the small holes adds difficulty and an expense not reflected in the rotor price. Lastly, machining the holes after casting would reduce the benefit of casting holes. The argument that they are for racing is also false - no aftermarket big brake kit vendor recommends a drilled rotor for heavy track use. Go to a race track and see what the race cars are using. Depending on what type of event you attend, you may see cars with drilled rotors but a race team can afford to go through a few sets each season and they might have certain parts on their car due to sponsorship or regulations. If drilled rotors were that great, you would expect to see them on the landing gear of jet aircraft where weight and performance are critical but they use blank faced rotors too. If rotors saw extreme heat as in just came off the track, not just came off the highway, keep driving for a bit to get some cooling air flow during the cool down lap. This will help avoid slow cooling and warping. You should never see the limit of a quality rotor during normal street use so just stick with what came with your car. Once you go to track tires, higher speeds, and extreme use, the car is not seeing normal street use . 2790 If your car sees track use, brake ducting is a good second step (track pads would be the first step), not drilling holes in rotors. Use temperature sensitive paint to test rotor temperatures to determine ducting and brake system needs. Don't bother using an infrared heat gun unless you can aim it out the window while braking. Pictured above and below are examples of OEM front brake ducting on a Porsche and my personal mk5 VW Jetta. Here is an example of simple aftermarket brake ducts. The duct attaches to the lower control arm and guides air into the brake rotor. Some performance cars even have plastic ducts attached to the control arm from the factory. Some late 80's early 90's wheels were even designed to extract air and cool the brakes. The wheel spokes were designed as fan shapes. As the wheel spun, the fan shaped spokes would draw air out. These aren't used anymore because the wheels are directional (can't be switched left vs. right) and modern styles are more open designs that show more of the brake. What direction should the drill holes or exterior slots point? It doesn't matter if the holes/slots point forward or backwards, it's all the same. Depending on the manufacturer, the holes/slots may point front/back, straight/curved, it does not make a difference. Don't confuse the slots cut into the rotor face with the internal vanes because internal vane direction does matter! 2791 What direction should the internal vanes point? Virtually all modern cars use vented front rotors. Most OEM parts use straight vanes so they can use reduce manufacturing costs and use the same rotor on both left and right sides. Better rotors use internal directional vanes for better cooling. Remember, the drilled holes or slots on the outside face of the rotor are not directional but the internal vanes sandwiched between the rotor faces must always vent air out. In other words, accounting for the direction of rotation, the vanes should always push air out from the hub and lean towards the rear of the car. Again, brake ducting is a major factor in cooling brakes so consider that as well. Below is an example of internal vanes direction vs. external slot direction. If the vanes are straight, they are omni directional and can be mounted on either the driver or pass side. Why you may want aluminum hat or 2 piece rotors: If you are serious about reducing unsprung weight, I recommend 2 piece rotors or floating/hat rotors because they are much more cost effective than carbon ceramic rotors. I doubt anyone is spending $20,000 for CC brakes for their street driven VW! These are rotors with a ring shaped braking surface bolted or pinned to an aluminum hat hub. It's more resistant to warping than a 1 piece rotor because the hat can expand and contract independently of the rotor and is much lighter due to the aluminum hat. Bolted rotors are much quieter but don't allow for as much expansion during heavy racing use as pinned/floating rotors. Some pinned rotors use belleville spring washers or spring clips to reduce noise but bolted rotors for street use are guaranteed to be the quietest. Even though pinned rotors for street cars come with springs or clips, some just make a lot of noise that is not acceptable on a street car. If you are heavily racing your car, you should be using pinned floating rotors since they allow for greater expansion between the rotor and hat metals. Reducing rotor weight will noticeably increase comfort/handling and positively effect mileage, acceleration, and braking performance because you are reducing rotating mass and unsprung weight. The only negative is the high cost: they can be as much as three to four times as much for the initial setup. However, once the rotor ring is worn out, you can reuse the hat with a replacement rotor ring, which could make the lifetime cost cheaper - just keep telling yourself/partner that ;) ! Here is an example of a Wilwood bolted 2 piece rotor. The bolts are safety wired to avoid backing out. The black piece is the aluminum hat. Even though it's larger in diameter than the cast iron rotor on the right, it's about 5 lbs lighter and cools better due to the internal vane structure. If you look closely you can see the directional vanes on the 2 piece rotor. While lighter wheels are also a priority for reducing unsprung weight, wheels aren't a replacement item. Why some calipers are forward of the rotor and some are aft The position of calipers on the rotor is a result of routing brake lines safely, steering and suspension geometry, and hub/caliper design. Other factors are road grime, production costs, and cooling. There is no difference in stopping power because the rotor is a circle! See this article for more details: . Ferraris and Lambos use two rear calipers on the 360 - one fixed 4 piston for main braking and a floating caliper for the parking brake. There are even a few cars whose rear calipers are forward of the rotor on one side and aft on the other. Front calipers are generally on the same side because of the steering rack. Stainless steel braided brake lines: These can add braking feel but shouldn't change stopping distance on the street. The reason stainless steel braided brake lines are used in a racing environment is because it protects the internal line from track debris and it helps control line expansion. This firms up pedal feel by removing compliance but it probably won't make your car stop shorter. I recommend leaving the stock brake lines alone on a street car because they should last the life of a the car assuming regular brake fluid changes. While the stock rubber brake lines do expand very very slightly, steel brake lines expand much less, close to zero. The difference isn't noticeable on a street car. Some SS lines can have a slightly shorter life compared to rubber lines. Although the difference is insignificant, improper installation, twisting of the line, or dirt getting into the steel braids can damage a SS brake line. A track car which has the brake lines changed every 2 years and doesn't see a lot of mileage won't see the limit of a SS line but a 16 year old street car with 300,000 miles might. Note - rubber brake lines should also be replaced on high mileage or old cars and if you track the car it should have relatively new brake lines! Broken metal braids can chafe the internal tubing and can cause a line break and loss of braking force. Plastic coatings or covers on the braid can help prevent chafing. Always use name brand stainless steel brake lines and make sure the braids or lines are not twisted, and never ever buy ebay cheapo brake lines. Many of those are known to be non-DOT approved (or counterfeit) and prone to failure. A failure may be sudden and will cause you to lose braking force, probably resulting in an accident. Your safety, your life, and the lives of bystanders are worth more than the savings from buying cheap brake lines. Stoptech, goodrich, willwood, brembo, baer, ATE, or other brand name SS braided brake lines are more reliable than cheapo brake lines. Don't buy these lines off ebay because they could be counterfeit items. For the US, stainless brake lines must be tested to DOT FMVSS 106. New cars sold in the US must meet or exceed NHTSA Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 106 and SAE standard J1401 for volumetric expansion, whip test, and burst/working pressure. On a side note, a brake master cylinder brace can help reduce compliance on some cars. On some cars, the firewall (where the brake master cylinder is mounted) flexes under heavy braking. A brace stops this movement but its usefulness depends on the car and intended application. A modern car shouldn't need one for normal street driving and it shouldn't have an effect on stopping distance, only pedal travel and feel. Why you need to change your brake fluid: You have to change your brake fluid every 2 years or as needed because it breaks down with heat, age, and absorbs water. Modern VWs use DOT 4 fluid. Always use freshly opened bottles of fluid instead of old bottles because it may have already absorbed moisture from the air in the bottle and brake fluid is cheap! Moisture can also condense in lines and calipers. DOT 3, 4 brake fluid is designed to absorb water so that it doesn't pool in the low spots and cause rust. Old fluid can even cause damage to the caliper and rust the line, causing sudden brake failure. Water in the brake fluid significantly lowers the boiling point of the brake fluid as well. Track cars (not autocross or aggressive driving) should be using racing brake fluid and bleeding the brake fluid before (if not done in the last 2 weeks) and/or after each track session. Not using race brake fluid and a brake setup sufficient for a racing environment can result in total loss of braking authority!

The truth about big brake kits for the street

For street use, some cars could stop shorter from adding a big brake kit but many will actually lose braking performance! The engineers who designed your car made the brake system according to the day-day changing weight and balance of the car (fuel load, passengers and cargo, etc), suspension settings, and the stock tires. While you could stop shorter if all four tires used all available traction, the rear tires sacrifice a little braking performance to keep from locking up and sending the car into a skid. This also accounts for differences in car weight and balance from different fuel and cargo loads, a shifting center of gravity, front/rear brake bias, and changes in tire/brake setups. With all mk4 and newer VW, the electronic brake distribution in the ABS supposedly applies the rear brakes first under light braking to reduce dive. Front brakes are bigger than the rears because under heavier braking, the car's weight shifts forward onto the front tires, giving them more traction. Changing any brake/tire/suspension component from stock will change how the brakes behave. For example, a big brake kit on the front will increase braking at the front tire but this bias and weight shift doesn't let you take advantage of unrealized grip at the rear tires. This could result in longer stopping distances. In some cases, a medium big brake kit will give better braking than the large big brake kit just due to balance! All good brake kits increase braking torque without negatively effecting the bias. Good brake kits should keep about stock pedal travel and be matched to the brake master cylinder. Upsetting the balance of the car also changes braking behavior during turns too. Combined with how well the engineers designed the stock braking system and considering economic considerations with a mass produced car, you might gain performance or you might lose performance with a kit. A sports car might be already tuned from the factory for optimum braking performance. A softly tuned car might have considerable room for improvement over the factory setup. This doesn't mean that braking feel is unchanged because like brake pads, changing the brake setup changes pedal feel, modulation, travel, and lowers rotor/caliper/pad/hub temperatures. Unfortunately, brake feel does not equal shorter braking distance - the weight shift, brake bias, etc., are effected by changing the brake setup. Does this mean that big brake kits are a scam? Absolutely not! Different model cars have different limiting factors in braking. Doing nothing other than adding a big brake kit might shorten braking distances if the brakes were the limiting factor. Stickier tires, suspension changes, adjustments in the weight and balance of the car, all change the behavior of the braking setup. Some cars have smaller rotors with undersized thermal capacity. As a car ages or as you replace worn out parts, changing the setup, you might be able to take advantage of a big brake kit. A big brake kit is actually needed on many cars if they're taken to the track! A big brake kit has greater rotor and pad mass to absorb the additional heat, pad compounds that can handle high heat, etc. Stock Volkswagen and Audi brakes are fine for street/autocross, but can heat up pretty quickly when really pushed. Again, this article is written with a focus on street use but I've seen TDI perform very well at the track on stock rotors! Driver braking technique is also at play here. So would your car benefit from a big brake kit? It changes by car model, individual car setup, and your intended use, so the correct answer is it depends . For example, Eurocar did a braking test of the New Beetle. After 5 full back to back 60-0 mph stops, the brakes were overheated. Switching to the mk4 Golf R32 brakes kept the brakes cool after many stops. Brake ducting can help but if you have 2.slow or TDI engine New Beetle, then a big brake kit is highly suggested if you want to track the car. Ultimately, if you are making 5 full panic stops in a row during normal street driving, the problem is 100% driver behavior. Again, this doesn't include towing (the New Beetle wasn't designed to tow heavy loads) or driving down long downgrades (you should downshift for engine braking), etc. To put kits in perspective for the street, let's say a well designed big brake kit can reduce panic braking (single hard stop, not repeated stops) distances by 5 feet. This would be very good for a big brake kit on an otherwise stock car/stock tires, etc. 5 feet could be the difference between an accident and avoiding an accident...but cars don't get faulted for average brakes; drivers do get faulted for following too closely! For street driving, increasing the distance between traffic and driver behavior, everything else being equal, are the primary factors in avoiding accidents. More time and distance between cars also reduces stone chips, driver stress, and increases mileage because you don't have to tap the brakes as often. In addition, driver behavior during an emergency braking situation is not to immediately slam on maximum braking. Most drivers will apply the brakes medium, then think Oh sho!T, this guy means it! , then slam on the brakes. In this case, a big brake kit won't save you if you weren't braking hard in the first place. And if you just stopped that hard, the guy behind you couldn't and just hit you from behind! In either situation you shouldn't be following so closely anyways. If you skipped the first section where tires are often the limiting factor, read it again and read the scanned articles below. The mk5 Passat made 25 panic stops from 70-0 with consistent performance. Again, this doesn't mean that brake performance couldn't be improved or should be improved, it's just that the exact Passat tested under those exact conditions showed that tires were the limiting factor, not the brakes. External links and Additional reading - case where a well designed big brake kit on a modified car resulted in worse braking - test between stock, stock plus, and aftermarket brakes - conversion of stock New Beetle brakes to Golf R32 Brakes and test - compilation of posts about brakes from a Corvette forum - if you can prove Porsche casts the holes in their drilled rotor, this guy has a cash reward for you Pulp Friction - 6 thumbnails, click for larger view - scanned from Grassroots Motorsports and mkiv.com The Power To Stop - scanned from Car and Driver Aug 2008

4 lug to 5 lug hub conversion on the mk3 TDI Introduction This article gives the options for hub conversions on mk3 VW TDI (1996, 1997 passat and 1997, 1998, 1999 jetta) If you just want to use 5 lug wheels on your 4 hole hub, there are two easy solutions: The easiest one is to buy a conversion hub, available from ECS tuning. It is a 5 lug hub with a new wheel bearing that you press to replace your existing 4 lug hub. Another solution is to use spacers that are drilled out to convert your 4 hole hub to 5 holes. The reason I don't like spacers is because it increases wheel offset which can make the wheel stick out. Also note that your rotors have to be drilled out because the VR6 5 lug rotors have a different offset and I am not sure if they will fit the 4 lug hub. A more involved solution is to swap a plus suspension from a VR6 engine model of the same generation into your car. All North American VW TDI diesels have the base suspension with a few plus parts. Some European VW TDI diesels and all VR6 VW gasoline cars used the plus suspension. The advantages of the plus size suspension is that it uses heavier and stronger components and has a 5 lug hub so that you can use 5 lug wheels. The spindle also uses either a wider or larger OEM brake caliper and brake rotor than the TDI does. The 1992-1995 passat, golf/gti, jetta VR6 used a 280mm x 22mm brake rotor with the wider corrado G60 g54 caliper and the 96-97 passat VR6, 1996-1999 golf/jetta VR6 used a 288mm x 25mm with a larger VR6 caliper. These are both larger than the TDI's 256mm x 20mm rotor and caliper. The plus suspension geometry also is better than the TDI suspension. From VW's literature: Positive caster has been increased to improve directional stability and to reduce unwanted feedback through the steering wheel. Steering axis inclination has been modified to further aid directional stability. The vehicle has a negative steering roll radius, resulting in a track stabilizing effect during braking. This supposedly gives less torque steer and better straight line tracking. Note: If you are putting a TDI engine into a passat GLX or swapping everything from the passat over, the GLX has a traction control standard with the 3 channel ABS (1 left, 1 right, 1 rear wheels). It works at low speed acceleration by applying differential lock through the front brakes. The ABS was only an option found on a few passat TDI and does not have this type of traction control. The 5 lug pattern also has a lot more aftermarket big brake kits available. See for more details on what wheels will fit your car. Parts: VR6 spindles with calipers, brake lines, and hangers VR6 ball joints VR6 tie rod ends and steering rack VR6 axles ( not recommended to just use the outer CV off of your tdi) Get a complete rear trailing arm from a VR6, fairly cheap from a junkyard. That'll give all the hardware you need for the rear. 23.8 mm brake master cylinder (If your TDI has ABS this is not necessary, if your TDI did not have ABS, you should add this.) If you only want 5 lug wheels, then the easiest way to do this is to use conversion hubs for the front wheel, then swap the rear suspension/trailing arm from a vr6. Tips and misc. notes The best way to get the plus suspension is to swap all of the front suspension except the front springs and struts (due to the weight of the front). It is not recommended to just use the vr6 spindle/brakes and mate the outer CV joint to your TDI axle because the offset of the ball joints are in slightly different positions and this could cause binding. The entire VR6 axle bolts up to your TDI transmission flange too. The 96+ TDI has a plus strut and strut hardware with a different spring. The TDI also has a plus front stabilizer bar, but the rest of the suspension is base. The passat bar is 22m, the Jetta/Golf bar is 20mm. The rest of the suspension: control arms, lower ball joints, steering rack, and tie rod ends on the TDI are base. Note that the Canadian only AAZ diesel (non TDI) B4 passat used the base stabilizer bar but the North American TDI (1996+ TDI) used the plus anti roll stabilizer bar. The TDI uses the TRW steering rack and the VR6 uses the ZF tie rods. The best solution is to swap the steering rack but it's possible that you can mix-match the tie rod ends. It's also possible that the full ZF tierods thread onto the TRW rack. The TDI uses a threaded brake line-caliper, the 1996+ VR6 uses a banjo bolt fitting on the caliper.

Torque wrench FAQ, torque wrench recommendations, buyers guide, and how to use a torque wrench

This is a basic article about fasteners, how to use a torque wrench, types of wrenches, and some good brands that I recommend.

Torque wrench introduction

A torque wrench measures the torque on a fastener. Torque is a measurement of twisting force. There are other methods of tightening fasteners, such as through tension or bolt stretch but this is beyond the scope of this article and not used in your VW manual. A torque wrench is similar to a normal wrench but you should only use it for tightening. Do not use a torque wrench for loosening. When looking at torque specs, always check to see if it's in ft-lbs, in-lbs, or Nm (Newton meter)! Also, the unit of measurement is ft-lbs , not ft/lbs, that's foot divided by pounds. Lb-ft is the unit when referring to the amount of torque an engine produces. All critical components must be tightened with a torque wrench because improper torque leads to damaged parts. Some parts call for x torque, some call for torquing in stages of increasing force, and some should be torqued in stages even though it's not specified. For example, pressure plate bolts, head bolts, or camshaft retainer cap bolts should be always torqued in stages to avoid warping. Threads should be clean and fasteners should be dry except when specified. Using lubricant will change the torque values, so check to see if the VW specs call for oiling the bolt. Antiseize or threadlocker changes the applied torque so check their product information sheets to see if there's a recommendation on how much to change the torque. I often use blue or red Permatex threadlocker and their technical data sheets say that no torque compensation is required. Your product may be different. Disclaimer: I'm not an engineer so please suggest additions and corrections to the information below. This is a basic article about using a torque wrench on a car. Have a wrench brand recommendation? Please post it in the forums above.

Basic notes about fasteners

When any fastener is torqued, it stretches a little bit. For simplicity, this article uses the term bolt for all fasteners and assumes metal bolts. Think of a bolt like a coil spring. If you use too little force it's floppy and doesn't hold. If you use too much force the bolt stretches too much and fails to return to its original shape, like an overstretched slinky.

Stretch bolts - torque to yield bolts

Some bolts used on your VW are torque to yield bolts (TTY) aka. stretch bolts that should only be torqued to their final value once. In your VW service manual, if a bolt says to tighten to x torque and then turn another 1/4 turn or 90o, it's probably a stretch bolt. Adding to the problem is that someone might overtorque or reuse them, further weakening them and bringing them close to their failure point. The cylinder head bolts, crankshaft bolts, and certain engine mount bolts are examples of stretch bolts. Mechanics sometimes reuse them and it holds, but it's also possible (and it has happened many times) to have the bolts break and have the passenger side of the engine fall down, which could result in thousands of dollars in damage and possible injury. The engineers who designed your car, the service manual, and good practices all call for replacement of these single use bolts when removed, so I suggest always replacing them as called for in the manual. If using aftermarket or replacement bolts of a harder grade, you may have to change the torque spec and not add the additional 1/4 turn. The torque specs for TTY bolts assume that the bolt is of a certain grade and will yield on the last turn. If you use harder bolts it won't yield and could damage the threads on a softer material like an aluminum. Why use stretch bolts? This method of torquing, the torque turn method, can be more consistent for critical fasteners than just going to a certain torque. The angle of rotation of a threaded fastener is more directly proportional to the clamp load than the measurement of torque...Because of the additional expense of angle measurement, the torque-turn methods are usually reserved for only the most crucial fasteners in an assembled product - 2007 Quality Magazine. As a bolt is being tightened, it enters the elastic phase where it beings to stretch but can return to its original shape. Most bolts are tightened to this point. If you tighten it further it passes the yield point and enters the plastic phase where it becomes permanently stretched. You want to tighten stretch bolts to this point. At that point it sometimes feels like the bolt isn't getting any tighter and othertimes you don't feel anything unusual. But if you continue to tighten it, you'll notice a drop off in resistance. Tightening it further to the shear point will snap the bolt. The majority of clamping force is at the head/shoulder of the bolt and the first 1/3 of the threads. This is why when you apply PB Blaster, liquid wrench, or another penetrating lubricant, the best place to put it is at the thread tip (if you can get access) and under the head. Unless the bolt is holding a clamp, those are the only parts that are exposed anyways. As a rough estimate, about 40% goes into the head, 40% goes into the threads, and 20% goes into stretching the bolt. As an example, the failed bolt shown right was pulled between the first 1/3 of the threads and shoulder. The stretched part has also reduced in diameter. Not even stretch bolts should look like that! As a total guess, I think one reason why stretch bolts are used for the motor mounts on mk4 VW is so that they break away more easily. The bolts are strong enough to securely hold the engine but in the event of a frontal crash, further stress on the bolts (they are already in the plastic phase) + the design of the motor mounts will drop the engine so that it's more likely to go underneath the passenger compartment. Other cars are designed to do the same thing and they don't use stretch bolts on the motor mount so again, this is just my guess.

Threads should be clean and dry except...

Unless otherwise noted, make sure that the threads are clean and dry. You should not apply lubricants such as WD-40 or oil to a bolt because these decrease the resistance to the fastener. You should also clean any damaged threads and in the case of a machined tapered fit, like the camshaft sprocket, the taper should be free of burrs or dirt/oil. Threaded fastener analysis has shown that most of the energy applied goes into overcoming the friction that exists under the head of the fastener and in the threads...Together these two sources can typically be as much as 80% to 90% of the applied torque energy, leaving as little as 10% of the energy to transfer into clamp load...the presence of dirt on the threads can increase the amount of friction....a drop of oil under the head of a fastener can reduce the friction and allow more energy to flow into the clamp load, which can overtighten... - 2007 Quality Magazine. In other words, rust and corrosion, or WD-40 and oil on the threads can throw off your torque readings. In other cases, such as the VW head bolts or front crankshaft bolt, a very thin coat of oil is called for. In this case, the oil is being used as a friction stabilizer. Oiling the bolts can even double the loading force! If you use antiseize or threadlocker, see its product specification sheet to calculate the change in torque value.

VW and Audi wheel lug bolts torque

Another example of lubricating bolts is the VW lug bolts. When tightening the lug bolts, I suggest a thin dab of anti-seize for all bolts on the brakes or suspension. This will prevent seizing of the lug bolts because they would otherwise rust solid and become impossible to remove in an emergency. However, the torque spec that VW gives is for dry and clean threads. Antiseize acts as lubrication and you should lower the torque spec as a result. I've heard of between 10% and 30% lower, depending on the car and the suggestions in the anti-seize product data sheet. I personally don't go too low because many people don't lower the torque spec when using anti-seize on lug bolts and don't report failure. The greater evil is loose or seized lugs when using hand tools and seized bolts/nuts when using impact wrenches. Always retighten the lug bolts after a day or two of driving since they can loosen.

Using a torque wrench - general tips

When tightening a fastener to the final value with a torque wrench, you should make a smooth, controlled motion until the final value is reached. The reason why is because of the difference between static friction and kinetic friction. In most cases, static friction is higher than kinetic friction but the relationship changes as torque value increases. Stopping and re-tightening will change this relationship and could change the final value. Jerking the wrench can also throw off the perceived torque spec. Unless otherwise stated, use the wrench on the part that is being rotated. For example, if you are tightening a nut and bolt, counterhold the bolt and tighten the nut. If you are tightening wheel lug bolts, tighten the bolts instead of turning the wheel and counterholding the wrench! When tightening (or loosening) head bolts, camshaft cap bolts, clutch pressure plates, etc., do it in stages. For example, tighten it hand tight, then 25% on each bolt, then 50% on each bolt, then 75%, etc. This keeps the object being tightened level and avoids warping. The exceptions are when something has a specified order of loosening. As a rule of thumb, torque wrenches are most accurate in the middle of their acceptable range and least accurate at the top and lowest 10%. For example, if a wrench is rated for 10 ft-lbs to 100 ft-lbs, it's least likely to be accurate below 19 ft-lbs and above 91 ft-lbs. Of course a well calibrated wrench should be accurate within a certain percentage throughout the whole rated range but you never know! Because of this, an assortment of torque wrenches is a good idea for a well stocked garage. If you were to buy some wrenches, I would suggest a low range one that includes the in-lbs scale up to 20 or 25 ft-lbs and one for about 10-100 or 150 ft-lbs. This covers most auto use fasteners. A third wrench for higher values can be useful for some fasteners. Universal joints - don't use them with a torque wrench but you can use a socket extension. When using extensions, take care to keep the wrench perpendicular to the fastener and avoid tilting or twisting the wrench. Crow's foot extensions change the lever arm length and add leverage, causing you to underestimate actual torque. If you must use an extension that changes the angle of the wrench, use it at a 90o angle to get an approximate torque and use your best judgment because it's still better than nothing. If you are using a micrometer type wrench, reset the torque wrench to the bottom of the range after you are done using it. If you don't set it to the lowest range (not necessarily 0), it will wear out the spring inside by taking a set and losing its calibration. After letting a micrometer type torque wrench idle for an extended period, you should set it to the middle of the rated range and exercise it a few times. It can also be damaged if you use it to loosen bolts. Most torque wrenches are for tightening, not for loosening. An exception is the dial/beam type wrench since it's just a bar but they should not be maxed out to either end of the scale to prevent any possible damage. If find that your micrometer type wrench has been stored improperly and it's urgent that you use it, exercise it a few times to try to reset the spring as much as possible. Tighten a spare fastener to 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of the wrench's rated range. Let it rest for 10 seconds, exercise it back down, and let it rest for a minute or so. Obviously you should store your tools properly but in an emergency, it's better than nothing.

Torque wrench types

The most common types of torque wrenches are the beam, click micrometer, click split beam, dial, electronic, and digital. Here are some of their pros and cons. I prefer the split beam, then the micrometer type for auto use. Regardless of which type you get, it should be calibrated to check its accuracy. The beam torque wrench (below left) is the most basic, reliable, and least expensive type of torque wrench. Another big advantage is that it can measure how much torque is needed to loosen a bolt. (You shouldn't use that torque to tighten the same bolt). If you don't exceed the metal fatigue strength, it will also be accurate for a long long time. It has almost no moving parts and if the needle gets bent you can just bend it back to 0. The problem is that you have to view the pointer needle at a 90o angle or else you get parallax, or viewing error. It's also the hardest to use in tight spaces where you might not be able to see the pointer needle at all. Because of this problem in auto use, I avoid this type of wrench. There is also no way to prevent slight overtorquing since it relies on user precision. The dial wrench (above right) is also a good design. Like the beam wrench, it's simple and reliable but due to the size, you can't use it everywhere. It also uses a torsion bar but it reads on a round dial instead of a scale. It can be hard to see the dial when used on cars. The click micrometer style torque wrench is the most common type of wrench for auto use. To adjust the torque setting, you unlock the handle and turn it to set the scale on the handle with the scale on the shaft. There are a few variations on internals, but they are similar in function. When you tighten the handle, you are turning the handle on an internal screw shaft. This shaft adjusts the main spring preload which is holding the ratchet head (with a ball detent between the spring and the head). When the force on the ratchet head overcomes the spring force the ball detent breaks away and releases the head, hitting the inside of the housing and making the click noise. This click noise lets you hear and feel when the torque setting has been reached and lets you use the wrench where you can't see the numbers. Because of the strength of the click depends on how much force is being overcome, a low torque setting will generally make a smaller and softer click than a higher setting. This clicking breakaway also prevents overtorqueing (as long as you don't continue to turn the wrench) since it releases the force. Below is a simplified illustration that helps show how it works. Cordless drills use a similar spring loaded ball/detent clutch just behind the chuck to limit torque at the bit. When you exceed a set value, the balls release the torque and it makes a rapid clacking noise. Below is a click type micrometer wrench (lower), with a split beam wrench (upper). These are the two types I recommend for auto use. Note the pivot just below the head on the micrometer wrench. If you wish to see the internals and disassembly of a micrometer style craftsman wrench, check out . The main disadvantage of a click micrometer wrench is that it can be sensitive to being dropped and you must reset the spring to the lowest torque setting after each use or after about 1/2 hour, whichever is longer. If you haven't used the wrench in a long time, it's also suggested to set it to 50% of the wrench range and exercising the spring a few times before use. This is because of spring fatigue or the non-linear properties of the main spring. Another disadvantage is that it can take extra time and effort to turn the adjustment handle since you are working against the pressure of the main spring. It's tiring if you're setting it to a high torque because you're working against a heavy spring. They are also less accurate in the counterclockwise direction vs. counterclockwise. The split beam click torque wrench is also a common wrench. I think it's the best for auto use because of durability and ease of use. It has fewer moving parts and you don't have to reset it to the lowest setting after each use or exercise it before using. It's slightly faster to use because you're not turning the handle against the force of the main spring when setting the torque spec. To set the torque spec in a split beam, you turn a small knob on the side which only needs a light finger touch for adjustment. Its position is locked under the guard/lock. Due to its design, they only measure in either counterclockwise or clockwise but not both. Here is a picture of the scales on a split beam type on left, micrometer style wrench on right. An electronic torque wrench is like one of the above but with an electronic readout or torque selection. It is not to be confused with a digital strain gauge torque wrench. The digital strain gauge torque wrench measures torque via a strain gauge. A strain gauge uses electrical current variation when deflected to measure torque. I don't have any due to cost so that's all I really know. Instead of a click, they use a light or beep to indicate that the torque has been reached.

Good torque wrench brands

My personal opinion is to spend a little more and get a quality tool for as little as a tank of gas. This article was written in 2008 and updated in 2014. The picture below still shows current gas prices so a good tool for a critical component is cheap by comparison! Remember that a failed fastener on a critical engine component can result in $1000's of dollars in damage! Cheap torque wrenches from H---- F---- work but don't rely on them for accuracy. If you just need something to torque the lug nuts and don't want to spend much, it's better than the loosey goosey, whoops, stripped method. With lug nuts, torque consistency between the nuts is important and a cheap wrench shouldn't be too far off. I would not use them on any critical component like for timing belts or head bolts. Any wrench that doesn't come with a custom certificate of calibration with the tool serial number is not something you should use on the most critical components. You may also have trouble having it calibrated because some torque wrench calibration services won't calibrate these cheap wrenches. It also doesn't make sense to spend $60 to calibrate a $25 wrench but a cheap torque wrench is still much better than nothing. Some report their cheap wrenches are accurate but I wouldn't rely on it. The Craftsman torque wrenches (pictured below) used to be higher quality but they have some issues with the current designs. I don't like the plastic handle with the scale painted on them. Some report that after exposure to auto type chemicals, the painted numbers can come off. The locking rings on the handle have also had some poor reviews due to failing. (Mine is still working). The calibration is supposed to be acceptable in most cases but some say they got a really bad one. The first one I got had a scale that wasn't perfectly lined up with the shaft's scale so I had to unscrew it and turn it back to the lowest setting to be really sure where the marks were lining up. The second one I got didn't have this problem. Although craftsman sockets and most tools have a lifetime warranty, the basic craftsman wrenches come with only a 90 day warranty and no warranty on the calibration. I own mostly Craftsman tools due to their value and lifetime warranty but I only bought their torque wrench because I needed one fast and I had to return the first one because it was unsatisfactory. I also don't like their hydraulic floor jacks because of leaking and reliability issues. I don't mind breaking a socket or ratchet but I won't use a leaky floor jack. For the price of 1 tank of fuel, you can buy a quality torque wrench that comes with a custom calibration certificate and which I found to be much pleasant to use. The Snap On tools are high quality but expensive. You can expect a custom certificate of calibration and the tool will last a long time with care. One way to get a good tool at a cheap price is to buy a used wrench off ebay and calibrate it. One seller even sells wrenches that are recently calibrated and he guarantees them too. I would be wary of a micrometer type wrench that has been drop kicked by United Package Smashers but if the tool is packed well, it should be fine. CDI wrenches are now known as CDI by Snap On . CDI used to make the wrenches for Snap On until they were purchased by Snap On. It's basically the same exact torque wrench with a different ratchet head. This is a good deal if you want a new wrench. They should come with a custom certificate of calibration. Precision instruments used to only make wrenches for Snap On and have been making torque wrenches since 1938. Their split beam wrenches are the old style Snap On torque wrenches. They should come with a custom certificate of calibration. They make both micrometer and split beam wrenches and I feel they were the best value for what I wanted. The split beam wrench in the pictures above is a Precision instruments wrench. I own this brand and type because I think a split beam wrench is easier and faster to use than a micrometer style wrench. SK and Matco torque wrenches have good reputations but I don't have experience with them.

Final notes

The ugly truth is that the techs at the local garage or dealer often don't use torque wrenches because time is money. While there is some margin of error built into fasteners, there are also lots of stripped or loose fasteners. Remember, a torque wrench is measuring only torque applied on the wrench: bolt hardness, size, dirty threads, lubrication, measuring torque instead of bolt tension or stretch, variations between wrenches, etc., all result in variations in force. You've probably cursed over tightened oil filters before - this problem is only the tip of the iceberg. Sometimes they can get away with it but oftentimes, a timing belt fails, a bolt gets stripped, and various components fail, resulting in thousands of dollars of damage when it could have been avoided. Hearing about TDI engines that fell out of the engine bay due to reused and overtightened motor mount bolts or failed timing belts is a tragedy since it's avoidable and many times, due to cover ups or lack of consumer knowledge, cause damages to the consumer. At least in those cases there can be financial remedy but if you're reading this, you're probably working on your own car and you are your own warranty. On my own car, I always use a torque wrench on anything that is important. The responsibility is in your hands, so make sure you've stuck a torque wrench in it!

How to adjust the door handle or repair a broken door handle - Mk3 Jetta and Passat Introduction A broken door handle can be a real inconvenience when you have to crawl inside from the passenger side. The inside door handle can also fail, causing some headaches. Many times, a hard to open door can be adjusted to open with light effort by adjusting the handle mechanism, see below for more details. This article shows how the passat door handle opens and closes the door and some ways to fix it. The jetta and passat door handles are different but the ideas are similar. The front jetta handle can be swapped left-right. The passat handles are all L-R and F-R specific and are not interchangeable with the jetta handle. Aftermarket handles are cheaper but have gotten bad reviews. Try to adjust it and if it doesn't work, get a new OEM door handle. The mk1/mk2 cars used a fixed handle with a lever on the inside of the handle. The mk3 cars used the pull handle and the mk4 cars switched to a paddle handle. There have been conversion kits to convert the pull handle to a recessed paddle handle but it requires cutting, welding, and repainting the door. Try to avoid using WD-40 to lubricate the door parts, especially the door lock cylinder. WD-40 will wash away any graphite lubricant that is already there. Try to use a lubricant in the lock that won't attract dirt. Parts large phillips head screwdriver graphite lubricant wrenches 5.5mm wrench Passat front door handles, left/right are not swappable - for front passat only Left front handle VW# 3A0 837 207 C (optional, price may vary so see link for current price) Right front handle VW# 3A0 837 208 C (optional) Jetta front door handles - left/right sides are swappable but still have different part numbers - for front jetta only Left front handle VW# 1HM-837-207 (add a suffix for black, 3fz for satin black) Right front handle VW# 1HM-837-208 painters tape (optional) glue, a dab of silicone, or JB weld (optional) Procedure Basics of door handle repair and operation First remove the door handle. Open the door from the inside and look above the boxy door latch on the inside edge of the door. There should be a phillips screw that is on the same level as the door handle. Warning: on the passat, the passenger side is a reverse screw and the driver's side is a normal threaded screw but your car may be slightly different. If you can't open the door at all, you have to figure out another way to open the door by jimmying the lock from the window, cutting a hole somewhere to get access to the lock mechanism inside the door, or calling a locksmith. A locksmith or police officer should have a slimjim that can open a stuck door from the inside. You can also try unlocking and locking the door to see if it makes a difference. Read this entire article to gain an understanding of where to poke around. To remove the door handle, slide it forward and back to clear the parts that stick out. There is a wire for the door alarm system (if equipped) microswitch on the driver/passenger side - you don't have to unplug it unless you want to completely remove the handle. Simply loosen a single clip holding the wire so that you have enough room to pull the handle out - note the wire's position so it doesn't interfere with the power window. I also suggest putting some painter's tape around the door handle hole to avoid scratching the paint so you can leave the handle hanging or if you are going to be poking around the hole - a quick slip of the screwdriver can also leave a nice gouge right where you will always notice it. Here is a picture of the handle. Once the door handle is out, pull the door handle to open to see how it is supposed to work. With the passat, pulling the handle open moves the lever in the direction of the thin red arrows (towards the center of the car) in the picture to the right. This pushes the white plastic part down in the direction of the wide red arrow. On the Jetta, the handle pulls a lever straight out. The white plastic part pushes down on a smooth lever inside the door, which opens the door. There is another lever that locks/unlocks the door when the key is turned. Both are marked below. Suggestions for adjusting the door handle The first thing to check is the large Phillips screw holding in the handle. Open the door and check it's tightness. The passenger side screw is reverse threaded . If that doesn't solve it, you have to remove the door handle. Check for loose pins, then try adjusting the white plastic plunger, then try adjusting the 5.5mm nut. If the problem is internal, you have to remove the inside door panel but this is the least likely problem. See for more details on door panel removal. First priority is to check for loose pins. Inspect wear spots on the levers and the pins that hold the levers in place. Lubricate them well. Most of the time, the contact areas on the levers have worn away and the pins have slid out, causing poor actuation of the door handle. These wear areas are circled in red below. The person who took this photo welded a bicycle chain link to it. Use some method which will keep the pin from working itself out. Second priority is to adjust the plastic plunger. Push the plastic pin out. Note the worn side of the plunger, pull off the plunger, then rotate it 180 degrees so that the worn side is on the other end. You'll see that the pin has an adjustment range. See below pic (red arrow). Move it outward as necessary and push the pin back in. By reversing it, you are putting the worn side of the plunger to the other side. Someone put a dab of epoxy on the end of the plunger but just moving it outward will give a better range. This also compensates for any wear in the door handle levers. You can also adjust the door latch adjusting nut. I suggest this last because it's an odd 5.5mm nut and will probably get mangled if you use a wrench. Pop the black plastic door latch cover off and you should see the picture to the right. Loosen but don't remove the 5.5mm adjusting nut - beware, the passenger side is reverse threaded. Once it's loose, press on the door latch lever pictured above. The adjusting nut will move up and down with some play once it's loose. Moving this nut in relation to the back piece will adjust how much play your doors have. I found that the driver's side had to move down, the passenger side had to move up. Tighten it (it's only 5.5mm) to 3 Nm (not ft lbs). If your door won't open even from the inside, you need to use something stiff to push down on the smooth lever inside the door. Otherwise you can't get access to the large phillips screw that holds the door handle because it's on the inside edge of the door. I suggest taping the work area and avoiding the window as much as possible to avoid scratches. If it still doesn't work, you could cut a hole in the inside door panel (it's board and cloth) to get access from the inside to push down on this lever. I would rather call a locksmith by that point. And of course, you could also buy a new door handle. Try to avoid reproductions because they may have poor fit and finish, this might make the door handle hard to open. Direct links are listed in Parts so you can compare prices. Final notes: Make sure you lubricate everything, this will help prevent wear in the future. Some other issues that the door is prone to: the door sags with age, you can either remove the door hinges to adjust the door or just pull up really hard on the bottom of the door. Be careful to avoid pressing on the glass. This should realign the door with the door latch. You could also move the door latch, it's a 14mm nut. Some of these basic ideas can be applied to the Volkswagen Jetta's door handle - it's similar only the lever moves in a different direction and is swappable left-right side. It's also simpler and less likely to fail but easier to break into. The Aftermarket handles from various suppliers look and operate very close to the originals off the car, but there are some small differences that make them the wrong choice. Front handles have a very cheap rivet holding the contact arm and the arm is at too much of an angle. You can grind/modify this to correct it. The plastic has moulding slag everywhere, especially where the the two halves of the handle meet/slide by each other, and causes it to stick. There is no nylon spacer/bushing on either side of the arm pivot, causing the arm to be able to rock side to side. The lock fork is slightly shorter than factory causing the forks to slide by the lock tab and jam, and also will not engage the central locking control. The rear handle (same supplier) is a completely different animal altogether. The arm is different in shape and length, and does not engage the door mechanism at all. Same build quality as the fronts. Now with all this said, yes you can modify and make them work, but they will fail faster, and will probably just irritate you. Yes they are only 45-50 Euro for a set of four. You decide. Supplier in question is . marketed on eBay by S2-auto / seller beabart05. you can view a few photos that clearly show the differences in the B4 door handle discrepancy thread.

Window regulator and window removal/repair - for VW Passat (VW Jetta is similar) For the mk4 (1999-2005) Jetta, Golf, or Passat, see Introduction The window may start to make clicky noises when at the top of the travel or fail to move smoothly. If you hear clicky noises when raising or lowering the window, feel for catching or clicking by feeling and listening to the window and door. Unlike later generation cars, the window is held in place by a gear and electric motor, both of which require door card removal. The rubber boot at the door hinge where all the electrical wires are routed through the door may also be chafed and broken and cause problems, so check there as well. Parts (click links to compare current prices) VW# 3a0 837 461 driver's side window regulator for passat (no motor) VW# 3a0 837 462 passenger's side window regulator for passat (no motor) phillips screwdrivers 10mm socket and wrench torx screwdriver if you need to transfer the electric window motor to the new window regulator needlenose pliers Procedure First remove the door cards. See for more details. For Jetta, see . Also remove the speaker and speaker bracket. Peel down the moisture barrier. Try to avoid tearing it since it serves as the moisture barrier which separates the inside of the door (which gets wet from rain) and the inside of the car. Be careful of the black tar because it can smear onto the seats or windows and is difficult to remove. WD-40 does a good job of removing the tar from metal but isn't appropriate for cloth seats. Side note: If you have a passat, you can add a second layer of door foam from a recycled door (junkyard). This will make the door slightly quieter. See for more tips. Try moving the window up and down to spot broken plastic clips or broken gear teeth. A common problem is the window is clicking at the top of its travel. This is broken or worn gear teeth. It's possible to weld and file down new teeth, otherwise you need a replacement regulator. Here are some pictures from Fixit-13 showing the areas of wear. Here is a picture of the inside of a passat front passenger side door. Note the circled locations for the window regulator, motor, and rail. The left most bolt is holding the front window rail. Make sure it is holding the window tightly or else it could fall off the track. The top red dashed line is where the window trim was, only remove it if you are going to remove the window glass. Window regulator removal Here is a picture of the front and back of a window regulator and electric motor for the driver's side. First use pliers to remove the 2 window clip springs so that the window won't fall down. Then remove the black plastic electrical connector - don't pull it off, you have to slide the union diagonally up to remove it, slide down to secure it back. The union and it's diagonal track are indicated with a red arrow in the picture below. Remove the bolts (10mm x 6 bolts) that hold the window regulator in place. The window regulator can now be removed - take care to not scratch the window. Pretty much everything could be greased for smoother operation. A new window regulator does not come with the motor, just remove the torx screws holding the regulator-motor and it will separate. Here is a tip for replacing the plastic slider spring locks. Instead of putting the metal knob on the regulator in the slider then trying to put the locking clip on, put the locking springs on the clips first (closed end should face towards each other), then push the metal ball into the slider with a firm clamp. It will click when the ball of the window regulator is locked in place. When you are adjusting the new window regulator, note how the whole assembly moves back and forth when you raise and lower the window. You may notice some door sheetmetal flex so compensate for it. You want to have all the bolts on loosely, then set the window to where you want it to be. Tighten the bolts to keep the relative position of all the components. Otherwise, the window won't be centered in the track and won't move well or leave a gap at the top. Window removal If you only want to remove the window, first remove the door cards. Then remove the 2 window regulator spring clips and loosen the front window rail (10mm x 1 bolt). At the other end of the track, there is a gold colored clip and a black plastic stopper (circled below). Remove the metal clip and then press down on the hook holding in the plastic stopper to remove. Also remove the hard plastic trim at the top of the inside door seam, marked with a red dashed line in the picture at the top of the page - just pull up to remove. Be careful if you use a pry bar since it can bend the trim. You can now slide the window up, away, and out. It will just barely clear the gap, so make sure that you remove the door seam trim and the black plastic stopper at the end of the track. Adjust the new window with the above procedure. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Permanent welding fix to regulator. ADDED by Nevadan November 24, 2015: I've been going through my recently purchased 1997 Passat fixing a lot of little things with help from the excellent data on this site. While diagnosing the cause of the problem I determined it's a design flaw causing the driven gear to be worn, or chewed up, by the drive gear. The large toothed gear is too far away from the drive toothed gear, or stated another way, the drive sprocket on the electric motor doesn't fit into the teeth on the driven gear. Here's a picture of the original regulator driven gear. The drive sprocket is under the tab circled in yellow. You can see the end of the drive shaft in the center. The only way to get the driven gear closer to the drive sprocket is to cut the driven gear and re-weld it about 1/16 inch closer to the drive gear. Here's a picture of the weld job about 10% complete. You can see my original cuts, made with a cutoff wheel. The tricky part is to position the gear so it remains in a uniform arc or circle. You can see my Sharpie marks on the frame under the teeth of the driven gear. I used some large locking pliers to hold the gear in position while welding. I did the welding with a gas torch and some baling wire, completed filling the gap and then bending/aligning it so it was in the correct position. After re-installation it works perfect. The worn teeth now fit deep enough into the drive gear so they don't skip. It was not necessary to weld and grind new teeth on the driven gear. After making this repair I've since found you can purchase new regulators for $40 - $130. You'll have to determine which is the better option. The new regulators may have the same design flaw which would require the above repair.

Central vacuum locking repair on Volkswagen Jetta and Passat (mk3) Introduction This article shows how to repair the 3 main problem areas in the locks: the pump, electrical, or vacuum leaks. Mk3 90's VW and Audi cars often used vacuum to operate the door locks. Why? It appears to smoothly move the door lock plunger up and down instead of clicking it up and down like a solenoid would, like the VW MK4 cars. Unfortunately, a leak in this system can render the central locking system useless or cause one side to not function. The vacuum pump is fairly reliable, so check for other problems when troubleshooting the central locking system. Note that if the pump runs too long it can throw a code in VAG-COM - this would be your first indication that there is a problem. For door handle repair, see . For later years, see the FAQ linked above. Procedure There are 3 main problem areas with the vacuum operated central locking. Pump, electrical, and vacuum. There is also the possibility of a mechanical failure of the door locks but this would most likely be isolated to only one lock instead of the whole system. Here are the most likely problems. 1. Vacuum pump broken or not activating. 2. Door microswitch in the handle broken or wires in the door jamb coming from the lock broken. 3. Vacuum leak in the line somewhere from the pump to the door locks. The vacuum pumps are fairly reliable but can be broken if the door microswitch in the handle is broken. The vacuum pump is located in the spare tire area in the passat. If the door microswitch is broken and telling the central locking system that you are constantly trying to open or close the locks, it will continuously run and break the pump. If you turn the driver's side lock and don't hear the pump running, try isolating the problem by checking the passenger side lock. If the pump activates, then the problem is in the driver's side lock. If the pump does not activate, then the problem could be in either the door microswitch in the handle, a problem in the wiring harness in the door jamb, or the vacuum pump. Check these as necessary. If the pump activates but the door locks do not work, then there is probably a vacuum leak. The driver's and pass side each share air lines, so to find a leak, lock and unlock the car and listen for the air leak. Try pulling back the rubber boot that holds back the electrical wires in the door jamb and wiggling out the air line to inspect and listen for cracks and leaks. Once you have identified a crack or leak, use 1/4 inner diameter hose to slide a patch over the line break, or use tape to patch it.

VW Passat TDI 9005-9006 headlight bulb conversion or changing your headlight bulb Introduction Your North American spec VW Passat TDI probably has dim headlights. This modification lets you use a brighter bulb. The issue is that it doesn't use a very bright bulb and the plastic becomes opaque due to sun, oxidation, and road wear. There are two solutions: clearing the lenses and improving the light output. so don' for more details. The bottom of the article also shows a picture of the headlight housing and how to change the headlight bulb. Parts/Tools Dremel tool or file 9005 high beam bulb headlight polishing materials, see procedure below for more details and link Related links Procedure First see if the headlights and windshield are clean. There's no point in brighter lights when it's dispersed at the headlight and you can't see out the window anyways. Then clear up your old headlight lenses if they're yellowed or opaque. Read the related link above for the DIY article. You might not get 100% perfect results because years of sun exposure has faded the plastic internally, but 90% is acceptable. If it's really bad you should sand away a thin layer of plastic and you will get 97% results by going down to the clearer plastic underneath. Then you want to improve the light output. Take a new 9005 high beam bulb, which is your existing high beam bulb, and use a dremel to grind the plastic guide in the plug and middle tab down. It will then fit into the 9006 low beam socket. The light bulb is the same dimension and the same wattage as your 9006 low beam light, but it doesn't have the painted tip. It's filament position is also identical so it won't mess up the focus of the headlight housing. As long as your headlights are properly adjusted, the light pattern is pointed down so it won't blind other drivers like a high beam. If you don't clear the headlight lenses, that light will be reflected and create glare. It's essential that the lenses be clear before increasing the light output or else you'll just scatter the light and create glare instead of putting it onto the road. It's also brighter than a e-code/eurolight bulb. Pictured below are the spots where you have to remove plastic. You can try Halogen Infrared Reflector (HIR) bulbs. I've never tried them but many have reported positive results. The bulb filament position and housing is identical to a regular 9005 or 9006 so there is no problem with the reflector pattern and they draw 55 watts, identical to a normal beam. It's beginning to be OEM equipment on some newer cars but the reason they aren't more widespread is because of patents, higher costs, and limited availability. Unlike colored coatings or other gimmicks that you may read about on the internet, this technology was developed as a cheaper alternative to HID bulbs and is real. Do an internet search for more info on the technology but beware of fake HIR bulbs. HIR bulbs are direct plug-play and due to the higher lumen rating, do not put a HIR high beam bulb in the passat's low beam spot since it is very bright and I believe that it will produce glare. An HIR 9006 is rated at 1875 lumen, even brighter than a halogen 9005 and an HIR 9005 is rated at 2530 lumes. I wouldn't use an HIR bulb in this car when cheaper bulbs are sufficient, so I suggest trying a 70% increase in your low beam with a standard halogen 9005 instead of a 150% increase with an HIR 9005! Glare creates a safety issue by blinding other drivers and the low beam reflector used on your car or euro headlights does not have enough light control to handle much more than a 70% increase in light without producing glare. And remember that if your headlight lenses aren't clear or clean, it also produces glare. An HIR in a high quality projector headlamp housing (not available for the passat) is more reasonable since projector headlamps have much greater light control and cut-off shields. Do not use aftermarket HID kits. These bulbs will create lots of glare and if they draw more amps, melt your wiring harness or blow a fuse. Your reflector headlight is not designed to work properly with an HID bulb. Note: do not touch the light bulb with your hands or when grinding the plastic - wrap it in a fresh, clean paper towel to avoid getting oils or other contaminants on the bulb. If you touch the bulb, use rubbing alcohol or no residue electrical cleaner to clean it. Final results Here is a picture of one headlight with a low beam (1000 lumen) and one headlight with a high beam (1700 lumen), both in the low beam spot. To give you an idea of how this compares to other bulbs, here are the ratings from brightest to least bright. For comparison, E-code/eurospec passat headlight housings use the H1 bulb. The main advantage of the eurospec headlight housing is a different reflector pattern and glass lenses instead of plastic. I have also listed the HIR bulb ratings (see above for HIR bulb explanation and cautions). Brightest the average HID =3200 lumen (average real xenon HID lights, not usable with US or Euro headlight housings) HIR 9005= 2530 lumen (may be too bright for this headlight housing, for high beams only) HIR 9006= 1875 lumen (low beams, on the limit for light control with this reflector headlight) Halogen 9005 = 1700 lumen (high beam bulb that you modified or your stock high beam) Halogen H1 = 1550 lumen (passat eurospec headlight bulbs) Halogen 9006 = 1000 lumen (stock low beam bulb) Least bright Here is a picture showing the back of the headlight. The black plastic cover has been removed. The light bulb rotates and then pulls straight out. You can remove the bulb connector before or after removing the bulb. The 9005 should fit perfectly. All these mods are your own risk.

E-code headlights: what are they and how do I install them?

The euroswitch headlight switch has additional modes that the North American headlight switch does not have.

for the euroswitch alone Difficulty: 2/5 if you remove the headlights as well Introduction The E-code headlights (European specification) also have additional modes that the North American headlight does not have. Note that because they are not DOT approved lights, these modifications are technically for off-road use only! For a more complete list of US vs. E-code differences, see The euroswitch's turning positions are, turning clockwise: off, city light, headlight. The euroswitch's pull/push positions are, pulling out: fog light off, front fog light on, front and rear fog lights on. Below is a video showing some more. Note that the euroswitch does not affect daytime running lights. You may also see city lights mentioned. City lights are small, dim 5w lights that are supposed to be used in the city. You can see them lit in the animated picture below, they are in the high beam housing. Note that you must have fog lights enabled for this to work! Here is an example of an e-code headlight Note that the eurolight has nothing to do with daytime running lights. Installing a euroswitch by itself will not disable daytime running lights. To do this, remove the headlight switch, and either bend, or put some electrical tape over the TFL pin. See this article for more details: . Procedure To change on the US-spec headlight switch to the euroswitch, just remove the headlight switch, unplug, and replace. See the DRL disable article linked above for details. To change the headlights, just remove the front fascia and headlights, and replace. Always make sure the battery is disconnected before doing any work on the electrical system! For more details on removing the front fascia, see this article: .

How to disable daytime running lights on a VW Passat TDI or VW Jetta TDI Introduction This article shows how to disable the daylight running lights (DRL). If you have the cold start chirp, disabling the daytime running lights will help take the load off the alternator and somewhat reduce the likelihood of the cold start chirp. The cold start chirp is most likely caused by a worn harmonic balancer pulley. See to see possible solutions and more details. DRL helps visibility to others so I suggest leaving it active for normal driving. Warning: Do not disable the DRL if it's illegal where you live or operate the car. By disabling the DRL, you take full responsibility for your actions to you or any third party. See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Procedure (passat) Open the hood and find the DRL plug. Unplug it, that's it! I suggest taping it in place. General location under the hood marked with a green arrow. While you are here, also check the relay box to the left with the red wire and clear plastic cover. It's the coolant glow plug relay and is commonly burnt out. Clean the corrosion off the wire connectors and replace the fuse if it's burnt out. It can cause a fire hazard from overheating if there is a lot of corrosion on the wires. Close up of the plug. It has a yellow wire. Just squeeze the metal clip with your fingers and you can pull the plugs off. Procedure (Jetta) If your DRL turns off when you pull the handbrake, find relay 173 underneath the dash and remove it. You could also disable the DRL at pin 15 on the headlight switch. Use some thin feelers or spark plug gappers to feel around the headlight switch trim and release the latch. A screwdriver can damage the trim. Remove the light switch and pull the yellow wire's pin (instead of cutting the wire) but the relay solution is faster and less likely to damage the pin or trim. The yellow wire is pin 15. Use electrical tape over the exposed pin or wire. Also check the relay box to the left with the red wire and clear plastic cover. It's the coolant glow plug relay and is commonly burnt out. Clean the corrosion off the wire connectors and replace the fuse if it's burnt out. It can cause a fire hazard from overheating if there is a lot of corrosion on the wires.

DIY dashboard camera hardwire install

This article shows how I hardwired a dashboard camera (dashcam) on my mk5 Volkswagen with a hidden switch and the cigarette lighter power adapter

Introduction I wanted to try out a dashboard camera and my wish list included: video screen for instant review, not conspicuous, turns on and off with the car so I don't have to press any buttons, can read license plates, dual camera for recording the sides or rear, and records in a loop without gaps between clips. Unfortunately, there's nothing that can meet all these requirements. Here's why: Unless you spend a few hundred dollars, forget about anything that can read license plates in motion because cheap optics just can't do it. Cheap dashcams record in HD but HD only refers to the number of lines of resolution. Ignore the number of megapixels or 720/1080 resolution because crystal clear 1080 HD only requires about 2 megapixels! The reason the best dashcams and Gopros are expensive is because they use relatively high quality sensors and lenses. It doesn't matter how many megapixels or lines of resolution you have if you have cataracts. Low quality dashcams use cheaper sensors and lenses and the picture isn't as clear as you'd expect of an HD camera but it's enough to show what happened. There's no high quality 2 camera systems and those that have 2 built in cameras don't work well. The main reason why is because of auto-exposure. When one camera is positioned to view outside, the other camera can only show what's inside the car - outside will just be pure white. I want a dashcam to record what's happening outside the car, not inside. I also avoided any dashcam with GPS or speed display. There's no reason you could ever use this information to your benefit but it could be used to hurt you. If you're in an accident they could show that you have a history of driving faster than the speed limit and are therefore partially to blame. Everyone has driven over the speed limit at some point and since the purpose of a dashcam is to record what the other guy was doing, I can't see this information helping you. I settled on this unit from ebay for $66 shipped. It's set to turn on when it gets power from the cigarette lighter adapter (it also has a power button on it) and turn off a few seconds after losing power (it has an internal battery), is clear enough to see what's going on, and records in a loop. This way I'll never have to touch it again unless I need to. I just set and forget it. The menus are in English and it also records sound. Many dashcams mount on large suction cups but this one also came with a flat plate which sticks to the windshield. Field of view is 120 degrees but when it's mounted to the windshield, 140-150 degree field of view would be perfect to view the entire front view, pillar to pillar. Some dashcams look like radar detectors and I wanted to avoid any attention - this one looks more like a commuter toll tag. It also came with an aux. remote wired camera so you can record another view but its video quality was very low and the extra wiring wasn't worth it. In addition, when mounted on the rear parcel shelf, half the view was of the parcel shelf, the other half was of the sky. The test video was when it was mounted to the seat headrest so I could see something. I could have mounted it to the rear window but it's an obvious wart on the beige interior and I didn't want to damage the window tint. I suspect the reason why there's no 2 camera high quality systems is because it can't write data to the SD card fast enough and because it would generate a lot of heat. If you want to get fancy, you could run multiple cameras to a digital recording box. All the inputs could be HD but they're really expensive and it's more work that I wanted to do. These are usually used for home surveillance systems and would be a wiring nightmare in a car. I also ran the dashboard camera power through a hidden on/off switch. This way I could prevent the dashcam from automatically turning itself on with the car. You can manually shut off the screen after startup by holding the menu button but I wanted to set and forget it so I covered the screen with a piece of cloth. Here are some video samples. Daytime video is decent if the lighting is good and license plates can be read if you're close enough and not moving much. Most of the time it can only show what's going on, especially when the sun messes up the exposure. Nighttime video is unusable unless in a well lit area. If you want to do any decent recording at night, you have to buy a high quality dashcam and even those have their limits. If you search youtube the best video quality is probably from the Blackvue 1080 dashcams. It takes a lot more energy to record and process good quality HD so they run hotter than the cheap cameras and cost about 4x what I paid for this. They also don't have a video screen, relying on their smartphone app or PC connection to review video. The benefit is the small size. -XelwQtlkg0 Parts soldering gun and solder wire crimps wire and stripper trim removal tools 1 soft click on/off switch from radio shack 1 terminal repair wire (for the fusebox if using switched power) VW# 000 979 225 fuse, I used a 5 amp fuse

Procedure to hardwire the dashcam with hidden switch

The cigarette lighter power adapter takes the 12V from the car and brings it down to 5V for the mini USB connection. The cable only had wires for power and ground. Do not wire USB cables directly to your 12V car's electrical system! You don't want the dashcam to have constant power and drain the battery so refer to your car's fusebox to find out which bus is switched power. Use a multimeter to confirm which one turns on/off with the ignition. Use a fuse and wiring thick enough to handle whatever amps your camera will draw! My camera only draws under 2 amps so I used 18 gauge wire. Here's what I ended up with. Split the cigarette lighter in half (the tip unscrews to remove the fuse) and solder extension wires to 12V and ground. Make sure to remove the original 12V and ground tips (leave enough to solder with) so there's no exposed contacts outside of the plastic which could short out. Use electrical tape to secure the wiring so it won't pull on the soldered connection. I sent ground to a bare metal nut near the fusebox. 12V to the lighter came from the hidden on/off switch. Run the wires under the dashboard. Make sure the wires will not interfere with the steering wheel or pedals. The hidden on/off switch is in the center console. Solder your extension wires to it. One goes to the cigarette power adapter and the other comes from the fusebox. To remove the ashtray on this car, pop the shifter boot trim up and remove the 2x T20 screws. When installed, the switch looks like the other blank plates. See for more on how to add hidden buttons. The switch is a on/off soft click button from radio shack glued under one of the blanks instead of the intermittent switch used for a garage door opener. I glued the switch so that the normal resting position (switch on) of the button would be flush with the others. I crimped the wire going to the fusebox with a terminal end for the fusebox. Plug the wire into the fuse box for switched power and then add the fuse. VW fuseboxes have a lock so unlock it before you try to press in the terminal end. Read for details. On my 2006 Jetta, switched power is fuses 7-11 and the correct terminal wire for those rows is VW# 000 979 225. The reason I didn't use the cigarette lighter for power is because it has constant power and I wanted the camera to turn on when I turn the car on and turn off when I turn the car off. The 5 amp fuse is also less than the fuses for the stereo or cigarette lighter. After putting the fusebox and trim back, I ran the mini USB cable up the a-pillar and tucked it behind the headliner. Make sure the wire is not interfering with any airbags! Tape it away and above the side curtain airbag! This wiring is actually for my but you get the idea, see the writeup for how to remove the a-pillar trim. The power adapter that came with the dashcam had way too much wiring and a straight mini USB plug so I used a tomtom adapter that had a right angle mini USB end to make the plug less visible. You can buy mini USB cables in both left and right angles with any variety of adapters. The view from outside. My EZ Pass tag (not shown) is far more visible since it's white. The white vertical bands are the EZ Pass holder strips. You don't want anything that looks like a cellphone or is too visible because that could invite theft. I took mine apart and found that the camera part could be separated from the body. The only connection was the ribbon cable - if you want a super stealth installation, you could locate the camera remotely with an extra long ribbon cable. The aux cable uses a 4 pin wire which probably cannot transmit enough data for HD. The internal battery also looks easy to replace. Any questions on dashboard camera installation or have a review of your dashcam? Please share your review in the .

Passat headliner removal and replacement Introduction Headliner replacement is a common procedure for all cars. The basic principles of this article are applicable to other cars as well. The headliner adhesive may become weakened and the substrate may separate, causing the headliner to droop, or you may just want to replace or reupholster a dirty headliner. Parts headliner material, make sure you have enough to do the entire headliner in 1 piece headliner adhesive, make sure you read the directions for the adhesive! thin screwdrivers philips screwdrivers Procedure If you have a sunroof, you will have to remove the sunroof access panel. Remove the sunroof motor (2 screws) and power connector. Remove the sunvisors. One side is held in by 1 screw and an inner plastic anchor. The other side is held in by 2 screws. Disconnect the power for the mirror light. Remove the plastic trim between the front and rear seats. Use a thin screwdriver to remove the small rectangular cover next to the seatbelt track. Remove 1 screw securing the trim. Remove the roof handles. The 2 screws are hidden behind plastic covers. Note the position of any plastic covers and spacers. The trim between the A and B pillars (The first pillar and second pillar) is held on by 4 or 5 small metal clips and two plastic anchors. Use a screwdriver or pry bar to remove the metal clips and wiggle the trim pieces off. The plastic anchors are common snap anchors. Remove the rubber trim around the sunroof. Between the B and C pillars, remove the rear trim with 1 screw. Remove the rear roof handles The trim is held on by a 3-4 white plastic anchors, remove them. The rear window-to-sidelight trim loose there is a covered screw at the very top of the sidelight window. Remove any remaining trim pieces and pull the headliner lose. Do NOT fold the headliner because it may break. To replace the headliner, thoroughly clean the old headliner or remove it cleanly. Any old bits will crumble and prevent the headliner from sticking securely, resulting in a sagging headliner. When applying the headliner adhesive, read the directions! Most headliner adhesives are contact cements. This means that you must spray both contact surfaces, let them dry, then stick them together. Not doing this will prevent it from sticking properly. Make sure the surfaces are clean and not crumbling. When applying the new upholstery, I suggest starting from the middle and working your way out towards both ends. Here are some pictures to help you along Clips Sunroof clips on edge B pillar

Removing the center console or adjusting the parking brake on the mk3 Jetta or Passat Introduction This article shows how to remove the center console or adjust the parking brake, parking brake cables, cleaning the area under the armrest, running stereo wires under the console, etc. Procedure Console removal Slide the seats forward and pop out the plastic screw hole covers, 1 each side. Unscrew the phillips screw. Pull the parking brake handle boot partially off,. The plastic trim just pops off with four tabs and pull the handle straight out. You probably don't have to remove the boot all the way off parking brake handle unless you want to replace the boot. There are hooks at the front of the center console. these are visible in the pics below. Lift the plastic console at the front end and pull back to remove. Parking brake adjustment Remove the center console. There is a 10mm adjusting nut and a 10mm locking nut that holds the parking brake cable adjuster. Loosen or tighten them as necessary. Adjust until the parking brake lever on the rear caliper until it just begins to gain tension. Note: picture is of a mk4 Jetta but the way the parking brake works is pretty much identical in the mk3 cars with disc brakes.

How to align the doors on your Volkswagen Passat or Jetta Introduction Does your door not seat properly against the frame? Does the door weatherstripping not seat properly? The problem could be the natural sagging of the door hinges or pins due to age. Ruling out any kind of frame damage due to accident damage, the door hinges could just be old. For information on the door handle, see Parts: VW OEM door striker pin: VW # 357 837 034 (optional) large torx bit Procedure There are two ways to fix the door hinges: an easy way and a hard way. The easy way could damage the hinges, so be warned! The hard way will let them be aligned more precisely but will take longer. The easy way of adjusting the door hinges is to open the door slightly, place a hydraulic floor jack under the door and jack it up to bend the hinges. Place a large wood plank and cloth to protect the paint on the door bottom edge and to spread out the pressure. This bends the door hinges and has a medium chance of damaging the door if you apply too much pressure but it works. You can also try just grabbing the door frame and pulling up. This may have less chance of damage since you can feel how much force you are applying but you have to pull pretty hard to adjust the door. The hard way of adjusting the door hinges is to remove the door hinges from the door, adjust the door with the bolts torqued only lightly, then once in the final position, torque down the door hinge bolts. You can also replace the door striker pin if it has been worn away from misalignment. The door is held in place with 2 large torx bolts. It also has a slider bolt and electrical connection, but these do not affect the alignment of the door. Loosen the large torx bolts and you can move the door a little bit. Move as needed. Also make sure the door striker is aligned.

VW Passat wagon rear trim removal Introduction How to remove the passat wagon rear trim for ,, or other reasons. Tools philips screwdriver needle nose pliers thin tip screwdriver dental pick 10mm allen wrench Procedure Remove the back seatbelt roller cover, no clips, just pull it out. Remove the rear seat side bolsters. It's held in place at the bottom with a clip, in the middle with velcro, and at the top with a black knob. Pull the bolster up at the top to release that knob. Remove the bottom clip, there's a 10mm nut behind it that you have to remove later. Below is the underside with the clips/knob circled. Pull the plastic door sills down and towards the center of the car. They are held in place with a plastic edge and clip in the middle. You can either remove it completely for cleaning or just loosen the rear end to loosen the rear trim. Remove the rear door panels, outlined in green below. This is the last step before you need tools. Now remove the rear seat backs. They are held in place at two points. The outer edge's pivot is held with a 10mm allen bolt, the inner edge pivot is held with a clip. To remove the allen wrench end you have to push it back and down since there's a lip to it, pictured below. The silver part on the outer hinge that you have to push down and back is outlined in green below. To remove the inner pivot, remove the clip holding it. Use a thin screwdriver to bend the center lock of the clip out so you can pull out the clip. You can just bend it back into place when you reinstall it. The reason why you had to remove the seat backs is not only because it makes it easier to remove the side trim, but also because there are 6 plastic speed nuts that hold down the carpeting. They unscrew, don't try to pull them off. When putting them back, you can push them on and then tighten them a few turns. Remove the carpeting. Here is a picture of the speed nuts after removal with their locations circled. If your retractable plastic cargo cover is in place, remove it, 5 phillips screws on each side. Pry up the rear hatch sill (the one that goes from one end to the other) with a fine screwdriver. Be careful, the 5 clips can break here! If they do, just glue them back later. 2 phillips screws hold in the shock cover. Lay to the side. Use a dental pick to remove the plastic screw covers. Use a 10mm socket to remove the thin sheet metal fast nuts and a deep 10mm socket to remove the nut under the seat side bolster that you removed earlier. There are also a few phillips screws along the edges. If it doesn't move, look for another screw, don't force it! There is a snap clip that holds in the carpeting and the end of one trim piece. There is one hidden screw on the side pillar that holds in the top of the trim piece. You now have full access to the upper shock bolts or can add soundproofing as desired.

VW Passat door card removal, for 1996, 1997 VW TDI difficulty: 1/5 Introduction Removing the door cards in the 1996-1997 b4 passat for reupholstering, changing the speakers, soundproofing, or getting access to the door and window mechanism. Tools phillips screwdriver pry Procedure This is a very easy door card removal. 6 phillips flathead screws, 3 on each side. Pry apart the handle and remove the 2 phillips screws for the door handle. Lift the lower edge of the door panel straight up. Pull the top of the door panel towards the center of the car. In the picture below, the yellow circles indicate screw locations. The last picture shows the interior of the door car after having added soundproofing. If possible, add another layer of foam from an auto recycler (junkyard) or add mat soundproofing to the metal of the door interior. See if you would like tips on quiet your TDI.

Removing the door panel on the mk3 Jetta 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Introduction This article shows how to remove the door cards in your mk3 a3 jetta for reupholstering, changing the speakers, soundproofing, or getting access to the door and window mechanism. small allen wrench thin pry phillips screwdriver Procedure Pry off the outer face of the door handle, there are a few snap clips underneath. Remove the 2 large Phillips screws are in the door, 1 small Phillips next to the door latch (red arrows below) Remove the window and side view mirror switches. If they are manual, the side view mirror switch pulls straight off. To remove the manual window switch, squeeze the sides of the ring trim like the arrows below and slide the trim to the side. The ring trim moves with the manual window handle, so squeeze perpendicular to the handle. If you have power mirrors or windows, just unplug the switches. Nothing special about the manual window crank holding the handle. Pry off the speaker grille, it just snaps on/off. Remove the 4 phillips screws holding the speaker on, they also hold on the door panel. Remove the small allen screws around the edge of the door panel. After that, wiggle the door latch around it's hole and the door panel should come off. Don't pull up near the window, just slide it straight out. The door lock won't fit through it's plastic trim, just screw it and put to the side. A lot of sound dampening can be put in here, it's just a plastic moisture barrier, see for more details. Back of the door panel

Introduction The VW TDI was introduced to the US in 1996. There was a turbocharged ecodiesel available in Canada but there are some big differences between the ecodiesel and TDI. The ecodiesel has less performance, no intercooler, a cold start assist handle on the dashboard, and the glow plugs were activated by opening the driver's side door. It also had the old style cable operated Bosch injection pump. The TDI had more powera drive by wire throttle and injection pump, an intercooler, no cold start assist handle, and the glow plugs were activated by the ignition key. The 1996 TDI was the first year for the electronically controlled Bosch injection pump. The passat TDI was offered in 1996-1997 in the US. The jetta TDI was offered 1997-1999. Note that some 1999 jetta are actually 4th generation 1999.5 models. (The 4th generation of VW started in 1998 with the new beetle). The only major difference in the mk3 diesels was that some first year 1997 jetta TDI used the 1Z engine from the passat, later years used the AHU engine. These engines are functionally identical for the average user. Below are some more differences between the jetta/passat. Many of their differences are because the passat was available in 1996-1997 and the jetta was available in 1997-early 1999. Aside from the obvious differences like body panels, size, etc., below is a list of known differences. Sales numbers for the passat, for North America only 1995: 64 sedans, wagons unknown. (early 1996 models) 1996: 3472 sedans, 1405 wagons. 1997: 2216 sedans, 87 wagons. 1998: unknown. (leftover 1997 models) Side note - for North American market only: about 2-3 1998 mk4 passats (newer body style) were sold to customers after use as dealer information and car show demos. This model was not imported officially because the 90 hp engine was deemed to be underpowered for the newer, heavier passat. One sedan has been spotted but it had very high wear due to many people getting in and out at car shows, etc. If you want a mk4 passat, your best option is to get a 2004-2005 passat. See for more details. If you want a project you could buy a mk4 passat and swap in the engine, transmission, wiring harness, computer, and dashboard. Body/Interior The passat was available in the US as both a sedan and station wagon called the variant, the jetta was available as a sedan only. The only jetta wagon sold was the mk4 jetta and the mk5 sportwagen. Many minor panels on the passat station wagon are not compatible with the passat sedan. For example, the taillights look similar but they have different part numbers. From the b pillar back, the body panels and interior of the wagon are slightly different. The headliner, rear seats, rear doors, sheet metal are not interchangeable with the passat sedan. The wagon and sedan are interchangeable from the b pillar forward. The station wagon also has a larger fuel tank than the sedan and is the largest fuel tank on any VW diesel sold in North America. The station wagon can hold about 3 gallons more than the sedan, 8 gallons more if you use the vented fill up capacity. See for more details on that. Although the passat front seats look similar to the jetta, the passat has one more axis for adjustment of the seat. The front seats can be directly swapped between mk3 cars but cannot be swapped between mk3 and mk4 cars without customization of the brackets. The offset of the jetta/passat seats are not the same. If you put jetta seats into the passat, it shifts you towards the door about 1/2 inch so that the steering wheel is slightly to the side, most people don't notice it. No passat is prewired for cd changers. Later jetta may be wired for cd changers, some are not. The passat/jetta cd changers are not compatible with each other because they used a different head unit (radio). Late jettas had a different head unit that was used with mk4 style cd changers. The passat has a interior cabin air filter. The jetta does not but it can be added, just add a foam gasket and bracket. Engine The engines are almost identical with a few small differences and most of the parts are interchangeable between the 1Z and AHU: The passat and jetta do not have an anti shudder valve. All later generation mk4 diesels have an anti shudder valve. The 1996 passat has an EGR but no EGR cooler, the 1997 jetta and passat and all tdi models afterwards had both EGR and EGR cooler. Sending the exhaust gas through a cooler (cooled with engine coolant) before putting it through the EGR valve into the intake reduces nox emissions No EGR at all can produce three times as much nox as a properly functioning EGR. Note that in all cars, the EGR valve is shut at full throttle, so the EGR has no effect on top end power. Because the 1996 model does not have the EGR cooler it is slightly easier to remove the intake manifold for cleaning or repair and has higher nox emissions. Refer to for details on removing the intake or EGR for cleaning. The 1996 passat used a supplementary 5th injector for emissions that was removed for 1997 models and should be disabled for less smoke. See for more details. The engine in the 1996-1997 passat and some 1997 jetta is the 1Z motor. All other jettas 98-99 use the AHU engine. They are slightly different but have many interchangeable parts. The mk3 jetta AHU engine pistons are the same as mk4 jetta ALH and Euro only 110hp AFN engine pistons. The piston is stronger than the passat and early 1997 1Z pistons. The head design is also stronger but uses smaller valves. There is no functional or noticeable difference to the driver. The only case in which the 1Z's weaker engine would make a difference is if you are custom modifying your power levels way beyond the scope of this article. For some reason, there was a parts shortage so a few 1Z engines had undersized pistons. This could cause a low reading on the compression test due to excess clearance and excessive engine wear. Read how to do a compression test at . The only solution is an engine rebuild with the correct pistons. The injection pump in the jetta AHU engine uses a higher pressure with higher break pressures. The mk3 cars used 4 different part numbers for injection pumps, 3 of which are interchangeable without any problem. Note that the VW part numbers do NOT reflect the changes in the Bosch part numbers and small changes so the dealer will not know about the differences, I think the VW part number catalog shows the same part number for all mk3 cars. The big difference was an increases in fuel pressure in the AHU pump. The 1Z passat used a lower fuel pressure pump partly due to a different cam used in the injection pump. The AHU used a higher pressure injection pump due to the cam and is plug-play with the 1Z. You can also retrofit an injection pump from an mk4 car, see for more details. The jetta uses a KKK-03-06 turbo, except 1997 which may have the 1Z engine. The 1Z engine (all passat and some jetta), used a Garrett G-15 turbo. Functionally they are pretty much the same, both are conventional wastegate style turbos, and are interchangeable. Read more about turbocharging in . The jetta has a one way free wheeling pulley on the alternator, the passat does not. The 1Z and AHU turbo oil line and oil pressure sensor are in different locations. The original fill coolant on the early passat was blue VW G11 coolant. The original fill on late passat and all jetta was pink G12. They are not compatible and should not be mixed. See for more details. Other mechanical The mk3 diesel passat and jetta were available as manual transmission only. They were only available with an automatic transmission with a gasoline engine. The security system alarm horn is mounted under the driver's side windshield molding in the jetta. The passat alarm horn is in the passenger side fender well. The n75 solenoid, the one that controls the turbo wastegate, is on the top driver's side firewall on the passat. In the jetta, it is by the air intake accordion hose on the passenger side. The passat has rear disc brakes. The jetta has rear drum brakes but they can be converted to disc brakes. Front brakes are identical. The front suspension lower control arm bushings on the 1990-97 passat, 1985-2005 golf/jetta/newbeetle, 1995-2002 cabrio, 1990-1995 corrado are all the same, you can replace them with Audi TT bushings for a firmer feel, all are interchangeable. Note that there were 2 versions of the Audi TT bushings, one small and one post-recall larger bushing. Due to the additional size and weight of the passat, everything else being equal, it will have less performance/handling/mileage such as braking and acceleration because the front brakes and engine/transmission are almost identical to the jetta. The 1996 passat has an extra 5th fuel injector that adds fuel to the catalytic converter to improve emissions. They also may smoke more due to the poor function of this 5th injector. The fix for this is converting to the 1997 passat ECU that compensates for the lost injector (for emissions) and fuel injectors. Different ECU between 1996, 1997 passat and jetta. The 1996 uses a plastic cased BK ecu, the 1996 with the ecu recall uses the metal cased GQ ecu, the 1996 passat uses the metal cased FA ecu. 1996 passat is OBD-I. 1997 passat is OBD-II. The 1996 with the pre-recall BK ecu has a feature where you can get some check engine codes by turning the key to on and pumping the accelerator pedal all the way to the floor 5 times in under 5 seconds. Count the number of blinks of the check engine light (CEL). The four digit code will be displayed as four counts of blink that will repeat ( **,**,**,*....**,**,**,*...). In this example the code is 2221, Manifold Absolute Pressure control. Note that the blink code is different than the vag-com code (00575). Blink code 4444 indicates a BK ECU with no faults of those supported. A constantly illuminated CEL, no blink at all, indicates a non-BK ECU. Note that the passat 1996 recall GQ ecu and the 1997 FA ecu do not have the code feature. Since the 1996 recall ecu does not have this feature and it wont' display all of the codes accessible with a VAG-COM, this feature is effectively useless. Also note that the BK ecu circuit board is not compatible with any other car other than the 1996 passat. If you need a replacement and don't have a post recall GQ ecu, you can use an A3 Jetta's JB ecu and have the data reflashed to work on your 1996 car. The passat has a switch under the clutch pedal that is connected only to the cruise control circuit. Most cars including the mk3 jetta also has this switch connected to the starting system clutch interlock in addition to the cruise control. You must press down the clutch pedal to start the jetta but not the passat.

How to make wood cribbing blocks for raising the car in addition to jack stands

Disclaimer: the wood blocks shown here are not a substitute for commercially available jack stands. Wood blocks are for backup use in addition to jack stands and the safety of the plans shown here apply only to my car and my exact situation! Since wood blocks can only support the car on its wheels, these are not a replacement for jack stands on the body of the car. Damage to your property, injury, and death, or to a 3rd party, are possible consequences of not supporting your vehicle properly and/or securely. If you have any doubt about the safety of working on your car, follow all precautions as listed in the factory service manual and take it to a professional mechanic. (refer to the ) Introduction

Putting wood cribbing blocks under the wheels can spread out the weight over a larger surface compared to only using jack stands.

On my car and my exact situation, they raise the car about 7-8 inches higher than the tallest setting on my jack stands. These blocks are built in two sections so that you can use the first level by itself or raise the car to the higher level. Compared to using only jack stands, they won't dig into hot asphalt (putting jack stands on top of a secure and level piece of wood can help prevent digging) or scratch the undercarriage of the car. The reason they aren't a full replacement for jack stands is because they only support the car while it's resting on the wheels. Doing any kind of suspension, brake, or anything else that requires a wheel to be removed will still require you to use jack stands. If using jack stands with wood blocks, consider the wood blocks as backups only and make sure the car is level, balanced, and secure. They can be especially useful when tightening suspension pieces. Generally speaking, suspension bolts/nuts should be tightened when the suspension is in the normal resting position. Because jack stands let the wheels hang down, tightening a fully extended suspension will preload the various parts and wear them out. I built these to have room under the car while letting the car rest on the wheels to keep the suspension at rest. Refer to the generation specific FAQ articles to see where the jack points are on some VW. Never get under the car far enough to get injured if it's being supported by any hydraulic lift/support or scissor jack! Many people have been killed when a hydraulic jack suddenly let go or slipped! Hydraulic lifts or hydraulic floor jacks are designed to lift, not support! Never use cinder blocks to support a car since they cannot be easily inspected for weakness and could suddenly crumble. They also have a stronger and weaker orientation - do you want to bet your life that you know which is the strong orientation? Cinder blocks are for building walls, not for supporting cars. Scissor jacks are for emergency roadside wheel removal and in my opinion, are not secure enough to get under the car. At no time while changing a wheel on the side of the road should you get under the car far enough to be crushed because they can fail: Many 6 ton jack stands are about 20-23 tall at full extension and will raise the car about the same height as the wood blocks I made. A test measurement before assembly showing the general layout. Using this type of wood block support for a car isn't a new idea - cribbing blocks are commonly used to temporarily support heavy objects. Here is a picture of someone else's wood blocks with black rhino ramps shown for comparison. They were made out of shipping pallets and are almost solid. The front blocks are rectangular in shape so it can be used on two sides depending on how it's laying. This is why it has the built-in wheel chocks on two sides. As long as they are well built from solid materials and hard wood, and in good condition, wood blocks on a hard stable surface such as level, solid asphalt or concrete will be very stable and strong. Obviously, if they aren't properly designed for your car, damaged or rotted, not stable or secured together, the wood blocks will fail and the car will topple down. In the plan for my car, just the center column of wood on 1 block could, in theory, (don't try this it in reality) support the entire weight of my car without failure. Weight is spread out amongst 24 sq in. of wood (middle 2 columns of about 12 sq in. each). Once you add the side columns, it's well within safe real world limits (for my car only), even after accounting for small defects or imperfect conditions. A well engineered product would make this design as light as possible while still meeting my needs but I decided to overbuild it for peace of mind. The biggest danger comes from the car tipping over so customize the dimensions and construction of the wood blocks for your car, otherwise it could result in damage to property, injury, or death! These plans are plans for my car only and are not specific to your car. Do not attempt to build these without customizing them to your needs and for each car that you'll use it on. Do not let any 3rd party use them without calculating if it's suitable for their uses and car. Always inspect the wood and the surface they will be used on for any rot, damage, or defects before use. The main force the wood experiences in this design is compression through the center column. Many types of wood can take up to 300 psi of compression in the weak direction and over a thousand psi in the strong direction. Wood is strongest when stressed perpendicular to the grain and when oriented like a roof rafter. The top wide piece that the tire rests on experiences very little cross grain force since most of the compression is transferred through the middle column directly beneath the tire. The 2x4 directly beneath the top layer is also distributing that force to the side bars perpendicular to the grain. This design is plenty overbuilt for my car and my intended use. When used with jack stands, they are very safe and stable for my car but make sure to build them to suit your intended load and use. One of the most common reasons good, solid wood splits is because energy is focused at a spot with the grain. When used with a car wheel, the tire spreads out force across the tire contact patch. If you want to test the strength of the wood blocks yourself, take a few 2x4 and crisscross them to form a stack of solid wood in the center. Then put the center section under a hydraulic press. Do not reuse the wood on your blocks once it's been weakened or damaged. How to use wood as jack stand backups After raising the car with a hydraulic floor jack by the jack points as specified in your factory service manual, put the first layer of blocks under all four tires. Once it's raised, use a high lift floor jack to fit the second layer under the tires. Always rest all four wheels on blocks before raising to the second level to keep the car level. If you try to lift the car while it's at a great angle it could slip and fall. Apply the parking brake, put the car in gear or park, and chock the wheels. Never get under the car while raising, lowering, or adjusting the car. Hydraulic jacks could blow a seal and collapse, get tipped over or slip, or have the jacking point slip, so don't get under the car unless it is completely secure! For some tips on jacking up your cars see the FAQ for article showing your jack stand points. Obviously, nothing on these pages replaces or supercedes the information in your factory service manual. My hydraulic floor jack My personal hydraulic jack is the costco 3 ton arcan ALJ3T aluminum jack. Not every store may carry it, the price is about $145 after everything. It's about 58 lbs vs. 100 lbs for a comparable steel jack, has a lower padded bar to avoid scratching your car, and has a range of 3.7-19 so it will fit under most lowered cars but lift high too. It's not a racing quick drop jack so lowering it is safe and controlled - avoid racing jacks in general. It also has a quick lift feature. Another good one is the arcan professional XL35R. It has a lift of 3.5-21.4 and is rated at 3.5 tons but is steel and weighs 101 lbs. I've heard that it can be found at some costcos for $99 but after using a 100 lb jack, lugging it around gets old fast so I recommend the aluminum jack. My experience with Craftsman jacks is that many tend to leak and stop lifting after a while due to dirt clogging an internal valve. They can be cleaned and rebuilt but I avoid craftsman jacks now because of their current design. Car ramp recommendations The cost in materials was about $90 for 4, so if you just need to raise the front of the car a little bit for oil changes and such, a pair of commercially available ramps or would be cheaper and faster since you could buy cheap ramps as low as $50-70. However, rhino ramps only raise the car about 6.5 , and race ramps (another brand similar to rhino ramps) only raise the car 10 . The wood blocks I made raise the car 7 at the first level and 14 at the second level. This extra clearance is necessary when doing large jobs under the car such as dropping the transmission or subframe. They can also be used for keeping the car level when changing the transmission fluid or differential in rear/all wheel drive cars. I don't like Rhino ramps because when driving up onto them with front wheel drive cars or backing up onto them with rear wheel drive cars, the ramps can slide. Any sliding is dangerous. They also have a 17o incline with only a 6.5 lift. Race ramps are much better because they have a 10o incline (much better for low bumpers and easier to drive up onto) and don't slide as easily across the floor. The Race ramp XT 2 piece also has a removable ramp so that it doesn't take up any extra space (the block stays under the wheel). They also have composite blocks to raise and support the rear wheels. They are much better than Rhino ramps but the 10 lift race ramps cost over $300. Parts to build DIY wood cribbing blocks Yields 4 blocks 14 tall, 16 wide, and 24 long each. Disclaimer: The procedure shown were generic steps for my car only. You must measure your car to see if a 24 long or 16 wide plank is stable enough for your vehicle and load. You must customize these plans to fit your needs by calculating the strength of the wood you are using vs. the amount of weight it will support. Consult a qualified engineer before making your own design or copying these generic plans. 2x4 wood planks (2x4s are actually 1.5 x3.5 , I don't know why, they just are) 24 long 2x4 = 40 pieces 16 long 2x4 = 44 pieces 2x16 wood plank, 24 long = 8 pieces coarse deck screws, 3.5 long coarse deck screws, 2 long electric hand drill and various bits (preferred) Procedure Many local hardware stores will cut the wood for free when you buy it. This makes for faster assembly and easier transport. Test stack the first block and mark it with a pencil. The top layer's 2 pieces act as wheel chocks - you can leave these free moving or substitute 8 of the 16x2x4 wood pieces for wheel chocks. Drill a pilot hole to help prevent the wood from splitting. Use deck screws to hold it together. If you want to make the overall height of the blocks taller, make sure to increase the width of the blocks to make it more stable! The first 3 levels screwed together: The bottom layer complete with end chocks screwed in. It's all one piece for easy moving and storage. This layer can be used by itself. The bottom 3 sections of the top layer Top and bottom layers finished. The middle supports are lined up with each other to support the weight of the car. Use wheel chocks on the top layer to hold the wheel in place. Total lift in this example is about 14 . You can put large wood planks below the bottom layer to act as a base and raise it even higher. Make sure any additional wood plank underneath is wide/long enough to be stable and secure. Always make sure the car is safe and secure before getting under the car or raising it. These lift higher than regular jack stands because they are lifting from the wheels instead of the frame. You could get 6+ ton jack stands but these don't take up as much space under the car and spread out the weight over more ground. Lifting from the wheels also loads the suspension so you can tighten the bushings correctly, in the resting position, instead of preloading them in the unloaded position. Below left is the first level with a jack stand pictured for scale. The first level raises the car to about as high as jack stands. Below right is both levels (after taking the picture I applied wheel chocks to hold the wheels). Always raise all 4 corners to the first level before raising it to the second level or else the car can get dangerously tilted. This is high enough to drop the transmission on my car and have plenty of room for bigger jobs. To go this high you would otherwise need large jack stands. My personal opinion is that wood blocks can sometimes be more stable when you're lifting this high. Before each use you must carefully inspect the wood and the floor surface for any cracks, rot, termite damage, or any other defects or damage. Do not use the blocks if they have any damage or defects. After having used these exact blocks on a number of cars, I would have made the bottom block 1 layer taller and made the top block 1 layer shorter. This would give a taller lift of 1.5 for normal use while still keeping the same overall height for major work. Again, these plans are for my car and my use only - modify anything you make yourself for your own requirements. Here is an example of the front raised to the second level and the rear raised to the first level. Warning: Do not raise one end to the second level without first raising and supporting the other end because the car could become dangerously tilted on your floor jack and slip off the jack pad. Raise one end at a time!

How to decode OEM VW part number and Audi part numbers with ETKA part numbering system.

Introduction Part numbers can be found through ETKA (ekta is something else), the electronic parts number catalog for Volkswagen Auto Group (VAG). Only dealers have an official legal copy of ETKA. You can purchase access to an online ETKA from its publishers but there are free older ETKA online catalogs out there as well to find the part numbers you want. In addition to VW, VAG's ETKA includes Audi, Skoda, SEAT, and Lamborghini because they share many components. Porsche uses their own, but similar, part numbering system. Understanding VAG part numbers will quickly let you cross reference parts across models. For example, the part number 058 133 843 is for an air filter that fits 04-05 VW Passat 2.0 TDI. However, it also fits 98-05 Passat 1.8T, 96-02 Audi A4 1.8T, 96-01 Audi A4 V6, and a variety of other V6 and V8 Passat and Audi Allroad, S4, and S6. This gives some insight into the myth of high performance air filters. If the 138 hp TDI engine uses the same air filter as the V6 twin turbo Audi S4 and V8 Audi S6, I'll bet it can flow enough air for the TDI engine to accommodate any performance modifications. See - chip tuning for the basic steps in increasing power of a TDI. Many dealers don't give out part numbers because if you're asking for them they know you might try to find the part cheaper online. Some parts departments will give frequent customer discounts or be cheaper on large bulky items so there are reasons to shop at the dealer vs. online other than convenience. However, I've also found markup of 200-300% on a few small parts at the local dealer vs. an online dealer. When ordering parts online that may have not been original to your car (like when retrofitting OEM parts or modifying parts) from a dealer, be careful when giving them your VIN number because it could be rejected as not equipped on your car. If this happens, you may get the part equipped on your car instead of the retrofit part you ordered. This is done to prevent ordering mistakes. To prevent this, make sure the order has a note that you are modifying something. This shouldn't apply to OEM parts ordered through an independent, non dealership seller. Except for hardware like bolts, all modern VW and Audi parts have a part number printed or stamped somewhere on them. They're not always visible unless you flip the part over and if they're printed, they can be rubbed off. Here's an example of the part number for the OEM coolant block heater on an Audi A3 TDI. Because it's on the handle the number could be rubbed off through use. Generic OEM suppliers You may also see other part numbers on the part that don't look like VW numbers. These are from the suppliers who build the component. For example, VW doesn't build radios, filters, or timing belts. These are purchased from companies like Blaupunkt, Bosch, or Mann. In those cases you can buy the exact same part for less, retail, than the OEM VW part because it didn't come in a VW box. VW and Audi part numbers will always look like the groupings found on this page. Understanding Audi and VW part numbers The modern Volkswagen Auto Group (VAG) part numbering system is organized into 5 possible sets of letters and numbers. Part numbers are normally in sets of 3: 058 133 843 (the air filter mentioned earlier) but sometimes they come in sets of up to 5 like this: 3d0 601 025 p 8z8. The 5 set is just 3 set with 2 optional codes so I'll use that as an example. It's a 19 alloy wheel model off a VW Phaeton. I try to type the part number letters in lower case so that it's harder to confuse 0 and O, 8 from B, and so forth. One exception is L: the lower case l and 1 are too similar. # 3d0 601 025 p 8z8 Set1 3d0 The first two digits are the specific model (chassis code) the part goes on. Sometimes it's for a specific engine or transmission and sometimes these parts are shared across models. The chassis code can be found in the 7th and 8th digit of the car VIN. In this example 3d means it's from a VW Phaeton. The chassis codes can be found at the bottom of the page (they take up too much space here. The third digit shows if the part is different on left hand drive cars (LHD) or right hand drive cars (RHD). If it's 0 there's no difference. If it's 1 it's for LHD and if it's 2 it's for RHD. In this example wheels can go on both sides so it's 0. Set2 601 The fourth digit is the main group. This corresponds to what ETKA section and illustration you can find the part in. In this example it's a wheel so the main group is 6: Wheels, Brakes (shown below in the ETKA screenshot). (Dealer accessory wheels are considered extras so they're found in main group 0.) The main groups are: 1 – engine, clutch (ie, turbo, timing belt, air/fuel filters) 2 – gastank and pipelines, exhaust system, heater 3 – transmission 4 – front axle, differential, steering (ie., front suspension) 5 – rear axle 6 – wheels, brakes 7 – hand and footlevers, safety covers (ie., pedals and shifter) 8 – body 9 – electrical systems (ie., v-belt, starter, ignition, instrument cluster) 0 – extras (ie., optional parts, radio, and optional wheels) The fifth and sixth digit are the subgroup. At the top of the screenshot you can see SG for subgroup 01. In this example, main group 6's subgroup 01 is wheels. This is also shown in the column of labeled MG, SG, Ill-NO. on the right. There are too many to list but as another example, main group 6's subgroup 15 is disc brake. 98 is always repair kits. Set3 025 Digits seven, eight, and nine are random numbers. Set4 p This is a version or revision code. In this example it's p . If it's included it's usually one or two letters. Sometimes a revised part comes out or it's slightly different on models with different engines. A newer version doesn't mean the old version isn't the newest one that will work on your car. They will use a, b, c., etc., but also skip letters. Sometimes they name them aa, ab, ac, etc. Usually the newer part has a later letter. If it's x it means the part is rebuilt. Set5 8z8 This is a color code. In this example the wheel is 8z8 or brilliant silver . If it's included it can be a mix of letters or numbers. This is often found on interior trim and seats since there are so many color combinations. gru always means means primered or ready to paint. Have any question about the part numbering system for VAG cars? Do you see an error? Did you think ETKA was ekta? You can search the site for more or ask in the discussion forums here: VAG chassis codes Here are the chassis codes that are the first two digits of set1. [template=tablestart]title=Audi chassis codes [template=tablerow-3column]cell1=model

Adding soundproofing to your car

This article shows how to add soundproofing to your car, give some basic soundproofing theory, and list some good brands of soundproofing for cars like dynamat, brownbread, bquiet, or raammat.

Introduction Every car can benefit from additional soundproofing, even luxury cars. I have found that the VW diesels have more soundproofing in selective areas due to the louder diesel engine but are as lacking in general soundproofing as gas VWs because they're cheaper cars. One of the biggest factors distinguishing the noise level in cheaper cars from luxury cars is the amount of soundproofing. You can add as little or as much soundproofing as you want but like other modifications to your car, you should have a goal. Don't be surprised if the radio sounds bad after you install soundproofing. When you change speaker setups, it will sound funny to your ear until you get used to it. (Soundproofing should not touch the speaker cones and prevent them from moving). A basic soundproofing job at your local audio store will add some sound proofing around the speakers and the back of the door panel. Most people would barely notice the difference if at all. Results also vary by car since it requires very exact placement and will only dampen some resonance. Well designed speakers already have pretty good speaker enclosures, so a small square of sticky mat will make little difference. These are the speaker kits that are sold at big box electronic stores with a 300% markup.

Sources of car noise

First identify the noise source. Is it wind noise, road/tire noise, engine noise, or general noise? You can address wind noise by checking for loose trim or door skins - these can cause errant wind noise. If your tires are worn or out of alignment, they'll be more noisy than new tires. Different tire brands/types also have different noise levels. You can't do too much about noise from the road but you can help stop it from entering the cabin. Once you identify the source of the noise you can address it with the correct solution. Tire noise is the easiest to treat - this is usually due to worn tires or cheap tires, or sporty tires. A bad alignment can cause irregular tread wear which will cause road noise. Cheaper tires and all season tires also tend to be harder, which transmits more road noise. Sportier tires are also built with stiffer sidewalls which firm up the ride but also transmit more road noise. Tires need a few days to break in so if you just put on new tires and they're noisy, call the tire shop so they know you have registered the complaint, and then see if they have a 30 day return policy. You can also treat tire noise by soundproofing the fenders and wheel wells. Below is an example of what I did to the front plastic wheel wells, lower engine side covers, and timing belt cover. I sprayed black rubberized undercoating to address road and engine noise. This reduced tire and road noise from the front wheels a small but noticeable amount. I wouldn't put undercoating on the inside of the timing belt cover because of belt clearance and if it flakes off, it could damage the engine. I would also avoid additional undercoating or sound deadening on the fender itself (behind the car's wheel wells) since it could cover up important drainage passages or glue wires in place. I've tried 3M and Duplicolor spray on rubberized undercoating and liked them the best. Rustoleum undercoating didn't settle in a thick coat as much as 3M or Duplicolor. Suspension noise is moderately treatable. Aftermarket suspension bushings are sometimes louder or harder which can transmit more noise. A loose worn out suspension will also tend to be more noisy. Lastly, a worn suspension can affect tire wear which goes back the first source of noise - tire noise. Unfortunately, you can't do anything about road surface noise - some roads are just more noisy than others. Pay your taxes and vote for public works to fix the roads. Exhaust noise is easier to treat - if you have an aftermarket exhaust which is loud, put on a stock exhaust. This seems obvious but if you bought the car second hand, see if the exhaust is stock or has rust holes. General noise is harder to treat because it's coming from everywhere and most expensive to soundproof. This is coming from the wind, vibrating through the cabin, and you pretty much have to strip out the interior and soundproof everything. Because this is beyond the point of diminishing returns, this is not a realistic solution for most people.

How much soundproofing to add?

Most people would benefit from a moderate soundproofing. This address both road noise and general noise and you'll notice a small difference. Dampening the area around the wheel wells and in the doors would make a small but noticeable difference in how quiet the car is. Adding closed cell foam to the doors and undercoating material to the plastic wheel well liners are probably the best value in addition to sound deadening mats. This is the easiest in labor because almost most should be able to do this themselves and the materials cost should be about $200-$300. If you would like an even quieter interior, you could also add material to the floor and the firewall (the area behind the dashboard). This is much more difficult because you would have to remove the seats and carpeting and most, if not all of the dashboard. However, it adds the most dramatic benefit because it quiets the engine and entire cabin. In addition to stopping noise at its source, you also have to stop where you hear it - the cabin. The cabin acts like a little echo chamber where sound come in from all sources and bounces around. You will also require about 50-100 square feet of mat soundproofing for this job and will spend about $300-600 in materials. Labor costs vary according to how easily the interior can be removed. Be forewarned - removing the seats and carpeting usually isn't too hard but removing the dashboard is very difficult. If you want an extreme quiet then get an electric car. Unless you never open the windows, never rev the engine, and have a very high quality sound system, then you are going past the point of diminishing returns. To get extreme level results, just doing the doors with a high level of soundproofing will be pointless unless you also do the floor, dashboard, and roof since at this level, any area that you do not do an extreme level job on will create noticeable noise. Even still, you can't address the windows or other misc. sources of noise. To get extreme quiet, you must do extreme soundproofing! The cost of this will exceed $800 in materials and definitely over $1,000 in labor. Most people would not notice the additional benefits of this level of work. The one advantage about doing an extreme job is that it isn't that much more in labor than a moderate soundproofing job - it's really just a matter of more money on higher quality and more materials. Instead of applying just one or two layers of soundproofing, you will cover all holes, apply liquid soundproofing to all the areas that you couldn't reach with the mat, and add a moisture barrier closed cell foam like ensolite foam on top of it. Even for extreme jobs , you can break it down into areas. You can do each door or the trunk on separate days if you are doing it yourself. The only area that requires at least a full day to do is the dashboard and the floor since you have to remove the seats and carpeting. This would be a good time to clean the carpet. As a final note, if you take apart a car you'll see that it already has some select soundproofing mats in a few spots. A well engineered soundproofing job would use minimal materials at minimal cost and effort for the most gain. However, unless you have done an engineering analysis of the car, it's not possible to know exactly how much to use and at what spot for the best cost/effect ratio. Mat soundproofing is best for dampening low frequency noises, but road noises have a lot of mid and high frequency components. Foam soundproofing takes up more room. Therefore, just try to do the best you can with your given budget and goals.

Soundproofing brands - what to choose?

First, you need to buy the soundproofing. There are lots of brands out there, so here are some tips that I have learned on soundproofing brands. Avoid buying retail soundproofing at the local big box store. The Dynamat brand is decent quality stuff, but the worst value by far. There are better brands at much lower prices from ebay or direct from the manufacturer. I have also found the same exact basic Dynamat sound deadener at mcmaster. Do a search on the internet for dynamat mcmaster and their poly mastic self adhesive sound deadening sheets. This is the same exact thing as Dynamat and is rated for automotive use/temperatures. Their catalog changes from time to time, last I checked they were out of stock and switched to an EVA foam sound deadening sheet with a lower temperature rating that is not appropriate for auto use. The edead found on ebay works well, but I would use at least two layers of the stuff to equal better soundproofing. In critical sound areas such as the doors and wheel wells, you should be prepared to use 3-4 layers. Even their premium level soundproofing is not as good as other premium brand soundproofing but it's reflected in their lower price. Raammat from raamaudio is recommended by many as a good value. Unlike many makers who sell cheap, better, best grade materials, he only sells premium stuff. It's also a good value because you will find yourself using less layers as a basic cover where you would use two layers of the lower quality stuff. Of course, if you are like me you will end up using two layers anyways, but it's high quality stuff. It is twice the price as the cheapest ebay brand, but also twice as good. Since labor is the same, I would just buy the better stuff, especially since this job only has to be done once and the difference in price for a whole project is minimal. Brownbread, B-quiet, Damplifier are also all good brands and can be found without huge markups. If you insist on saving a little bit of money, I would buy a small roll of rammat and a small roll of ebay edead brand. The ebay e brand can be used on less critical areas such as the roof and trunk or as additional cover. However, after using ebay e brand I would buy raammat in the future. The raammat has real aluminum and is hard to cut through. The ebay e brand can be cut like butter with a regular pair of scissors and has a plastic back layer. Less scissor resistance equals less sound resistance. And the amount of money saved in the end would only be 1-2 fill ups at the gas station, so I recommend just buying the better stuff. Lastly, do NOT buy asphalt based sound proofing mats or lowes/home depot peel and seal type roofing products for interior auto use. They will melt off in the summer heat and stink your car up with a tar smell. Once they come unglued, they are basically useless since they aren't absorbing vibrations and if placed in the door, could leave a black tar streak on your windows every time you lower them. For the same amount of labor, just buy something that was designed for auto temperatures and use. This independent test breaks down various brands by price, quality, etc. Note that some of the brands, such as edead have since switched to butyl instead of asphalt and others have changed their prices. It also includes other brands so you can educate yourself about what products are out there. It can be found here: although it's dated. The listing on this (myturbodiesel) page is current. For liquid soundproofing, there are products available for the interior but these can be very messy and require multiple coats. For soundproofing on the wheel wells, you can use spray on undercarriage undercoating, etc., to break up the sound before it reaches the metal. 3M and Duplicolor spray on coating work well. Rustoleum seems to not foam as much as 3M and Duplicolor. A product called GraviTex or truck bed liner can also act as soundproofing. You should also use closed cell foam. If your car already has a layer of closed cell foam in the door, go to a junkyard or buy a new one from the dealer - it will already be perfectly preformed! If not, ensolite is a very good closed cell foam. The inside of the door gets wet from rain and condensation so a closed cell foam is required to act as a moisture barrier and not get moldy.

Soundproofing theory

To help you decide where and how much soundproofing to apply, here is some basic theory. The first is mass loading. This is what your basic soundproofing mats do. The idea is to add weight to whatever it is you're trying to dampen. By doing this, you change its resonant frequency and decrease it's likelihood to vibrate. It also absorbs some vibrations and converts it to low level heat. Don't worry, it won't heat up your car, the process of absorbing energy creates heat. Sound = energy, when absorbed, it is converted to heat. This is good for vibration damping but blocks only little sound. This is where the ebay brands are most effective. This is also what the liquid soundproofing materials' best purpose is. The second type of damping is called barrier loading. Unlike mass loading, barrier loading does block a significant amount of sound. Usually what these have is a sandwich of materials, some neoprene rubber or foam, and some acoustic lead or other metal powder. These also turn vibrations into heat and absorb the acoustical energy of sound waves. This is where the raammat is a huge improvement over the ebay e brand. The raammat uses a thicker butyl layer and an aluminum backing where the ebay brand uses a thinner butyl layer with a plastic backing. You can add two layers of the cheaper stuff to get a thicker layer, but you still don't have that aluminum layer to turn sound into heat. These types of soundproofing don't require the entire surface to be covered to work. However, foam layers need as much coverage as possible. Absorbing is the final layer where air vibrations are absorbed. Ensolite is an excellent product for this. Do not use open celled foams because they will absorb water, rot, and fall apart. In fact, my Mk3 Passat already had one layer of closed celled foam in the door, whereas the Mk4 Jetta did not. If you have a car that already has a closed cell foam layer, search an auto recycler (junkyard) for an extra sheet of closed cell foam - the advantage is that it will be cheaper and be perfectly pre-formed! Again, the door has water pass through it, so it's extremely important to use only closed cell foam and seal all of the edges as a moisture barrier. To reduce the amount of sound these have to absorb you want to reflect it before it's absorbed. Use spray on truck bed liner or undercoating to coat the inside of the wheel wells. If you spray the area behind the wheel wells, make sure to put tape over any screws or access holes so that they aren't covered up and avoid blocking any drainage passages. Then remove the tape after application. The picture at the top shows soundproofing on the plastic wheel well liners. This turns the almost useless plastic wheel well liners into a sound barrier vs a thin piece of plastic. You might not notice too much difference until it's raining and the sound of water hitting the wheel well is different but every little bit adds up. I also put some leftover soundproofing mat on the inside of the liner and found this made a bigger difference. In both cases, make sure to clean the surface you want to stick to or else the adhesive or undercoating may flake off. 4732 Procedure First remove the trim where you want to work. There are DIY door panel removal articles in the FAQ, search to find the one specific to your car. Then clean the interior where mat is to be applied. This is extremely important! Clean it until you wipe with a clean paper towel and it comes back perfectly clean. If there is dust, oil, or dirt on the surface, the sound deadener will not stick properly. Not only will it not do its job of absorbing sound, but if it is applied to an area like the inside of the door panel, it may smear all over the window if it falls off, causing black tar streaks on the window each time you raise the glass. Test fit a panel and cut it as necessary. Use smaller strips rather than larger strips, especially on curved surfaces because it will help lessen the chance of bubbles and wrinkles. Add another layer as necessary. The bottom layer is what sticks directly to the surface, so make sure it is as smooth and bubble free as possible! Small pieces can be more easily applied smoothly. Areas such as the wheel wells, firewall, and the doors need more than one layer of soundproofing, I would add at least two layers. If you are using lower quality soundproofing, I would use at least four layers in heavy areas for best results. If you are doing a higher end job, cover all the holes with soundproofing and put a layer of ensolite or other closed cell foam between the door and door panel. Avoid putting the foam on the exterior door panel since it acts like a moisture barrier, could interfere with the power window, and is not the most economical use of the foam since it's expensive.. Make sure that all wires are protected from chafing and that all door handles and windows, etc, can move freely. Make sure to avoid areas around the edge of trim panels/securing clips/screws and close to the window track, and other areas where clearance is needed for the trim and door panel to fit back properly. Use a roller to make sure it is stuck well. No stick = no absorption of energy. If you didn't read the earlier section on why you shouldn't use roofing peel and stick products in your car, go back and read it now - they don't work well and they smell bad, so don't use them! That's about it! Again, if you are doing a basic job, you can use less material and just stick with mat. If you want a high end job, use more layers of sticky mat and use a layer of ensolite on top of everything. For the hard to reach areas, apply liquid soundproofing as necessary. Here is a before picture. Note that the rear quarter panel comes stock with only 1 small square of sound absorbing material. My guess is that the VW engineers decided that this was the most efficient spot to put soundproofing. The reason they don't use more is because saving even a little soundproofing can save a lot of money over building thousands of cars. Here's the after picture - I used too large of a piece on the wheel well so I had to make relief cuts to relieve the tension and get it to conform and stick. This is what it should not look like on the wheel wells! The flat areas turned out better. Note the green vacuum line for the power door locks - try to avoid covering lines and electrical wires. Remember, the dampening material works by absorbing vibration, if you are doing a more extreme job, you can cover those spots with foam so the lines will still be accessible later. This time I used more manageable pieces to avoid having to make sloppy relief cuts. Remember, adding undercoating to the tire side of the wheel wells can reduce road noise by preventing it from reaching the metal in the first place. The seating and cabin area is very important. Since this car was a wagon, it was much easier to remove the trim vs. many other cars. The large spare tire panel is not covered but this can be done later without pulling the interior plastic panels. It also already had foam padding on the underside. This is an ensolite like closed cell foam that came stock on the mk3 Passat but not on the same year Jetta. It's one of the reasons why the more expensive Passat was quieter. It's also a water repelling moisture barrier because the inside of the door gets wet! If it gets torn it should be taped up again to prevent water leaks. I had a spare door so I took it off the spare door and put it on mine. If you want to do this, you could go to a junkyard to find it. It'll be already formed perfectly and will make a difference in speaker quality and sound levels. If not, you can add a layer of closed cell foam here. It's not recommended to put the foam on the exterior door sheet metal, only between the interior door metal and the door panel. This is because it can fall off onto the window if it's not stuck on well. Below is a picture of a same generation Jetta - there is no sound absorbing foam, only a thin plastic barrier to keep water out of the interior. Later Jetta used a thicker board with a few foam blocks. The yellow foam is all the dampening the speakers get. It's not rocket science to see which will be quieter! The outside panel is important. Clean it, clean it, then clean it again or else the soundproofing will not stick! Cover as much as you can without blocking access holes or plugs. There's so much engine and noise that comes through the window and roof that it's difficult to get it super quiet unless you tear apart the dashboard and floor too. Remember, the purpose of the sticky mat is to change the resonance so don't worry about leaving gaps - it's not a foam layer! Sticky mat is best on metal. The door panel can benefit a little from soundproofing too, but adding dampening material to the metal and adding a foam layer are the most important things you can do for a basic-medium level job. I had some left over and I doubt it made much difference. A foam layer for the door card should be more effective than sticky mat. Overall, I did notice a difference. After adding the sound deadener there was a small improvement in sound quality from the stock sound system. Highway noise was also reduced. The sound of the tires and water splashing during a rain storm was reduced. Tapping on the outside metal skin of the door produced a dull sound instead of a tingy sound. Shutting the door also sounded very solid. Again, don't expect magic if you only add a few pieces of mat to the doors and trunk because a medium level job means medium level results! But if you are already removing the door panels to do other maintenance work, adding soundproofing while you are in there is a great idea.

Mechanics tips and other useful stuff for working on your car

This article has some neat auto mechanic tips that I've come across and other basic mechanical knowledge that you may have been wondering about.

At the bottom are tips on keeping organized in your garage. It will make every job faster and less frustrating. Do you have any good tips? Please post them in the forums with the tab at the top! SAFETY FIRST! - The following or any other information on this site is not a substitute for following common safety practices, professional supervision of a certified mechanic, proper instruction, and common sense! If at any time you have any doubt of your safety of your persons or property or anyone else, do not continue working on your car and consult a professional. Never expose open flames or other sources of ignition to any flammable objects around the car or when working with any kinds of flammable objects around the car. Always make sure there is adequate ventilation and that hazardous vapors or flammable liquids are fully evacuated before you work on your car! Wear appropriate gloves when working on your car because your hands may be exposed hazardous chemicals. By continuing, you agree to the TOS Agreement legal disclaimer. Tips for the mechanic Always read the Material Data Safety Sheet when working with any chemicals! - These are not on the spray can or packaging for fun! Before working with any chemicals, do an internet search on their safety! Did you know that when exposed to MIG/TIG welding, many brake or carb cleaners will readily release phosgene gas so poisonous that a tiny release of invisible vapor is enough for a fatal dose? There are still cases of people dying from this despite widespread knowledge of the dangers. R12 freon released near a running car (being burned) can also produce phosgene gas. Smoking cigarettes around certain chemicals will also produce poison gas - trace gases go into the lit end of the cigarette and come out as poison gas that you just inhaled. Welding galvanized metal releases toxic zinc vapor. Know something about the chemicals that you are working on or at least ask someone who does! Secure the car as much as possible when underneath it - When you are under your car, your life depends on the car being as secure as possible. Place the jack stands in an appropriate and safe location and on a solid, flat, even, safe surface as specified in your factory service manual. Do not let minors work unsupervised on the car. If you have any doubt that the car is not secure there is no doubt - secure it more. Always check to make sure the car is secure and safe before getting under the car far enough to be injured. Never get under the car unless it is fully secured and stable, never get under the car if it's on a hydraulic jack. After raising the car and resting it on jack stands, I use the hydraulic floor jacks to add additional securing points as a backup only. It's bad for the jack to hold up the car for a long time, so just have it as a backup in case the jack stand fails. Jack stands can fail and they do tip over! Wheel chocks (wedges of wood or other material) around the wheels can help prevent the car from rolling forwards or backwards. For pictures of jack points, see the FAQ. In my opinion, using only 2 jackstands is not safe enough for me because if 1 jackstand fails, slips, is knocked over, or the asphalt underneath sinks and cracks on a hot day from the weight, the car could fall down and you could be seriously injured or killed, or result in damage to persons and/or property. I always use a backup to the jack stands supporting the car and bearing its weight. This can be a second pair of jack stands. I may also use wheel ramps to support the front of the car and use jack stands as the backup. Always make sure the jack stands or wheel ramps are rated for the weight that they need to support. Also apply the parking brake and put the car in gear as appropriate. You can put wood planks under the jackstands to spread out the weight, especially on a hot day when the jack stands could sink into the asphalt. Never get under the car if the weight of the car is on the hydraulic floor jack only. These could blow a seal and collapse, get tipped over or slip, or have the jacking point slip, etc.! If you've ever seen a hydraulic floor jack fail, you know how quickly you can die from a failure! Never get under the car or put yourself in a position to be injured while the car is on a hydraulic floor jack or rely on the widowmaker scissor jack in the trunk. They are for emergency roadside wheel removal and should not be used for regular maintenance or to support the car while you are under it! Many people have died because they went under the car for just a second and were crushed when the car came down. Shake the car a little to test how secure it is before you get under and never get under unless it's secure! Again, always check that the jack stands are placed in the factory recommended jack spots and are placed on a solid, level surface. Double check their position once the car's weight is rested on them. If you fail to place them in the proper spot or become complacent in checking them it could result in an accident like shown below. That one time you say it's good enough could be when the accident occurs, like shown below (not mine). Luckily no one was injured in this case but that crushed oil pan could be your chest and that oil could be your splattered brains. Hopefully discipline and fear will prevent complacency. NEVER use cinder blocks as a substitute for proper car jack stands or to support a car. You cannot see rot, cracks, or defects well. They are stronger when stacked in one orientation and weak in the other - do you know which direction is the strong one? If you don't and have used cinder blocks to support the car you have risked your life and didn't even known it. Even if you did use cinder blocks to supporting a heavy weight, you should place a layer of plywood between the weight and the block to spread the load out. Not using something to spread the load out can cause cinder blocks to suddenly crumble. I think the best value hydraulic floor jack right now is the costco 3 ton arcan aluminum jack. Not every store may carry it. It's about 58 lbs vs. 100 lbs for a comparable steel jack, has a lower padded bar to avoid scratching your car, is about $145 after everything, and has a range of 3.7-19.3 so it will fit under most lowered cars but lift high too. It is not a racing quick drop jack so lowering it is safe and controlled, avoid racing jacks in general. It also has a quick lift feature. Craftsman jacks tend to leak and stop lifting after a while due to dirt clogging an internal valve. They can be cleaned and rebuilt but I avoid craftsman jacks now due to their current design. You could also make your own blocks like the ones pictured below. Use large coarse decking screws to secure 2x4 treated wood pieces under a solid layer of wood. Position the end pieces to hold the tire. Do not use 2x4 that are not securely screwed together or soft wood otherwise it could crack or shift resulting in serious injury or death. Below are examples of home made blocks. The last picture also shows ramps that can be purchased at any auto store. Here are more suggestions on how to make wood blocks in . Here is a good picture of an assortment of jacks, ramps, and jack blocks. As you can see, blocks raise the car about twice as high as rhino ramps, enough to clear a transmission or subframe from the bottom. For wheel chocks, you can use wedges of wood. I use this rain gutter guide. It's shaped perfectly for a wheel and heavy enough so that it won't move.

How to free seized and rusted bolts nuts

First, use a hexagon 6 point socket instead of a 12 point socket - 6 sided/6 point sockets on 6 sided nuts/bolts will help prevent stripping vs. using a 12 point socket. 12 point sockets are better for nuts/bolts where you do not have a good range of motion to loosen the fastener. Don't substitute a torx bit for allen wrench sockets either. Some VW/Audi bolts are triple square bits. These are specialty VW/Audi bits and are not torx. Tap them in with a hammer since they tend to not be fully seated and strip, especially on the axle bolts where dirt can clog the bolt head. Get PB Blaster or a similar penetrating lubricant - these are similar to wd-40 because they are lubricants, but they can also penetrate seized bolts by seeping into the threads of a fastener and eating rust. Although PB Blaster is about as slippery as WD-40, PB Blaster eats rust and penetrates much better - WD-40 is a lubricant only. If you are having trouble breaking loose a bolt, spray penetrating lubricant around the edges and let soak for a minute. It will creep into the threads and help you loosen seized bolts. Tap with a hammer and then apply again. You will find that the brakes or suspension will always benefit from pre-soaking since these are exposed to water and road salts. PB blaster also works on removing seals. Rear main seals or any other pressed in seal can be hard to remove, especially when you don't have the right size drift to press it out. It's better to spray the seal with PB Blaster and let soak then to scratch the sealing flange and have a leak. Other brands of penetrating lubricant or a homemade mix - Machinist's workshop magazine did a test of loosening rusty pins with penetrating oil in April 2007. The results are below. Each pin was electrolytically rusted into a hole. If you search the internet, you'll see references to this rusty bolt test- the test was actually done with pins stuck in holes, not bolts. The difference is that a pin has a lot less surface area to penetrate than bolt threads. In addition, the table shows Power steering fluid-Acetone instead of ATF-Acetone because PS fluid was used. Although an ATF mixture works, the author of the test actually used PS fluid (they are similar). Most websites also spread these errors, the table below is correct. The author answered questions about this article and corrected the typo here: . Because of these differences, I find that PB Blaster works better than the other brands of penetrating oil and eats rust. I haven't tried ATF-Acetone but I hear it works great and is cheap too. These oils penetrate better if you let them sit and tap them with a hammer. I would also keep Acetone off rubber or plastics. Most, if not all of these are flammable. Here is a thread in the forum where other people . Penetrating oil Average load (lbs) None 516 WD-40 238 PB Blaster 214 Liquid Wrench 127 Kano Kroil 106 Power steering fluid-Acetone 53 Also try using a propane torch to loosen seized fasteners - But never use near any flammable objects or vapors. Heating seized nuts or bolts can loosen them just enough to remove them. For more heat, try MAPP gas. For the most heat, use an oxyacetylene welding torch. Be careful when using oxyacetylene because it can cut through steel when used as a cutting torch. Never use near the presence of any flammable liquids, objects, or vapors. Beware of vapors from nearby sources. Also be careful of any fuel lines, flammable liquids or flammable vapors when using an open flame. Always maintain adequate ventilation when using a torch and make sure that any flammable vapors or liquids are fully evacuated before using any flame or spark such as torches or pilot lights. Always open the fill plug before you open the drain plug - If you can't open the fill hole refill the fluid after draining it, just take it to someone who can open the fill hole or else the car will be stuck. They may have to weld a bar to the plug or use an impact wrench on the plugs if it is too rusted/seized/stripped. Use a breaker bar - if you find yourself struggling with rusted or high-torque bolts/nuts, use an extension or breaker bar. A breaker bar is normally a 1/2 square drive that attaches directly to the socket. I use an extension instead, pictured below. Yep, just a thick pipe. Just make sure that the socket isn't twisting on the bolt, otherwise it will strip it. I use it only with a 1/2 drive because otherwise it will probably break the ratchet. Craftsman has a lifetime warranty on their ratchets and I don't abuse it too often. If it's really bad I get out an impact wrench but to use these you need an air supply, impact wrench, and impact wrench rated sockets. Be careful when using any extension because when it comes loose, you may scrape your hands badly or damage whatever is behind the breaker bar. I suggest wearing gloves so that your hands are not cut up. Using your legs instead of your arms - if you can't fit an extension, are under the car and have no clearance, etc., try using your legs to push the wrench. Your legs are a much longer lever and much stronger than your arms. Using your leg will be faster, easier, and leave you less tired. This especially applies to wheel lug nuts. When (not if) the bolt suddenly breaks free and your leg slips, your shoe will help protect your foot and using your leg will help you control the force. Otherwise, your arms and hands will be over stressed, slip, and get cut. Position your arm/head to be prepared when the bolt breaks - often you can't use your legs to torque a wrench and have to use your arms. When applying force, position your body so that it is braced for when the bolt breaks or the head gets stripped, so that your arm/head/hands will not suddenly jerk free and injure yourself. Even if you do follow this piece of advice, you will still occasionally slip and get cut, only less so, and it helps. How to torque your fasteners properly (aka using a torque wrench) - The tendency is to overtorque small bolts and to undertorque large bolts, so be aware of this when tightening fasteners. VW loves to use allen, torx, and 12 point (not torx, also called triple square) head sockets so make sure you have these tools ahead of time. Almost all torque specs are dry - without oil, grease, threadlocker, or anti-seize. See for more tips and a detailed look at how a torque wrench works, brand recommendations, etc.

Avoid parallax with proper viewing angles

Look at a spot close to your face and close one eye and then the other. See how the spot appears to move? This is a type of viewing error called parallax and a similar type of error can cause stripped bolts, improper timing and other problems. Always try to view bolts, timing points, timing belt index marks, etc., at a perpendicular angle. If you can't see it or visualize it, use a mirror to view it straight on. Threads, marks, or pulleys, etc., are not always 90o to the surface. For example, the glow plugs on VW 4 cylinder diesel engines do not thread 90o to the head - they are threaded at different angles. If you can't see the bolt, try to visualize it at the correct angle to get the threads engaged properly and try turning it counterclockwise for 1 full turn before tightening it - this can help you feel the threads. When setting the timing belt index marks on the injection pump or using a timing gun on a gasoline engine to check the timing, always view the marks at an angle that will cross its axis to avoid misreading the index marks. Another example is tightening the timing belt tensioner on a TDI. Some cars have a mark on the tensioner that must be lined up with a mark on the engine block. Because the tensioner isn't easily viewable from above, I recommend using a mirror to view the tensioner marks and to double check that it is set properly, otherwise it could result in timing belt failure. A picture showing the correct vs. incorrect viewing angle when examining the green mark. Here's another example I noticed when using my clothes washing machine. When I'm standing up the knob is viewed at an angle and it looks like the dash is pointing to to medium. To the right is another angle showing that it's really pointing at heavy. Another example: during a timing belt job on the ALH TDI engine, the injection pump lock pin could fit into more than 1 spot! If it's to the left or right of the correct hole the engine probably won't start. When viewed inline with the axis of the pump pulley, the pin is lined up with the center of the square mark on the pump. Not confirming these marks in line can cause you to misplace the pin! The timing belt articles on this site show multiple pictures of this pin location to help positively identify the correct pin location. Use gloves - use vinyl/nitrile gloves or mechanix gloves. Gloves help keep your garage clean, your car clean, and your tools clean. Good gloves are the blue or purple vinyl gloves that you can find at any auto store. Avoid painter's rubber gloves because they fall apart at the slightest scratch. Black Lightening brand vinyl gloves are very tough. In the winter time, I put a cotton glove under the glove and it also keeps you warm and clean. Mechanix gloves work well but they will absorb grease and oil so I try to save them for heavier work and when I know my knuckles will get scraped. You can find them on sale at clearance discounters for about $10-12 or ebay vs. the auto parts store at $20. Always use a torque wrench on lug nuts/bolts, also try wrapping the sockets in masking tape to avoid scratching wheels - They sell plastic coated sockets for lug nuts to avoid scratches but you can wrap them in masking tape to avoid wheel scratches. Excess torque from impact wrenches can damage lug nuts lug nuts and even crack the wheel so always use a torque stick with an impact wrench. Always use a torque wrench, torque stick, or other way of measuring torque on the lug nuts. I always remove and install the lug nuts with a breaker bar by hand and torque them by hand. Excess torque will not only damage the wheel and lug nuts, but may also cause wheel vibration. I always use anti-seize on lug nuts because it would be impossible to remove a wheel in an emergency situation due to seized lugs. Caution - almost all torque values in your VW service manual are dry values, without lube or anti-seize - reduce the torque according to the anti-seize data sheet. As noted above, do your research before playing with torque values or coatings. Get a good creeper - I used to use a lousy wood creeper that got caught on every pebble. I had to struggle to move around and this wears you out after a few hours of work. Get a good creeper that glides smoothly and has 6 wheels. The 4 wheel models can get stuck on small dips and put more pressure on less wheels. How to keep track of wires, bolts, etc.! - If your project involves many parts over many days, label everything with a piece of tape/paper, tag, etc.. Time is money, and some don't think this saves time. It really does save time during reassembly. Never use pencil to make labels since the lead can get wiped off. After removal of an item, I thread the bolts back so that it's impossible for them to get lost. The ones that cannot be put back are taped onto a large piece of cardboard and labeled with notes written directly on the cardboard. If you remove a hose or electrical plug, label both sides so you can easily identify both sides. You can also use ziplock bags with permanent marker labels. I've also seen a particle board peg-hole board instead of cardboard. These are those brown boards with rows of holes that you stick metal hangers onto. The advantage of this is no wasted plastic bags. You can also write on the board and thread the screws into the particle board. The disadvantage is that bolts could fall out and many larger bolts won't fit into the holes. Do a boost leak to detect any air intake leaks - (for turbo and supercharged vehicles) This causes you to lose power and run poorly because of lost metered air. Lost air also makes the turbo work harder and put out hotter air than it should. See for more details. Keep the battery terminals clean - This is something that every car owner should know. Over time, the battery terminals will corrode. Clean them with battery post cleaners, pictured below. When pulling the terminals off just wiggle them off, don't pull them hard! A little baking soda and water is optional. If you don't drive the car often, a trickle charger will help the battery hold a charge. You can also put on some battery post sealant afterwards to help prevent future corrosion. A TDI also may have trouble starting if the battery is low. If the battery is weak or there is too much corrosion, the fuel pump won't inject fuel, the cranking speed will be too low, or the immobilizer may get confused. A battery post cleaner - each end has bristles. It's about life size. Before and after cleaning. Don't let it get to this point! To dispel some myths, storing the battery on a piece of wood won't effect the charge one way or another. Also, a regular car battery is not a deep cycle battery, so try to minimize the drain while the engine isn't on and charging the battery. Listening to the radio, leaving the headlights on while you walk away, etc., will drain the battery if the engine is off and reduce it's lifespan slightly. If you let the battery drain a few times in deep cycles , it's lifespan will be greatly reduced or completely fail. Battery safety notes - don't let the positive side (+) touch the negative side or let a wrench, wedding ring, dangling necklace, or anything else that conducts electricity contact the positive side and a ground such as the body of the car or engine. This will cause an arc and you could be seriously injured or killed. Remove the negative (-) side first and reconnect it last for maximum safety. Also always wear eye protection and observe all prudent safety practices when you are near a battery when starting, charging, working on the battery, or jump starting the car. Batteries are most likely to explode at that time due to the load and a spark. If they overheat or get low on water, it will create hydrogen gas which can explode and throw acid all over the engine bay and all over you. If this happens, immediately disconnect and remove the battery and wash the acid off with baking soda and water. If it gets on a person, seek immediate medical attention. How to avoid extension cord tangles - Are your extension cords tangled in a ball or twisted in loops? The reason is because you are twisting them when you coil them. Sailors and electrical gaffers deal with long lines all the time and proper coils = less time/money/frustration. Do not buy extension cord keepers because they coil the cord too tightly. When you coil them, do not twist them. Just fold the line over itself. You'll notice that it wants to fall in a certain way. You can also try looping the coil once overhand, once underhand. Tie it with a string tied to the end of the extension cord. Do not just tightly loop the end of the cord to tie it - this damages the cord and leads to tangles. If you have more than one cord or a very long cord, you can coil it inside of a large round bucket - the ones with a warning and an outline of a baby falling in work great! This way you can also carry the bucket around with all the cords inside easily.

Adding OEM VW keyless entry and alarm to your MK3 Volkswagen Introduction On the a3/b4 passat and jetta, you can retrofit an alarm module from a jetta with keyless entry to gain keyless entry. Why OEM? Because it's designed to work with your car straight from the factory. You only have to jump (meaning to splice one wire into another so that they are connected) a wire to get it to work properly. There are generic aftermarket modules available that work just as well and may be cheaper. To use a generic aftermarket module, splice into the wires at the spare tire well for the lock vacuum pump and it'll work the same as this. See a wiring diagram for more information. First, test if you need the module. Turn the car ignition to ON (not start). Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc. With 1 key in the ignition to ON, turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep. If you do not hear a beep, you need a module. To double check, you can remove the headlight switch. If you see a silver metal box, you do not have keyless entry. If you see a white box, you may have keyless entry. Here is a picture of the white keyless entry box disassembled. Here is a picture of the OEM silver alarm (NOT keyless entry, this is what you are replacing) box before being removed. If you already have the keyless entry white box, refer to to determine why it isn't working. You may also want to remove the module to check the part number. Also note that if you have a wagon, there is no remote trunk release. If you have a sedan, additional steps must be taken to add the remote trunk release function to the remote, found here: Tools/Parts (click for new retail prices) Keyless alarm module : (comes with 2 remotes if new) VW part# 1hm 937 045m , # 1hm 937 045q, # 1hm 937 043b - white rectangular box w/2 plugs: (1 6 pin plug, 1 10 pin plug) FCC id# m3ghu01r Keyless remote : (only for module # 1hm 937 043b) FCC id# m3ghu01wt (says clarion on the back) VW part# 1em 937 047a Note: The FCC id numbers must match, except for the last letter. T stands for transmitter (remote), R stands for receiver (module). You must have a matching set for keyless entry to work. Only some of the above part numbers are available new, if you are buying used, check the module's fcc numbers before ordering the remote. Required tools:wire, solder, soldering iron/gun or splice crimp connectors phillips screwdriver important circuit diagrams: Related links: Procedure [LIST=1] [LIST][*]Disconnect battery.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Remove 2 phillips screws on the driver's side dashboard pad, tape screws to the pad so that they are not lost. (dia 1)[/LIST] [LIST][*]Remove 3 phillips screws holding plastic fuse box cover and set aside. Tape the screws to the plastic so that they stay with the plastic cover.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Remove plastic cover over allen bolt and remove allen bolt with 3/16 bit. (dia 2)[/LIST] [LIST][*]Check to see if the pad moves freely. The allen bolt is the only thing that should be holding the driver's and passenger's side pads together. Pull pad hard to separate the halves. I suggest wearing gloves because there are sharp unfinished metal edges. (dia 3)[/LIST] [LIST][*]Use a feeler gauge to loosen and pop out the headlight switch, disconnect switch and put aside.[/LIST] [LIST][*]There are 2 phillips screws holding the module in place. (marked by green dots in dia 4) The bottom screw can be easily removed, the top screw can be easily removed if you gently bend the mounting plate to get to the screw. (dia 4)[/LIST] [LIST][*]Unplug the 2 plugs. Do not pull on the wires, pull on the plug, that's what it's there for. If you do not want to test it at this point, skip the next two paragraphs and go straight to connecting jumper wire [/LIST] [/LIST] Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4 Before you install the alarm module, soldering a small insulated wire to the end of the antenna and then drilling a small hole in the plastic case to let the wire out will increase the range of the antenna. The antenna is the coiled, covered wire in the below picture. The mounting screw is in a different location on the new box so I used some foam padding and a wire to move the mounting screw from the blue tape to the wire loop. The wire is also shaped like a spring to hold the box tight. Initial testing of the module [LIST=1] [LIST][*]Plug in the new module and reconnect the battery, and prepare to run the following test.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Program the remote by inserting 1 key in the ignition switch to ON (not start)[/LIST] [LIST][*]Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc.[/LIST] [LIST][*]With 1 key in the ingition to ON, turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep, let go of the door key and let the key return to neutral.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Press UNLOCK on each remote, you should now hear a beep.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Turn the door key to UNLOCK, you should now hear another beep, remove all keys.[/LIST] [LIST][*]The remote should now unlock the doors. If it does not unlock the doors, begin troubleshooting as seen in the troubleshooting DIY (links above)[/LIST] [LIST][*]The remote should NOT lock the doors. The remote when locking, should only turn the red led on the door, the door should NOT lock. The only exception is pre-1996 cars which did not have selective locking. 1996-1997 passats have selective locking and require a jumper to lock the doors.[/LIST] [LIST][*]If you are not happy with the range of the remote, you can increase the range by adding a long wire that acts like an antenna, as seen above. Loop it under the dash and secure in place.[/LIST] [/LIST] Connecting jumper wire [LIST=1] [LIST][*]If the remote successfully unlocks the door, but does not lock the doors (only turns on the red led), you must now add a jumper wire (a bridge/one wire spliced into another).[/LIST] [LIST][*]Disconnect the battery - always disconnect the battery when doing electrical work.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Unplug the keyless module.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Splice a jumper wire from pin #7 on the 10 pin plug (it should have a yellow wire with a red stripe, NOT a red wire with a yellow stripe but some cars had different colors on the wire) to the gray wire coming out of the door plug, pin #3. There are 2 gray wires, choose the one that is closest to the front of the car, the one that is closest to the door hinge, this should be pin #3. If you lock the driver's door with a key (battery connected), this wire should show 12V. Make sure you use a long enough jumper wire! Remember that it has to go back behind the dashboard. (dia 5) I suggest using a squeeze splice connector or crimp connector/tap. You put both wires in a crimp and it cuts the wire insulation just enough to connect. If you don't know what this is then just go to Radio shack and tell them you want a crimp connector for jumping/splicing two wires. This is easier/more reliable/much faster than soldering.[/LIST] [LIST][*]Shown in diagram 6 (alarm circuit diagram from a jetta) you want to connect the 2 green dots. In the b4 passat, they are not connected, so you must add a jumper wire, represented by the yellow dot. This will enable the remote to lock your doors as well.[/LIST] [/LIST] Diagram 5 Diagram 6 Finishing steps [LIST=1] [LIST][*]After the wires are soldered and insulated, plug the module back in, connect battery, try testing the locking and unlocking, both should now work.[/LIST] [LIST][*]The new module has a different mounting point from the old module, so use some method to secure it back - pipe straps or wires will work. (dia 7) I bent thick wire into a spring, padded it with foam tape ,and used the spring to hold the module in place. The bottom loop is for the original phillips screw. The blue wire is an antenna extension wire.[/LIST] [LIST][*]The rest of installation is the reverse of removal.[/LIST] [/LIST] Diagram 7

Troubleshooting the alarm or keyless entry for mk3 VW Jetta or Passat Introduction You're probably reading this because there is a problem with your alarm/keyless entry. The actual work is not too hard but it does take some time, effort, and understanding of the system. Obviously, disconnect the battery if you are cutting wires, or if the troubleshooter says so. Make sure to print out this circuit diagram: and use it as a worksheet. Also available are the . Also see: for more information on the alarm system, keyless entry, and ignition lock system. Procedure SYSTEM DOES NOT OPERATE NOTE: Ensure battery is fully charged and all fuses are okay. 1) Ground Circuit Check Obtain radio security code. Disconnect battery cable terminals. Disconnect anti-theft control module 6-pin and 10-pin wring harness connector. See ANTI-THEFT CONTROL MODULE LOCATION table. Connect ohmmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 3 (Brown wire). If continuity is present, go to next step. If continuity is not present, repair open circuit. 2) Power Circuit Check Connect battery cable terminals. Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 3 (Red wire). Switch positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 1 (Red wire). If 12 volts are present at both terminals, go to next step. If 12 volts are not present, repair open circuit. 3) Turn ignition on. Leave voltmeter negative lead connected to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 4 (Black wire for Corrado; Black/Yellow wire for Passat). If 12 volts are present, go to next step. If 12 volts are not present, repair open circuit. 4) Alarm Horn Check Turn ignition off. Connect ohmmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 4 (Black/Yellow wire). If continuity is present, go to next step. If continuity is not present, repair open circuit. If circuit is okay, replace alarm horn. 5) Door Lock Switch Check Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 7 (Red/Yellow wire for Corrado; Yellow/Red for Passat). Insert key in driver's door lock. Turn key to lock position and hold momentarily. Voltmeter should register 12 volts. Repeat procedure for passengers door. If voltage is correct for each door, go to next step. If voltage is not correct, repair open circuit or replace switch. 6) Door Lock Switch Check Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 6 (Red/Black wire). Insert key in driver's door lock. Turn key to unlocked position and hold momentarily. Voltmeter should register 12 volts. Repeat procedure for passengers door. If voltage is correct for each door, go to next step. If voltage is not correct, repair open circuit or replace switch. 7) Alarm Switch & Hood Check Connect ohmmeter negative lead to ground. Disconnect negative battery cable. Connect positive lead to the following anti-theft control module connector terminals: * 10-pin harness connector terminal No. 5 (Gray wire). * 10-pin harness connector terminal No. 8 (Brown/Red wire). * 10-pin harness connector terminal No. 9 (Brown/Green wire). * 10-pin harness connector terminal No. 10 (Brown/White wire for Corrado SLC; Brown/Green wire for Passat). If continuity is present, check for circuit short to ground. If circuit is okay, replace switch. If continuity is not present, go to next step. 8) Indicator Light Check Leave ohmmeter negative lead connected to ground. Connect negative battery cable. Using multimeter set on 10 A DC scale, connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 2 . If indicator light comes on, replace antitheft control module. If indicator light does not come on, repair open circuit in wiring harness. ALARM SYSTEM WILL NOT SWITCH OFF 1) Ground Circuit Check Ensure battery is fully charged. Obtain radio security code. Disconnect battery cable terminals. Disconnect anti-theft control module 6-pin and 10-pin wiring harness connector. See ANTI-THEFT CONTROL MODULE LOCATION table. Reconnect battery cable terminals. 2) Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 7 (Red/Yellow wire for Corrado SLC; Yellow/Red wire for Passat). Insert key in driver's door lock. Turn key against stop and hold momentarily. Voltmeter should register 12 volts. Repeat procedure for passengers door. If voltage is correct for each door, go to next step. If voltage is correct, repair door switch or open circuit. 3) Door Lock Switch Check Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 10-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 6 (Red/Black wire). Insert key in driver's door lock. Turn key against stop and hold momentarily. Voltmeter should register 12 volts. Repeat procedure for passengers door. If voltage is correct for each door, replace control module. If voltage is not correct, repair door switch or open circuit. ALARM HORN INOPERATIVE 1) Alarm Horn Check Ensure battery is fully charged. Obtain radio security code. Disconnect battery cable terminals. Disconnect anti-theft control module 6-pin and 10-pin wiring harness connector. See ANTI-THEFT CONTROL MODULE LOCATION table. 2) Connect ohmmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 4 (Black/Yellow wire). If continuity is present, replace anti-theft control module. If continuity is not present, check for open circuit and repair as necessary. If circuit is okay, replace alarm horn. LIGHTS DO NOT FLASH 1) Alarm Horn Check Ensure battery is fully charged and emergency flasher system is functional. Obtain radio security code. Disconnect battery cable terminals. Disconnect anti-theft control module 6-pin and 10-pin wiring harness connector. See ANTI-THEFT CONTROL MODULE LOCATION table. 2) Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 1 (Black/White wire for Corrado SLC; Black Yellow wire for Passat). Turn emergency flashers on. When lights flash on, battery voltage should be present. 3) Remove voltmeter positive from terminal No. 1 and connect to terminal No. 2 (Black/Green wire for Corrado SLC; Green/Black wire for Passat). Turn emergency flashers on. When lights flash on, battery voltage should be present. If voltage is correct, replace anti-theft control module. If voltage is not correct, repair open circuit in wiring harness between anti-theft control module and lights. ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK WITH ALARM SYSTEM OFF ANTI-THEFT SYSTEM 1) Alarm Horn Check Ensure battery is fully charged and emergency flasher system is functional. Obtain radio security code. Disconnect battery cable terminals. Disconnect anti-theft control module 6-pin and 10-pin wiring harness connector. See ANTI-THEFT CONTROL MODULE LOCATION table. 2) Reconnect negative battery cable. Connect voltmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 5 (Red/Green wire for Corrado SLC; Red/White wire for Passat). Observe voltmeter while turning ignition to START position. If battery voltage is present, go to next step. If battery voltage is not present, repair circuit to ignition switch. 3) Remove ignition key. Disconnect negative battery cable. Connect ohmmeter negative lead to ground. Connect positive lead to anti-theft control module 6-pin wiring harness connector terminal No. 6 (Red/Black wire for Corrado SLC; Violet/Black wire for Passat). If continuity is present, replace anti-theft control module. If continuity is not present, check wiring harness to starter for open circuit.

Adding remote trunk release to the keyless entry Introduction Congratulations! You just finished the keyless entry retrofit! Now why won't it open the trunk? You have additional splicing to do. If you can live without the trunk button working, just leave it alone. Otherwise, read this article below. Note that you have to have the trunk release solenoid already in the car to unlock the trunk. In other words, the station wagons do not have this capability, since only the sedans have the solenoid and levers, etc. that are in the trunk. Parts Phillips screwdriver, #2 10 mm socket extension for socket wrench Wire strippers tap-in quick connectors, 2 ea your favorite wire splicing technique, x 3 I used crimp butt connectors...you can solder if it makes you happyS. everal feet of 18-22 gauge wire Single pole, Double throw relay ( Best Buy Sku#1384040, $12.99 + tax) I got a Bosch one from the Best Buy install bay with an included harness. You might also try Radio Shack In-line fuse holder and 10-amp fuse (optional, but nice) Multimeter/Voltmeter (also optional, but also nice) Electrical tape and zip-ties, as needed. Procedure First, disconnect the battery. Remove the dashboard cover and the keyless module. Remove the center console to get access to the console-mounted trunk release button. Review this linked article for any questions about . Find Pin#1 on the 10-pin connector on the alarm. It should be red/white and have 12V but check, refer to the circuit diagram on the to find the correct wire. Cut it and put electrical tape or wrap the end so it doesn't ground out. Run a wire from the alarm to the console trunk switch. Start feeding some of your 18 gauge wire where you just cut the alarm wire. Route it under the steering column, and towards the radio and climate controls. Secure it with zip-ties to keep it out of the way. Finally, route it down to the floor and along the tunnel, ending up at the trunk switch wiring. Cut the wire at both ends, leaving a little slack to allow for putting the alarm back in place later. (better too long than to short, right?) Strip a little off the ends so you can connect it in the next steps. Use a crimp connector to attach your newly-run wire to the red and white wire you cut in step 5. You now have pin 1 on the 10-pin alarm plug connected to the free end of your wire at the center console. Use a multimeter to check this continuity. Carefully remove a few inches of the electrical tape wrap around the three wires of the trunk switch. Here's what the three wires do: Brown, ground Gray, to trunk solenoid Red/white, 12V Cut the gray wire in the middle of what you've unwrapped. Leave a couple inches on the switch side, and a couple inches on the half that runs to the trunk. Time to connect the relay. It has five terminals, and if you're lucky, you've got a harness with it to make wiring it up easier. You're going to connect those 5 terminals to the 4 wires you have at the center console (both halves of the gray wire see some action) Connect the wires as follows: Make sure you leave plenty of slack, because your relay and trunk switch may be several inches apart when you put it back together. And wrap your connections in electrical tape when you're done. Pin 85 to the brown wire using a tap-in connector Pin 86 to the free end of the wire you've run from the alarm, crimp connector Pin 30 to the trunk-side half of the gray wire, crimp connector Pin 87 to the red/white wire using a tap-in connector Pin 87a to the switch-side half of the gray wire, crimp connector Next, you want to secure your relay to something. Since the relay I bought had a mounting tab on it, I drilled a hole in the metal bracket that holds down the e-brake cables, and used a screw to hold the relay to that bracket. You just have to be careful about placement, because if the relay is in the way, you might not be able to put the console back on right. Alternatively, you may want to Velcro the relay to the inside of the console or something. I'll let you use your imagination for this step...and of course, putting the relay at the fuse box would avoid this all together. Reassemble your console and dash. It's all just the reverse of disassembly. Don't forget to reattach the connector for your trunk switch. When you're done putting everything back together, reconnect your battery terminal, and you're done! Test out your new feature. Pushing the trunk release button on your remote should cause the same ka-chunk sound from the trunk that you get when you press the console button. Also, if you did everything right, your console button should still work as it did before.

How to program the keyless entry remote ---for mk3 VW For VW cars 1998 and newer, see or and . Introduction This article shows how to check if you have keyless entry and how to program the keyless entry remote for 1996, 1997 Passat TDI or 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Jetta TDI. Unlike mk4 cars that used an immobilizer, you can buy and program keyless entry remotes from any source and have the key cut anywhere. Mk3 cars did not use an immobilizer. Checking the part numbers Aside from the VW part number, your remote should have an FCC number that ends in T for transmitter. This number should be identical to the keyless entry module's FCC number except it should end in R for receiver. If you confirm that you have keyless entry, you need a remote. If the white box is on a 1998 or 1999 Jetta and is VW part#1 hm 937 045m or # 1hm 937 045q - white rectangular box w/2 plugs with FCC id# m3ghu01r , you need a remote with the FCC id# m3ghu01wt (says clarion on the back) If your white box is from a 1995-1997 Jetta, the white box VW # is 357 953 233B and the remote is VW part# 1em 937 047a, with FCC id# GOH-MM6-101890 Parts I recommend 's key cutting service. They sell new remotes and can even cut you a key from a clear photo of your key. They can cut your key with the VIN number but it's more expensive than doing it from a photo. They also rent the key programming tools and sell parts such as new circuit boards, covers, vw emblems, and immobilizer chips. Procedure If you already have keyless entry and just want to program a new remote [LIST=1] [*]Program the remote by inserting 1 key in the ignition switch to ON (not start) [*]Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc. [*]With 1 key in the ingition to ON, turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep, let go of the door key and let the key return to neutral. [*]Press UNLOCK on each remote, you should now hear a beep. [*]Turn the door key to UNLOCK, you should now hear another beep, remove all keys. The keyless entry is now set. [/LIST] [LIST=1] [*]Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc. [*]Insert 1 key in the ignition switch to ON (not engine start). [*]Turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep, let go of the door key and let the key return to neutral. [*]Press UNLOCK on each remote, you should now hear a beep. [*]Turn the door key to UNLOCK, you should now hear another beep, remove all keys. [*]The remote should now unlock the doors. [*]If you are not happy with the range of the remote, you can increase the range by adding a long wire that acts like an antenna, see for the full procedure.. Loop the extension under the dash and secure. [/LIST] Feel free to sign up and ask a question about this article at the forums If you don't know if you have keyless entry First check to see if you have a keyless entry module. If so, you just need a remote. Slide some feelers or spark plug gappers around the headlight switch. Remove the headlight switch. If you see the white box, pictured below disassembled, you may have keyless entry. Double check with the below procedure: [LIST=1] [*]Turn the car ignition to ON (not start). [*]Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc. [*]With 1 key in the ignition to ON, turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep. If you do not hear a beep, you need a module, see for the full procedure. [/LIST] If you confirm that you have keyless entry, you need a remote. If the white box is on a 1998 or 1999 Jetta and is VW part#1 hm 937 045m or # 1hm 937 045q - white rectangular box w/2 plugs with FCC id# m3ghu01r , you need a remote with the FCC id# m3ghu01wt (says clarion on the back) If your white box is from a 1995-1997 Jetta, the white box VW # is 357 953 233B and the remote is VW part# 1em 937 047a, with FCC id# GOH-MM6-101890 If you see this silver box, you do not have keyless entry. You can add it if you have this alarm module, see for the full procedure. Programming a new keyless entry remote [LIST=1] [*]Close the doors, hood, trunk, etc. [*]Insert 1 key in the ignition switch to ON (not engine start). [*]Turn and hold another key in the driver's door lock to UNLOCK and hold for 15 seconds, or until you hear a beep, let go of the door key and let the key return to neutral. [*]Press UNLOCK on each remote, you should now hear a beep. [*]Turn the door key to UNLOCK, you should now hear another beep, remove all keys. [*]The remote should now unlock the doors. If it does not unlock the doors, begin troubleshooting, found here: . [*]The remote should NOT lock the doors. The remote when locking, should only turn the red led on the door, the door should NOT lock. The only exception is pre-1996 cars which did not have selective locking. 1996-1997 passats have selective locking and require a jumper to lock the doors. [*]If you are not happy with the range of the remote, you can increase the range by adding a long wire that acts like an antenna, see for the full procedure.. Loop the extension under the dash and secure. [/LIST]

5th gear swap modification on a VW

This article shows how to replace the 5th gear or swap it for a taller 5th gear on your VW transmission. A TDI is shown.

for mk4 and mk5 VW for mk3 passat due to firewall clearance and the need for special tools The procedure is very similar for all mk3, mk4, and early mk5 VW or Audi with the 5 speed manual, 1996-2006 New Beetle, Golf, Jetta, and Passat. They use different transmissions with different gearing but the procedure is similar. This procedure is not applicable to automatic transmissions because they don't use the same gears or gear ratios as a manual transmission. This modification won't work on the 2009+ TDI since their manual transmission is 6 speed. Also refer to writeup #2: The taller gear will lower engine rpm when in 5th gear. This reduces engine noise and slightly increases fuel economy. After doing the 5th gear swap, I was surprised at all the new noises I heard due to a quieter cabin! That's how much more relaxed the engine sounds at normal highway driving speeds. Your road surface and tires are another major factor on how quiet the car is. The difference in gearing from your current setup will also determine results. See to see the exact numbers. Engine load will increase at the same speed due to the change in mechanical advantage and engine rpm. At average highway speeds, reducing rpm puts the engine into a slightly more efficient area of operation vs. before. You could expect as much as a 4% increase in fuel economy but most people see 2% or none at all. This is because you could spend more time in 4th gear depending on your driving habits and few people drive all highway. You will also notice less available acceleration in 5th gear. It shouldn't require downshifting unless you want to pass on a steep hill and are lugging the engine. Ultimately, I would not recommend doing this swap if you drive mostly in a city or only 10 minutes to work because you won't spend much time in 5th gear and will not realize the benefit. In fact, if you find yourself in 4th gear more often due to the gearing, your fuel economy could actually get slightly worse. If you plan on selling the car soon I wouldn't recommend it. Otherwise, most people are happy with a 5th gear swap. After driving your car with the new 5th gear, you will realize that this is how VW should have geared their diesel cars, especially the mk3. Doing the 5th gear mod is almost like losing 5th gear but gaining a 6th double overdrive gear. It's comparable to a double overdrive rather than a traditional 6th gear because most 6 gear manual transmission gear ratios put 6th gear near where a regular 5th gear is. In other words, most 6 gear transmissions are just more closely spaced and more suitable for low torque engines. A double overdrive puts a taller gear above the first overdrive 5th gear. This is also a chance to change the manual transmission gear oil, something that should be done every 60-100,000 miles anyways. After removing your old 5th gear, you can sell it to a gasoline VW owner to reduce the final cost of the project. Their cars use the 020, 02J, or 02A transmission but with shorter gearing and final drive. Your old 5th gear will drop their 5th gear rpm by about 400 rpm! So although the initial cost of the gear kit, gear oil, and shipping is about $350, you can sell your old gears for $100-150! Note: If you have a mk3 Passat up to 97, there isn't very much room to work because the unibody near the frame rails blocks the end of the transmission. You need to find a low-clearance gear puller because it's a machined fit and pulling on it with your hand or trying to pry it out won't do anything but cause damage. The mk3 Jetta and all mk4 and newer cars have a removable plastic fender liner over the end of the transmission case and plenty of room. Note: If you have a mk4 pumpe duse (2004-2006), the transmission is slightly different and the cruise control may not work if you change the 5th gear. Mechanically the new gear will work great but the cruise control gets discombobulated and may sometimes cut out or stop working entirely. It might work fine but most people report that it doesn't. This is only a problem on mk4 with the pumpe duse engine. Note: mk3 and mk4 gears should be interchangeable. However, there's been 1 case where putting mk4 5th gear into a mk3 caused a rattle. . Gear ratio details Here is a listing of stock gear ratios. Because you will change the 5th gear only, your car's gearing will not change in gears 1 through 4. That would only happen if you changed the final drive or increased the tire/wheel size. There are a few choices for 5th gear ratios. Most people will be happiest with .681 because it lowers rpm enough to be worth the expense and time and doesn't create an excessive gap between 4th and 5th gears. The loss of torque with a taller .658 5th gear is too great for some people so if you're not sure of which ratio to choose, I suggest getting .681. To see the exact engine RPM that a gearing change will produce, refer to . MK3 The stock 5th gear ratio in the 02A is .755. The final drive is 3.157 It uses VW g50 fully synthetic gear oil 75w/90. MK4 non pumpe duse (1999.5-2003, new beetle slightly different) The stock 5th gear ratio in the 02J is .756. The final drive is 3.389. It uses VW g50 fully synthetic gear oil 75w/90. See here for Mk4 pumpe duse (2004-2005, 2006, new beetle slightly different) The stock 5th gear ratio in the 02J is .744. The final drive is 3.389. It uses g 052 726 a2 gear oil. Mk5 (2005.5-2006) The stock 5th gear ratio in the OA4 (GQQ) transmission is .769 The final drive is 3.389 There's a trick to changing the mk5 Jetta 5 speed transmission gear oil, see for details. New 5th gear ratios: you can purchase either .658, .681, or .717. Note that .658 requires modification to the spring plate, which is outside the scope of this article. It also drops rpm by 13% which is too much for most people. If you have any doubt, don't get .658. .681 drops rpm by 11% which is large enough to be worth the effort. .717 is a good choice to combine with large tires and for mostly stock power cars. However, make sure the rpm drop is worth it to you. US dealers will not even order these parts for you since it's not in their standard ordering system. I had a friend in Germany price the parts in Euros and after shipping, it would have cost more than just buying from a US seller, so I recommend a local seller. Below is an example of gearing changes in an mk4 TDI at different speeds and rpms. To see the exact engine RPM that a gearing change will produce, see the gearing calculator in the FAQ and linked above. .658 (for the 93-2003 Transporter (eurovan) synchro) 02Z 311 158A (large gear) 02Z 311 361A (small gear) .681 02D 311 158 (large gear) 02D 311 361 (small gear) .717 02A 311 158 R (large gear) 02A 311 361 M (small gear) The end cover gasket : 02A 301 215 A Below is a picture of the .681 gears next to the stock gears. The pictures are about life size. Note - the small gear should look similar to your old one but it's smaller. There have been reports of incorrect gears where the number of teeth are incorrect with an additional groove in the gear. Below left are the correct gears, new vs. old. Below right is an example of an incorrect gear - note the additional circular groove in the flat side of the gear. Parts 5th gear kit - you need 2 gears total - small and large. You can buy some transmission end case seal (may be included in the kit) gear oil - 2 liters super low-profile gear puller (for mk3 passat) OR gear puller metric tool set 10mm socket 17mm allen wrench 8mm 12 point triple square (VW/Audi) bit 14mm 12 point triple square (VW/Audi) bit (for mk5 2005.5-2006 Jetta and late mk4) T60 torx bit (for all mk3 and almost all mk4) T40 and T45 (or similar tools for removing the plastic fender cover and engine under cover) Propane blow torch PB Blaster Torque wrench gear oil catch pan Gearing swap procedure First, make sure that you have all the required tools and inspect the parts. Remove the driver's side front wheel, jack up the car, rest the car on jackstands, and chock the rear wheels as necessary. Make sure the car is in gear and the parking brake is applied. Comply with all safety precautions specified in the factory service manual. Make sure the car is safe and secure before getting underneath the car! See the FAQ for jack stand pictures. Remove the black plastic splash shield under the engine and the driver's side plastic cover (pass side shown below for illustration). It's held in place with speed nuts and 1 torx screw. (1996-7 passat have the unibody structure here. If you have a mk3 passat, you must determine now if your gear puller will fit in the limited clearance. If not, stop now and attempt the job again when you have the proper tools). Drain the gear oil with the 17mm allen wrench. As always, make sure you can open the fill hole first! Refer to the earlier links for more details and tips. Remove the power steering line if it's in the way and remove the transmission end cover (10mm x 5 bolts, circled in red below). Some gear oil will seep out so I suggest removing the bolts at the top first. When you remove the bolts at the bottom, have some paper towels and the catch pan ready. Here is a picture of what the mk4 looks like. The power steering line is in the way. The plastic side panel has been removed. Below left is a picture of a mk3 Passat viewed from below. You don't have a power steering line in the way but there's very little clearance because of the frame. Your gear puller must be low profile and fit between the red marks. You could cut the non-structural part of the car, bend it back temporarily, and weld it back but I would rather use a low profile puller. Below right is a picture of a mk3 jetta, like the mk4 cars, there should be plenty of room and no power steering line in the way. You should now see the 5th gear (outlined in green underneath the selector gear), the selector gear (outlined in red), the selector lever (outlined in blue), and the small gear you need to remove. Warning: check the clearance of your gear puller! This is the last step where you can still stop the job. If you proceed, you may pass the point of no return: removing any one of the major components could require you to remove the rest of the components to put it all back, or at least make it much easier! Remove the 8mm triple square bolts circled in purple. Then remove the gear selector pins and gear selector lever. Here is a picture of the parts removed from the car. Note that the top pin was removed, the bottom pin is in place with it's 8mm triple square bolt. Next, remove the T60 bolts that hold everything in (circled in purple below). Your bolts may be slightly different sizes. There is a belleville washer underneath the bolt. Note its direction and shape - it's not flat! You can use a permanent marker to mark the faces. To counterhold against the gear, have someone step on the brakes and put the car in gear while you remove the bolts. It might move a little if it's tight. If you put the car on wood blocks and have the wheels securely chocked, the weight of the car will be on the wheels so having the car in gear w/brakes on should be enough to counterhold them. Having the car on jack stands with the front wheels in the air means only the brakes are counterholding. Note how flush the belleville washer and gears are against the shafts. Note - most late mk4 cars used a M14 triple square bolt instead of a T60 bolt. All mk5 cars use a M14 triple square. This is shown below (the small gear was damaged). A triple square is a common VW/Audi 12 point bit and not a torx so don't try to use a torx on it! The selector gear has 2 circlip springs one in front, one in back. These do not hold the gear in place. I suggest removing the top circlip so you can fit a gear puller arm into the slots. You must use a gear puller to remove the selector gear (circled in red in the pics above) which is pressed in. If you can't fit the gear puller arms in place, you may have to file them down to fit. Here are some tips to get the gear off: it's pressed on so don't try to pry it off! Try using PB blaster and squirt it around the center section. Also try removing the washer but leaving the bolt partially threaded in with a gap for something to leave the gear puller bolt to push against. You can also use heat from a blowtorch to heat the selector ring. You need a low profile gear puller if you have an mk3 Passat. I didn't have one and it was late, so I made one myself. I used a small gear puller center section and 2 small gear puller arms. Note that 1 arm tip is wide, 1 arm tip is narrow (You can't really see this in the picture, but this is to fit into the selector ring slots. The slots alternate 1 wide, 1 narrow). Then I took old allen wrenches, used a blowtorch to soften them, and bent them into s-shapes to hold the gear puller arms. Don't bother using soft metal because it won't hold the force of pulling the gears. Note that the arms are directly opposite each other. Here is the gear selector with the circlip wire spring installed. Note how the locks fit into the narrow slots. The wide slots are empty. Once the selector gear is removed, the 5th gear just comes off. You MUST remove the large gear and the selector gear BEFORE you remove the small gear. The small gear will not come off before the large gear comes off. Clean everything. Now clean it again! The needle bearing just slides off by hand. In the above picture you should be able to see how the gear spins freely until it's locked by the selector gear. Here is a comparison of the old and new gears. The old large gear still has the needle bearing on the inside edge (top left gear). Here is a picture of the selector ring. Note the grooved tooth (center of pic) where the locking teeth sits. Here is the selector gear. The bronze synchronizer sits between the 5th gear and the selector gear with the teeth pointing away from the trans. The locking teeth are held by the circlips, one above the ring and one below the selector ring. For reassembly, clean everything again. Remember to put the small gear on first, then the large gear w/needle bearing. Then the selector gear. Press them in with a clean block of wood and a hammer or a clean dead blow mallet. Optional but suggested: heating the gears will make them expand and make them easier to press on. Putting them in an oven for 20 minutes at about 300-350oF should warm them up nicely. A torch won't do too much. You can use pliers and a heat resistant glove like the Ove Glove to handle the hot gears. The washers are not flat washers! You may be able to see wear grooves on the inside or outside edge of the washer. They are belleville lock washer springs and are shaped like a cone to apply pressure against the gear and T60 bolt. If the washer isn't snug it's on backwards. In the below picture, the washer on the large gear is on backwards - you can see the wear ring on the outer edge - it should be on the inner edge. Torque the bolt to spec and that should press the gears back on if they weren't 100% on. Reinstall the selector lever and pins. Clean the gasket and cover surfaces and reinstall the cover. Refill with gear oil. Torque specs: T60 bolts: 59 ft lbs (80 Nm) 8mm triple square selector lever bolts: 18 ft lbs (25 Nm) Transmission cover bolts: 9 ft lbs Go for a test drive and check for any leaks. If everything is okay, go sell your 5th gear to a VW gasser! All of the VW mk3 and mk4 cars that are 5 speed can use this gear. (No 6 speed or automatics)

EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is an archive of a forum post. The pictures were hosted externally and are lost. If you can add pictures, please upload them to this article! You can also refer to the first writeup here: Parts needed: 02Z 311 158 A (Large Gear) 02Z 311 361 A (Small Gear) 02A 311 324 C Concave Spring Washer for small gear 02A 301 215 A Gearbox Cover Gasket 2.0 liters (+/-) VW G50 (or alternate brand) full synthetic gear oil 75W/90 Tooling: Metric Tool set 11 mm socket for gearbox Cover bolts 17 mm socket to remove wheel lug bolts 17 mm Allen socket for drain/fill plugs 8 mm Triple Square for the Selector Fork mounting bolts T60 Torx socket for the bolts that hold on 5th gears T25 bit to remove the screw for the inner fender liner Electric heat gun or propane/MAPP gas torch (as needed) Gear Puller, 3 arms Torque wrench in ft/lbs. Oil Catch Impact gun (if you have air tools available) Procedure: -Inventory your parts. -Inventory your tool list. -Review Maintenance Manual Procedure(s). -Position vehicle for maintenance. -Place Wheel Chocks behind rear wheels. -Jack up the front of the vehicle. (Refer to Owner’s Manual or Maintenance Manual for proper Jack Points) -Place vehicle on jack stands. (Refer to Owner’s Manual or Maintenance Manual for proper placement) -Remove Front Left (driver side) wheel with 17 mm socket. -Remove Inner Fender Liner with T25 Torx bit. -Clean the area around the Fill and Drain plugs to prevent internal contamination. -Loosen and Remove Fill Plug. Clean Fill Plug. -Loosen Drain Plug. -Position Oil Catch under the Drain Plug. -Continue with the removal of the Drain Plug. Clean Drain Plug. -Remove the 5 Bolts that hold on the Gearbox Cover with the 11 mm socket. Loosen the top bolts first in the event that all the gear oil has not drained out of the Drain Plug hole. There will be residual gear oil behind the gearbox cover. -Remove the Gear Selector Bolts with the 8 mm Triple Square socket. -Remove the Gear Selector Pins and Gear Selector Lever. -Remove both Torx bolts with the T60 Torx socket. You may need to have a second person help you by applying the brakes to hold the transmission from turning. These were easily removed with an impact gun. -Note how the OLD GEARS are oriented on the shafts. The NEW GEARS will be installed the same way. Pay attention to how flush the gears are to the ends of the shaft. -The Synchronizing Hub has Spring Circlips on the Outside (facing you) and Backside of the gear. The Circlips hold the 3 Locks in place. -Remove the Spring Circlip and slide the Locking Collar BACK. -Reinstall the T60 Torx bolt finger tight. -Install the Gear Puller arms into the 3 slots that do not have the Locks. The gear puller arms need to fit behind the synchronizing hub. -Apply heat to the Synchronizing hub and/or Aerokroil/PB Blaster, ect to the splined shaft area. -Remove Remove Synchronizing Hub with Locking Collar. -Note the position of the 3 Locks that are being held in with the Spring Circlip on the back side of the synchronizing hub. -Remove the Synchronizing Ring. This may have come off with the Synchronizing Hub and Locking Collar or it may still be on the Large 5th Gear. -Remove Large 5th gear. It rests on Needle Bearing set in a plastic cage. -Remove the Small 5th gear. It is on a splined shaft. A little wiggling of the gear will allow it to slide off. - Clean the Synchronizing Hub and Locking Collar, Needle Bearings, Spring Circlips, Locks, Synchronizing Ring, Selector Lever and Pins, and the Gearbox Cover. -Clean the transmission case. -Heat the new Small 5th gear with Electric Heat Gun or Propane/MAPP gas torch. -Install new Small 5th gear (02Z 311 361 A) on Splined Shaft. -Lubricate the Needle Bearings with VW G50 (or alternate brand) full synthetic gear oil 75W/90 -Install Needle Bearings on shaft. -Install new Large 5th gear (02Z 311 158 A) -Install Synchronizer Ring on the Large 5th gear. -Assemble the Synchronizer Hub/Locking Collar/Locks and Spring Circlips. Note the 3 grooved teeth on the Locking Collar. The Locks fit at these positions between the Narrow Grooves on the Synchronizer Hub and the Locking Collar. Note the orientation of the Locks were they were removed and Install the same way. Install the Spring Circlips. -Heat the hub of the Synchronizer Assembly with an Electric Heat Gun or Propane/MAPP gas torch. -Install Synchronizer Assembly on the Splined Shaft. Be careful not to damage the Synchronizer Ring that sits on the Large 5th gear, it may have slipped off the Large 5th gear. Make sure it is resting flush against the Large 5th gear. -Install the Small Concave Spring Washer (02A 311 324 C) with the T60 Torx bolt on the Small 5th gear. -Note the orientation of the Concave Spring Washers. The cone should be against the bolt, the outer edge of the Concave Spring Washer should be against the Small 5th gear. -Install the Concave Spring Washer that was removed earlier with the T60 Torx bolt onto the Large 5th gear shaft. -Note the orientation of the Concave Spring Washers. The cone should be against the bolt, the outer edge of the Concave Spring Washer should be against the Synchronizer hub. -Torque T60 Torx bolts to 59 ft/lbs (80 Nm). You may need the assistance of a second person to apply brake pressure while you torque these bolts. -Install the Selector Lever and Pins with the 8mm Triple Square bolts. -Torque the 8 mm Triple Square bolts to 18 ft/lbs (25 Nm) - Install the Gearbox Cover with new gearbox Cover Gasket (02A 301 215 A) with 5 11mm bolts. -Torque the Gearbox Cover bolts to 9 ft/lbs. -Install Drain Plug with 17mm Allen socket. -Torque 17mm Drain Plug to 20-25 ft/lbs. -Service Transmission with 2.0 liters (+/-) or until full of VW G50 (or alternate brand) full synthetic gear oil 75W/90. Make sure vehicle is Level when Servicing Transmission. Fill gear oil to the Lower Edge of the Filler Plug Hole. -Install Fill Plug with 17mm Allen Socket. -Torque 17mm Fill Plug to 20-25 ft/lbs. -Install Inner Fender Liner with T25 Torx screws. -Install Front Left (Driver Side) wheel. -Torque Wheel Lug Bolts to 95 ft/lbs. -Start vehicle and check for leaks. -Test drive vehicle, check for leaks again. -Enjoy the added fuel mileage by dropping your RPMs at highway speeds!

Underneath the car... Remove the 10mm nut to body nut (place it back after you remove the pipe so it doesn't get lost) and remove the close clamp at the intercooler. If it happens to break, see . Bend the turbo-intercooler pipe out of the way - the rubber section at the turbo is soft enough to let you bend it. It's normal for a small stream of engine oil to come out of the intercooler and piping. Oil mist from the crankcase vent (CCV) system condenses and settles at the low spots like the intercooler. A lot of oil like a pint or more may be abnormal and from a leaking turbo or other engine wear. See for more details. If you want more clearance or are removing the turbo or cylinder head, you should remove this hose completely. There's an additional spring clamp at the turbo outlet (in green in 2nd lower pic). Tape off the turbo outlet and intercooler inlet pipes. Unbolt the serpentine belt pulley/harmonic balancer pulley (4x 6mm allen bolts). If you let the 4 allen bolts soak with penetrating lubricant, they should be easier to remove now. Don't let it drop when you remove the last bolt. The best way to counterhold the pulley is to put the car in gear/park and have a helper step on the brakes. This prevents the harmonic damper pulley from turning and will counterhold the 4x 6mm bolts. Try to use a 6mm allen bit on a wrench since it reduces twisting and the chance for stripping the allen bolt. Since you applied PB Blaster or liquid wrench in an earlier step it should help but sometimes they just get stripped. Most were be solid but a few seemed to be made out of butter. You may want to temporarily remove any timing belt locking tools that are being used to hold the engine. They are not for counterholding the engine. If the camshaft lock slips, it could damage the machined surfaces on the head or cam. The camshaft lock can also crack the camshaft if you use it to counterhold. Caution:The pulley you are removing is the crankshaft pulley/ serpentine belt pulley/harmonic balancer pulley only! Do not remove the crankshaft sprocket (the one that looks like a gear and drives the timing belt). Its bolt (the 19mm 12 point bolt – the large rusty center bolt in the picture below) is a one use only stretch bolt so don’t remove it. I use the bolt to turn the engine over but not to counterhold the allen bolts because the force being applied to the bolt when turning over the engine is much lower. I suggest putting the car in gear and having someone step on the brakes to counterhold the allen bolts. Illustration A13-0009 in the official service manual shows the 19mm bolt being used to counterhold the 4x 6mm allen bolts but considering the amount of force I've had to use to loosen them, I suggest using the helper-on-the-brakes method as a primary method of counterholding and using the the 19mm bolt as a secondary assist only if it's totally stuck. If they end up getting stripped, use an EZ out stripped bolt extractor like the one pictured above to grip the outer diameter of the bolt heads. If the harmonic balancer is stuck after the bolts are removed, use a rubber hammer or a piece of wood to gently knock it back and forth to wiggle it off. The 4 bolt holes are not symmetrical. The pulley will only go on with the holes oriented in the correct pattern. CAUTION: Post 2003 engines may use a different length bolt than pre 2003 engines so check with your parts vendor. Some timing belt kits include replacement hardened allen bolts. The pulley pictured above uses the short bolts. If your pulley has 4 raised ridges under the bolt heads, you use the long bolts. If you put long bolts on a short pulley it will gouge the front oil seal and cause a big oil leak. If you put short bolts on a long pulley it won't hold securely. Insert the camshaft lock bar into the slot. Shim it with business cards or feeler gauges under the sides of the bar to center it as pictured below. Again, do not torque the camshaft lock bar or use it to counterhold the camshaft sprocket or timing belt because it can break the camshaft or tool! The service manual says that if you use the camshaft lock bar to torque, camshaft damage will usually result ; the metalnerd tool also says not for torque . If you have VW tool# 3428, you don't have to remove the valve cover. First screw the bolts into the holes for the vacuum pump. Shown below are the Metalnerd too (silver) and the OEM VW 3428 tool (black) with bolt on top) Do not use this to counterhold the cam bolt or else it may crack the slot. Then slide the tool to the passenger side (towards the camshaft) to engage the camshaft slot. If you have the OEM VW tool, make sure the top bolt is tight. Below right is the Metalnerd equivalent tool in use. The metal index bar is welded in place. The knob is there to help remove it from the slot. Insert the injection pump lock pin but see the cautions below! CAUTION - When viewed inline with the axis of the injection pump sprocket, the pin must be aligned with the center of the mark on the injection pump cover. The metalnerd lock pin almost touches the sprocket's center nut when it's all the way in. After the pin goes in, double check the position with a mirror and you should see the image below. You should clearly see the hole bracketed in the sprocket's slot. Here are 2 views: one in a mirror and another view with the engine out of the car for illustration. If you can visually verify the hole and it's a mm off or so, that's OK. Loosen the 3x 13mm bolts that hold the sprocket, rotate it a little, and insert the pin. If it's a lot off, it may not be correct. Make sure you're at TDC. If you're 180 degrees out of TDC the camshaft slot will be horizontal but the pump pin won't be even close to lined up. I have highlighted the alignment with a topaz line in the picture below. During reassembly, if the pin is not perfectly aligned with the mark on the cover, the IP sprocket bolt, and is not in the correct hole, it's not right and your car will not run well! The back end of a 6mm or 15/64 drill bit will also work. Triple check the position with a mirror! A common mistake is to place the pin into the spaces left or right of the hole! If this happens you will have trouble starting the car or have injection timing outside of the acceptable range. Here are more pictures. The pin should be aligned with the center of the square mark on the pump and be in the hole. Be aware of when viewing the pin location. Warning - the large 22mm center nut on the pump shaft holds the hub on. Do not loosen the nut! There is no key indexing the hub to the injection pump shaft so loosening the nut and rotating the grey hub will screw up the pump! You want to loosen the 3x 13mm injection pump sprocket bolts only! Each bolt hole on the sprocket is shaped like an oval so the injection pump sprocket can be rotated somewhat without moving the grey hub (you locked the grey hub with the pin but not the sprocket). Again, don't loosen the grey hub or its large nut, you only want to loosen the sprocket. Remove the engine mount alignment plate bolts circled in white below (13mm x2 bolts). Support the engine BEFORE you remove the red and green circled bolts in the above picture! See the next paragraph for more details on this! Once the engine is supported, remove the engine mount (16mm x2 bolts circled in green and 18mm x2 bolts circled in red). The 16 and 18mm bolts are one use only stretch bolts, make sure you use new bolts when replacing them! After you remove the alignment plate, raise the engine slightly to get the weight of the engine off the engine mount, just far enough for it to be in a neutral position (about 1/4 raised). If the engine is supported and you use the updated torque specs on these bolts, they bolts are less likely to strip the threads in the aluminum mount. If they are a little stripped, get a new mount since the engine can fall if the 18mm bolts strip. The factory method is to use a support bracket above the car. Refer to your service manual for more details on the bracket. If you want to buy a support bracket like the one pictured below, they are available at Northern Tool or Harbor Freight. The pass side hook can reach its engine support bracket, the driver's side uses a chain looped around a bolt/nut through its engine support bracket. If you don't have a engine support, you can use a hydraulic jack on the oil pan with a block of wood so that it doesn’t crack the aluminum oil pan. If the engine or jack slips, the engine will fall and could cause injury to persons or property so make sure the engine is secure! Hydraulic jacks can also suddenly fail so you should never put yourself in a position where you could be injured if the jack fails. I suggest using a backup to the jack like the above engine support. Some jack stands on the sides of the wood next to the hydraulic jack can also act as a backup. Raise or lower the engine slightly to expose the remaining engine mount bolts (3x 16mm). The wheel well is blocking access to all 3 bolts at the same time. Since the bolts are hidden, here is the mount pictured on an engine that was removed from the car. Don't bother trying to remove the mount until the timing belt rollers are removed because there isn't enough clearance yet. You can also leave the bottom bolt only hand loose so that the mount can be pivoted and isn't in the way while you remove the belt. It's difficult to remove the mount from the car because of clearance so if you just want to loosen it and move the belt around it, that's acceptable. The upper right bolt is longer (about 120mm long) vs. the other 2 bolts (about 94mm long). If the shorter 16mm bolt holes or the engine mount tab on the engine block are broken you can use the to fix it. Remove the lower timing belt cover (5x 10mm bolts). The middle-lower piece overlaps the lower-lower round piece. Note the tabs on the edges. You might have to remove/tilt the serpentine belt tensioner (3x 13mm bolts, ignore the damper's bolt) to access the rightmost bolt. Double check for TDC at the engine flywheel stamp. If you haven't already, insert the camshaft lock bar and injection pump locks. If you have the metalnerd kit, insert the crankshaft lock by lightly screwing in the 2 bolts. The flywheel shouldn't move much on its own if you don't have this tool. You will now remove the timing belt. Loosen the timing belt tensioner (13mm) bolt. Use the spanner wrench to turn the tensioner counterclockwise in the direction of the yellow arrow to loosen the timing belt. Loosen the camshaft sprocket(19mm x1 bolt). Remember, the camshaft lock bar at the other end is NOT for counter holding the camshaft sprocket bolt. You could damage the camshaft if too much pressure is applied to the camshaft locking bar. It's best if one person loosens the camshaft sprocket bolt so they can apply equal amounts of pressure to the bolt and the counter hold bar at the same time. This minimizes the chance that the camshaft locking bar will get torqued. If you're really worried you can remove the camshaft lock bar and reinsert it later. Since the camshaft sprocket is a tapered fit onto the camshaft, loosening the bolt will not release the sprocket yet. (Picture is for demonstration only, don't use a torque wrench for loosening). Don't completely remove the bolt. Just loosen it a few turns so that the bolt and washer can catch the camshaft sprocket when it pops off. There should be a space for the sprocket to pop off (red arrow). Use the t4001 puller to remove the camshaft sprocket. You could also use the metalnerd camshaft sprocket puller shown below. (picture is staged from an earlier step but you get the idea). You can also loan (with deposit) a generic gear puller from autozone. It appears that autozone tool OEM27009: timing gear puller may work. The sprocket is pressed on by a tapered fit. It might look like there's a key missing but there is not supposed to be any key on the camshaft sprocket. This is a major reason why you must use the timing belt tools to lock the camshaft position. If you do not have a puller and have an early 1998 New beetle TDI, you may have a hole in the inner timing belt cover where you can use a punch to pop the sprocket off. Later TDI have a relief where you can drill a hole to insert a punch. Pictured below is an earlier generation VW timing belt showing the punch method. I suggest a puller since the force applied is more even and a punch can damage the sprocket. You can now remove the old timing belt tensioner, old timing belt, and the rollers as needed, note their original positions! The large roller's bolt is a single use only stretch bolt so you should also replace that. Remove water pump if needed. If you need to remove the cylinder head, you can refer to : end of timing belt part 2/3, . The detailed pictorial and step by step installation procedure is for premium members only so please sign up and upgrade your account here: Thank you for your support!

Timing belt removal for 2004 or 2005 VW Jetta TDI and Golf/New beetle TDI 2004, 2005, or 2006: Part 1/3 Introduction This article shows how to replace the BEW VW TDI engine timing belt found on Golf and New Beetle TDI 2004-2006 and VW Jetta TDI 2004-2005. The factory change interval is before every 100,000 miles with an inspection at 80,000 and 90,000 miles. Also replace the rollers/tensioner/water pump because they will most likely not last another 100,000 miles and replacement requires timing belt removal. Failure of the timing belt or components will probably cause severe damage to the cylinder head and maybe the whole engine. Parts 1 and 2 show how to remove the timing belt. Part 3 shows installation, torque specs, and final checks - if you like parts 1 and 2, you must join the forum and upgrade your account to premium to view. If you find the tips on this page helpful, feel free to use the donation button at the top so that I can continue to keep publishing great articles. The Bentley service manual is about $80 and doesn't even mention most of the tips here. This page has color photos, more detail, and videos. Thank you in advance! Disclaimer- this article is revised and updated to include the most current information but is not a substitute for the factory service manual! See the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. Although a timing belt job can successfully be done with basic tools plus the timing belt tools and basic mechanical experience, improper installation of the timing belt can cause severe engine damage so take all precautions listed in the factory service manual. If you have never worked on a car, I suggest gaining experience with easier projects first before doing something as critical as a timing belt! Note about the VW TDI BEW engine If you've never done a TDI engine, the main difference is that you must buy/rent/borrow the timing belt tools. The crankshaft lock tool is a fine fit and cannot be substituted. During timing belt tensioning, the camshaft sprocket rotates independently of the hub underneath it. This sets belt tension evenly. Unlike many engines, you can't just remove and replace the belt by marking it because there are no accurate index marks on the timing belt. You must also remove the motor mount because it's in the way. Some more tips: If you're not familiar with the engine bay, label the fuel lines and plugs/wires that you remove with a piece of tape and marker, not pencil. It will make installation much easier, especially if you are doing other maintenance items over more than 1 day. See for more handy tips. Please read all of the instructions thoroughly and check your parts before attempting timing belt replacement. If you have any questions regarding the tips on this page for replacing the BEW VW TDI engine timing belt, don't hesitate to ask at the forums linked at the top. If you are not comfortable that you can successfully do this job after reading the instructions in your factory service manual and the tips on this page, take it to an experienced VW TDI mechanic! Tools and Parts for timing belt replacement (click links to compare current prices and kit components, shipping, tax, etc. ) 1 timing belt kit with some G12/Pentosin coolant and a timing belt special tool set is suggested. 1 timing belt kit (recommended) - from , or The generic parts linked from here are often made by the same exact supplier as genuine VW and are the same exact part without the VW box. The different kits contain slightly different components and are all sold by well known TDI vendors. Below are the individual components. CAUTION - generic parts available on ebay or other online sellers may be of questionable origin since some similar parts are also used on other VW/Audi engines. The above linked sites are all well known and experienced TDI vendors. CAUTION - I would not buy the or any other of this seller's copycat sites' timing belt kit. These are almost certainly low quality copycat parts! It's not worth saving a few dollars on critical engine parts when it could result in thousands of dollars of engine damage! I and many others have had bad experiences with this seller so never again. I prefer the metal impeller water pump over the plastic impeller water pump because the plastic can sometimes fail and spin on the shaft. It's rare but it happens. Parts list for timing belt kit Note - The service manual does not specify to replace the 4x crankshaft pulley (harmonic balancer) bolts each time but they often get stripped and the torque spec has a +1/4 turn . The service manual for the later BRM pumpe duse engine also does not say to replace the bolts each time. What you choose to do is up to you. (37mm long version) 4x harmonic balancer (crankshaft pulley) bolts VW# OR (short version, unknown length?) 4x harmonic balancer (crankshaft pulley) bolts, part number unknown Optional parts 2x horizontal motor mount bolts VW# n 907 124 01 Coolant Also get some G12 or G13 coolant to replace lost coolant. You only need 3 liters of coolant or 1 gallon and an equal amount of distilled water for the timing belt job and to account for spilled coolant. Do not use generic green coolant, see for more details. genuine VW (1 gallon size , VW #G 012 A8F A4 ) genuine VW (1.5 liter size, VW #G 012 A8F M1)(1.5 liter size, VW #ZVW 237 G12) kermatdi 1.5L size, or . WARNING: There was an old batch of VW tools tool 10050 which had the pointer arrow in the wrong spot to the right of the peg. It should be to the left of the peg. See for more details. VW special timing belt tools tool kit from T10050 crankshaft lock (or equivalent MNT10050) T10115 is normally included with a new tensioner T10060A serpentine belt tensioner lock (can substitute with metal pin) Regular tools: 5mm and 6mm allen wrenches 19mm 12 point socket 10mm triple square bit (not torx or star, it's a triple square head) regular and deep socket 13, 15, 16, 18mm sockets/wrenches screwdrivers/pry regular pliers and remote cable operated spring hose clamp pliers (pictured below, these are optional) wheel chocks/blocks of wood, floor car jacks, jack stands engine support and chains/shackles (shown in use near the bottom of the page) Procedure - timing belt removal If you wish to use a service cover, do so now. I tape an old clean towel to the fender to prevent scratches from belt buckles, jeans buttons, or watches. Also make sure you don't have loose necklaces, hair, sleeves when working on your car, consult your factory service manual for all cautions, always wear eye protection, see the TOS for the full legal disclaimer, etc.. Pull the engine cover straight off to remove it. There are some pop snaps that hold it on. Raise the car and rest it securely on jack stands. See for some pictures of where the factory jack points are. Make sure the car is safe and secure before getting underneath it. Remove the plastic splash shield under the car by removing a few T25 torx screws. I replaced mine with a metal skid plate due to low ground clearance, see . Drain the engine coolant in the radiator. There's a valve at the bottom corner of the radiator. Use a hose to divert it into a bucket. See and for more pics and details. You don't need to do a full flush during a routine timing belt change since most of it will be drained anyways. Remove the coolant reservoir overflow hose and coolant sensor plug. Also remove the 2x phillips screws holding the coolant reservoir down (yellow arrows in below pic). This is a good time to check for coolant migration, see for more details. Once it's loose, remove the hose underneath the coolant reservoir and tuck it to the side. Remove the fuel lines at the fuel filter (white arrows in below pic) and tuck one end to the side. Also unclip them from the plastic intercooler output pipe. After removing each spring clamp, twist the hose to break the seal before pulling it off. This makes it much easier to remove the hoses and helps prevent damage to the line. If they won't come off, remove them at the engine side. Note the blue and white arrows and mark which is the feed and which is the return line. Diesel fuel melts rubber and asphalt driveways so wad a rag around the ends to prevent excessive spilling. Tightly wrap some clean rags or paper towels around the exposed fuel lines to avoid contamination. Optional: change the fuel filter if it's due for its 20,000 mile change. See if you need more tips. Remove the 5mm allen bolt holding the power steering reservoir down (red arrow in the above picture). Move the power steering reservoir and line around as needed for clearance but don't disconnect the lines. Remove the plastic intercooler output pipe (it's the hose you've been working around). There's a shielded electrical wire stuffed in the side, move it to the side. This will give you more clearance. There is 1 spring clip at each end holding it down. Tape over the open pipes so nothing falls into them. I try to avoid using paper towels because they tend to get stuffed down the piping but the pipes may be oily and prevent the tape from sticking. If the retaining tabs on the rubber hose are worn off, it will cause a massive boost leak and poor running. . For the BEW engine the hose is VW# Remove the serpentine belt (alternator/power steering/AC belt). Place a wrench on the serpentine belt tensioner to align the hole in the tensioner and tensioner body. Insert VW tool T10060 or equivalent to hold it in the loosened position (you can also use a nail). You don't need to hold the tensioner back but it makes accessing the 3x 13mm bolts holding it on easier. Remove the serpentine belt tensioner (3x 13mm bolts) and the upper timing belt cover to its left/aft (2 clips). If the car is not on jackstands yet, engage the parking brake, jack up the car,, chock the wheels, and make sure the car is stable, safe and securely raised before doing anything else. I use wood blocks to raise the car. Here are instructions and some more useful tips: , . Remove the plastic splash shield under the car (bunch of T25 torx screws). Remove the passenger side side splash shield (2 speed nuts, one is yellow arrow). Remove the speed nuts by sticking a screwdriver in the gaps and turning it. Here is a picture of it removed. The speed nuts (silver discs) slide into little clips. At the same time, remove the 10mm nut to body nut and clip holding the piping to the intercooler (green arrows above). Thread it back onto the stud to avoid losing it. Move the intercooler pipe to the side. There's a rubber elbow at the turbo which will let you bend it. I don't suggest removing the rubber hose because there should be room to bend it to the side and work around it. Pictured below is an older type hose - yours is the same except the intercooler side uses a wire clip instead of a spring clamp.

BEW engine timing belt removal - Remove the 4 bolts on the harmonic balancer pulley (crankshaft pulley/serpentine belt pulley). If you have a rubber cover over them just pull it out. Caution:The pulley you are removing is the crankshaft pulley/serpentine belt pulley/harmonic balancer pulley only! Do not remove the crankshaft sprocket bolt, the large rusty bolt 19mm 12 point bolt in the above picture. It's a one use only torque to yield bolt so don’t remove it or apply a very large force to it. If there is any corrosion or resistance, I suggest soaking the bolts in PB Blaster or another penetrating lubricant. The bolt heads are easy to strip. Let them soak since PB blaster needs time to soak and penetrate into the threads and under the bolt heads. When satisfied, counterhold the pulley by having someone put the car in gear and stepping on the brakes. If the pulley still moves, use a 19mm 12 point wrench on the middle bolt to counterhold even more. If the bolts get stripped, use an EZ out stripped bolt extractor to grip the outer diameter of the bolt heads. If the harmonic balancer is stuck after the bolts are removed, use a rubber mallet or a piece of wood to gently knock it back and forth to wiggle it off. The 4 bolt holes are not symmetrical. The pulley will only go on with the holes oriented in the correct orientation. CAUTION: Some may be 6mm allen head and some may be 10mm triple square bolts (not torx!) I believe the allen head bolts are long but check the length of the original bolts against the length of the new bolts! Some timing belt kits include replacement allen head bolts (pictured below) which may be too long for your pulley if you have triple square bolts! The pictures above show a pulley that requires the short style bolts. It doesn't have the raised ridges. Some pulleys have 4 raised ridges to accommodate the long bolts (similar to the below picture from an earlier engine). Some came with short allen head bolts, some came with short triple square bolts, and some came with long bolts. The OEM allen head bolts also tend to strip. The triple square bolts are less likely to strip assuming you didn't try to jamb a torx bit into them. The torque spec includes a +1/4 turn which suggest they are single use torque to yield bolts but the service manual for the BEW or later pumpe duse engines don't say to replace them so I don't know which is best. If you have replacements that fit I would use them. Remove the black lower timing belt cover (5x 10mm bolts). The middle-lower cover overlaps the lower-lower round cover. Note the tabs on the edges. (Pic is from a similar engine, your car will look slightly different). The fuzz on the backside is normal but wipe off any oil and dirt. Set the engine to top dead center (TDC) by manually turning the 19mm 12 point bolt on the crankshaft clockwise to test fit the crankshaft lock and camshaft pin. If manual, the transmission should be in neutral when you turn the engine over or else the transmission will hold the engine. Since you chocked the wheels and applied the parking brake the car won't roll away. Do not apply strong force to the crankshaft bolt like an impact wrench because it's a one use only stretch bolt. It's safe to use the bolt to turn the engine over by hand because the force is low compared to the bolt's torque value and this is how the service manual says to turn the engine over. Do this after removing the serpentine belt because otherwise you'll be turning those too and using more effort. The service manual suggests doing this after removing the motor mount - I suggest doing this before removing the mount because the engine will be more stable. While you could also turn the engine over at the camshaft sprocket using a counterhold bar, this is not recommended. Despite having more teeth engaging the timing belt, it pulls on the tensioner side of the belt instead of the water pump side of the belt. This stresses the tensioner so don't turn it over there unless you're discarding the tensioner. The crankshaft is at TDC when the dash mark on the crankshaft sprocket is aligned with the arrow on VW tool# T10050. When inserting the tool, slide it into the teeth on the sprocket (moving towards the engine) - don't push it down (moving down towards the ground) or else the teeth won't be meshed. As a test, pull the tool up (away from the ground) and if the teeth are meshed it won't lift up. There is a peg on the backside where the tool's handle is which fits into a hole on the crank front flange. The peg is visible in the tool pics at the top of the page. When inserting the tool, insert it while gently turning the crankshaft clockwise. There's a little play and it will be off if you insert it while turning the engine/crankshaft sprocket counter clockwise. If you miss, the service manual says to turn it 1/4 turn counterclockwise before trying again. If you didn't read the warning earlier, here it is again: VW made a few defective T10050 whose arrows were to the right of the handle's hole. The arrow should be to the left of that and in line with one of the bolt holes at the 11:30 o'clock position. You can also use the metalnerd universal tool. Rest it with the lowermost hole over the knub and thread the bolts on the crankshaft sprocket. Put a single drop of lube on the pin and slide it forward once the engine is almost at TDC. Once the pin is over the hole on the flange it will move forward into the hole. Please note - do not chemical clean the pin because it's a machined fit and the pin can get stuck in in the tool! When you're done with the tool, just wipe any oil or dirt off with a paper towel. The camshaft is at TDC when VW tool# T3359 can be fully inserted into the hole in the cylinder head. The toothed window should be near the top and not near the bottom. If the toothed window is in the lower half of the sprocket, turn the crankshaft 1 full revolution. Make sure that the pin is fully inserted in the hole! It goes through the sprocket, through the hub that the sprocket mounts onto, and into the hole on the cylinder head. Here is a view with the camshaft sprocket removed, the pulley removed for illustration (the pulley should not be removed so don't loosen the large center bolt), and a view from straight on. Use a mirror to confirm the position of the hole. Make sure you're not inserting the pin into the empty space way below the hole. (If you've triple checked the hole position with a mirror and find that the pin is a hair off and won't go in, that's OK. Once you remove the timing belt you can use the 18mm center bolt to slightly wiggle the camshaft hub 1 or 2 degrees to insert the pin. If it's more than a hair off something is wrong.) The Bentley service manual mentions a mark on the rear timing belt cover but it's blocked by the belt. There is another mark 4Z stamped into the rear cover which roughly lines up with the camshaft sensor tabs. These marks are highlighted in yellow below. You can ignore these marks because they are just there to locate the pin's hole and the toothed window is much more visible. Raise the engine about 1/4 , just enough to get the weight of the engine off the passenger side engine mount and put the passenger side engine mount to be in a neutral position. By getting the weight off the engine mount, it's less likely to strip the threads in the aluminum mount. If the mount threads get stripped, get a new mount since the engine can fall down if the 18mm bolts strip or break. The factory method to support the engine is to use a support bracket above the car. Refer to your service manual for more details on the bracket. If you want to buy a support bracket like the one pictured below, they are available at Northern Tool or Harbor Freight. Loop chains through the engine lift loop or loop chains through a shackle or large+thick bolt and secure them to the hooks hanging down from the support. Make sure the engine is secure and steady before removing the mount! Make sure your support/chain/bolt/shackle is rated to support the engine/transmission! The support bracket can also raise and lower the engine. As an aid in raising/lowering the engine I use a hydraulic jack on the oil pan with a piece of wood as a buffer (so it doesn't crack the aluminum oil pan). This should not be the primary method of supporting the engine because hydraulic jacks can suddenly fail. Never put yourself in a position where you could be injured if the jack or engine slips/falls because it may cause damage to property and/or serious injury/death! Before removing the motor mount, make sure the engine is secure! Loosen all the bolts circled below about a single turn before removing them. This will help hold the mount and engine steady. Then completely remove them. Ignore the torque values, that's for installation. Again, you must securely support the engine BEFORE you remove the red or blue circled bolts or else the engine will fall down! Also note the alignment of the mount since the 18mm bolts have a little bit of adjustment range. This is explained more in part 2 - installation. It should look something like this after removal. The engine support is holding the engine up since you removed the mount. Then remove the other motor mount on the engine (3x 16mm bolts). These are tricky to get at because the wheel well is blocking access to all 3 bolts at the same time. Raise and lower the engine for access. Here is the same mount pictured on an earlier engine. Don't bother trying to remove the mount until the timing belt rollers are removed because there isn't enough clearance yet. For now, just work around it. If you can get it out later, good, otherwise just work around it. The upper right bolt is longer (about 120mm long) than the other 2 bolts (about 94mm long). If the shorter 16mm bolt holes or the engine mount tab on the engine block are broken you can use the to fix it. Although the service manual doesn't suggest replacing these bolts, some mechanics do it because they are holding the engine up and repeated use could cause failure. New bolts will stress the mounting tab less but it normally breaks from under/over torquing the bolt. Below is a similar engine for illustration (mount is the same). Release tension on the timing belt tensioner by loosening its 15mm nut. Insert a 6mm allen wrench or spanner wrench VW# 3387 (fits in the 2 pegs) into the center part and turn it counter clockwise. If the tensioner is being reused, the service manual says to insert the triangle lock pin, VW tool# T10115. The tensioner will stay in the released position even if you don't use the VW triangle pin. You should never reuse an old tensioner during routine timing belt changes since it will almost certainly fail before the next scheduled service. Since tensioners are so cheap, I suggest replacing it with a new one every time the timing belt is removed unless it was just changed. Remove the idler pulley (13mm nut). It will not last until the next scheduled service so always replace it. Don't tighten the new nut yet. If you can slip off the belt do it now. If the belt is too tight, remove the 3x 13mm camshaft sprocket bolts but don't loosen or turn the center 18mm bolt. If you move the 18mm center bolt it will move the camshaft and you don't want that. Removing the camshaft sprocket will not move the camshaft. You have to remove the pin VW tool T3359 to remove the sprocket but don't worry, the camshaft won't move and the pin will go back in with no problem later. Remove the water pump. It should be replaced before every 100,000 miles as part of the timing belt replacement. See for more details. Here is a view of a similar engine (BHW) for illustration. The timing belt routing is..... .....part 3/3 and the rest of this detailed procedure and pictures are in the premium members only section. Please upgrade your account to premium: to view. The Thank you for your support!

Water pump replacement for mk4 VW TDI engine, ALH or BEW Introduction This shows how to replace the water pump or coolant temp sensor on your mk4 VW TDI engine. This article is rated difficulty 3 only because the timing belt must be removed to get access. If you're only removing the water pump without replacing the timing belt, the only difference is that you don't have to remove the motor mount. The motor mount can stay in place while you work around it. Once the belt is removed it's very easy, just remove 3 bolts and the pump will come out. The water pump removal and installation procedure is the same on both ALH and BEW engines so this article is linked to both timing belt writeups. Ignore any small differences in the pictures vs. your engine because the procedure is the same. The actual water pumps are different though. Caution - do not use green prestone coolant, you should use VW G12/G12+ or compatible coolant, see for more details. Parts 10mm socket I suggest a metal impeller water pump. The plastic impeller water pumps sometimes separate from the shaft. If this happens the engine will overheat with no other symptoms because no coolant is circulating. Replacement requires timing belt removal. Water pump replacement procedure Drain the coolant as needed and remove the timing belt. For non pumpe duse cars, model years 1998-2003, ALH engine, refer to . For pumpe duse cars with BEW engine and a mk4 body, model year 2004-2006, see 1000q: timing belt replacement BEW - removal. I suggest replacing most of the coolant since most will be drained anyways. Have 3 liters/1 gallon of coolant and an equal amount of distilled water handy. Open the radiator drain valve at the bottom corner of the radiator. If your car does not have one, remove the lower radiator hose. Optional: Remove the lower (or both) oil filter housing coolant hoses. Twist the hoses to break the seal first. This will make it much easier to pull them off. Then apply compressed air to the coolant reservoir. This will blow out a little bit of coolant in the oil cooler and engine. Remove the (3x 10mm) bolts holding the water pump. Here is a picture of the water pump removed to show the location of the bolts. NOTE: If this is being replaced with the timing belt service the large roller and stretch bolt will have been removed (as shown below). If you're not replacing the timing belt at this time, have a replacement stretch bolt for the pulley. The part number is in the ALH timing belt article. Here is the backside of a metal impeller water pump. If it's stuck, use a block of wood to gently tap it out, alternating on the top and bottom until the water pump is loose. Do not hit it hard or use a screwdriver to pry it out because this will damage the metal surfaces. Then just wiggle/pull it out. Some coolant will come splashing out, so have paper towels and a catch pan below the pump. If it's stuck, sells a water pump removal tool which sits in the 10mm bolt holes and pushes the water pump out. These are shown in use below. Wipe away any excess coolant and leaking grease or oil. Make sure the old o-ring is removed! If there is excess rust you can use a soft scrubber or paper towel to clean the area. Do not use anything which could scratch the metal. Visually inspect the pump and water pump cavity to make sure there's nothing left behind like broken vanes! In one case, someone found a defect in the block which was causing a slow leak. . Here are the archived pictures in case the post ever gets lost: 2918 2919 Blow out any bolt holes that have spilled coolant in them. This will make sure a bolt being tightened on top of the coolant can't hydrolock. If you removed the motor mount it may be easier to put the new belt on, then the motor mount, then the water pump. I usually work around the motor mount instead - if you did this, continue to work around it. To install the new water pump, use some coolant to lubricate the o-ring and press the new pump in place. Make sure to lubricate the o-ring or else it could twist or get pinched and spring a coolant leak. Do not use liquid gasket maker. Torque the 3 bolts to 11 ft lbs. To install the timing belt on non pumpe duse TDI, ALH engine, model year 1999-2003, see and To install the timing belt on pumpe duse mk4 TDI, BEW engine, model year 2004-2006, refer to and These installation articles are part of my premium content section, please join our free community to view and upgrade your account to premium. Here is how:

mk4 VW Jetta, Golf, New Beetle thermostat and coolant temperature sensor removal and replacement Introduction This article shows how to replace the thermostat and coolant temperature sensor on an a4 chassis mk4 TDI. The thermostat is a bimetal element which expands and contracts based on temperature. When it opens, it lets coolant into the radiator where it cools down and returns to the engine. This controls the temperature of the engine. While the turbo on your Volkswagen TDI is oil cooled, I avoid using stop leak products because they can gum up and clog the heater core (you won't get cabin heat) or turbo water coolant lines. If you are experiencing coolant temperature malfunction without engine overheating or other symptoms, it is likely that the coolant temperature sensor is the problem. They are more failure prone than thermostats. If you have a bad sensor, the coolant needle on the instrument cluster will be low and will bobble around a bit. I had this happen once and replacing the coolant temperature sensor fixed the problem. A couple of years later, my coolant temperature was reading low, just within the next hash-mark down from 190 degrees, so I thought my new coolant temperature sensor already went bad. Replacing it again didn't fix the problem which confirmed a bad thermostat. I replaced the thermostat and now the gauge pegs right to 190 and holds steady there. When the coolant temperature sensor went bad, it bobbled and varied more. When the thermostat went bad, it was more consistent, staying in a position that was about one hash-mark low. Thermostat pictures, tips, and this paragraph above from frugality, thank you! Here are some tips on replacing the coolant temperature sensor. Coolant temperature sensor is shown here because it's too small for a separate writeup and it could mimic a stuck thermostat. Replacement is not suggested unless it's bad. Symptoms of a bad coolant temp sensor are the water temperature gauge not rising or an ECU fault for coolant temperature sensor. They should have 2 outputs, one for the cluster and one for the ECU. If the sensor is bad, the engine could think that it's warm and will give too short glow plug duration, which could cause hard starts in cold weather. If you think you're having a glow plug problem that is solved by unplugging the coolant temp sensor, it's probably bad. You can verify this by reading it through VCDS engine measuring blocks, group 7. Here is a screenshot of a normal warmed up engine. On a cold engine, these temperatures should show ambient temperature. To replace the sensor, look on the driver's side cylinder head. This view is on an engine out of the car, looking at it from the left side of the car. Remove the clip and pull the sensor out. Quickly push the new one in and you shouldn't lose too much coolant. If you don't have G12 handy you can just top off the reservoir with distilled water. Make sure the engine is cold or else the coolant system will be hot and under pressure and spray out and scald you. If you have a square plug you use the , if you have a round plug (green or black plastic), you use a Parts 10mm socket for engine cover nuts T-25 drivers or bits for splash shield-belly pan 6mm socket for lower radiator hose clamp at flange 5mm hex bit (allen bit) on a 6 ratchet extension for flange bolts This is a comparison between the OE thermostat ($66 at my local dealer) and an aftermarket thermostat ($19). The aftermarket thermostat will not attach to the flange (pictured below). The pointy end is not big enough to catch on the 2 pins for installation. I recommend going with the original VW thermostat. The aftermarket one comes with a new O-ring. Tthe VW one did not so purchase an o-ring separately. Procedure Remove the engine cover (3x 10mm nuts). You can also retrofit pop off sockets so that you can just pull it off. See for more details. Remove the coolant reservoir cap to let air into the coolant system. Raise the car, rest it securely on jack stands or , and make sure the car is safe and secure before getting underneath it! Drain the engine coolant by loosening the radiator drain at the lower corner of the radiator. You can use a hose to divert it into a bucket. This will only drain the radiator. You can use compressed air at the coolant reservoir or remove one of the oil cooler water hoses to drain the engine and it will save you some mess when you remove the thermostat, see coolant flush linked earlier and through the FAQ for more details. Remove the hose clamp from the lower radiator hose at the thermostat flange. This is just underneath the fuel injection pump. Remove the 2 bolts holding the thermostat flange to the block, 5mm allen bit on about a 6-inch ratchet extension. Cover the alternator with foil or a plastic bag to avoid coolant spilling on it. Remove the thermostat flange. The thermostat is underneath it and will probably be stuck to the engine. The Bentley service manual says to rotate the flange 90 degrees counterclockwise but this is impossible given the diamond-shaped opening in the bracket that surrounds the flange. The only thing to do is to pull it straight back, which will damage the flange. You could try using a metal hook to pull on the thermostat which will also pull the flange out. Here is how the thermostat sits in the flange and what can happen if you pull straight back. To aid in installation, the thermostat holds onto 2 pins that are molded into the flange. Note the o-ring and use a new one during installation. If it's broken, loop a wire through around the metal tip of the thermostat and through the flange to hold it in place during installation. When it's installed, loosen the loop and pull it out. Tip by cattlerepairman. Clean the mating surface of the thermostat. Do not use gasket maker on the seal. Lubricate the new o-ring with coolant. Reinstall the bolts and torque to 15 Nm (11 ft-lb.). Don't overtighten them or else it can crack the plastic flange. Reattach the lower radiator hose and tighten its clamp. Double-check that the radiator drain valve is closed. Start the engine and check for leaks. Watch the expansion tank and add coolant if the coolant level drops. If there are no leaks, the rest of installation is the reverse of removal.

How to remove the radiator on a mk4 VW or Audi TDI - A4 chassis, Jetta, Golf, and New beetle This article was originally a forum post and is in need of pictures! Can you provide any or improve this article? Thank you. To get to condenser, we have popped out grille, unscrewed 7 fasteners holding cover to bumper. Next came headlamps 2 screws top & 2 bottom each side, wire connections for fans & temp switch, Drained radiator @ petcock, removed A/C line next to lower radiator connection. Next came removing the upper dryer line. Also spread the clamp on the dryer so when you pull radiator support the dryer stays @ frame rail. We loosened the radiator hoses at the engine side and unconnected the hood release cable. A bolt at the front edge fender at the hood line and 2 thru bumper at frame horn and the support is ready to pull off. We set the support on a closed top drum ( a narrow table will work too) 4 screws and lift off support from condenser/ radiator assembly. After breaking apart the 2 and replacing the radiator( or in our case the condenser) the simple reverse of steps and your done. A little over 2 & 1/2 hours with teenager help

Coolant and antifreeze flush for VW Jetta TDI, Golf TDI, New Beetle TDI Introduction This article shows how to flush the engine coolant in your VW Jetta TDI, VW Golf TDI, or Beetle TDI, 1998-2006 For the mk5 Jetta TDI (2005-2006), see . Engine coolant is the same as engine antifreeze. Although VW says it's a lifetime fill, a reasonable suggested change interval is about 100,000 miles or as needed, depending on use. Since some coolant is lost during a water pump change, you'll end up draining a lot of it every 60,000 or 120,000 miles with the timing belt service. Remove the lower radiator hose too and what's replaced will be enough to keep the coolant in good condition. Many high mileage cars show clean coolant passages with G12 even after 200,000+ miles! Your coolant should be pink or light purple in color. Warning: do not mix red, pink, or purple VW G12 coolant with green or blue coolant or other non-VW/Audi OEM or OEM compatible coolant! There are 3 main types of coolant available: G12, G12+, and G12++. G12 (VW# g012-a8f-a4) is compatible with G12+ (VW# g012-a8f-m1). The replacement for G12+ is G12++ (VW# g012-a8g-m1). Pentosin is generic OEM compatible coolant compatible with G12. Just tell your vendor that you need G12 coolant because they are all compatible. If your coolant is brown, a few things are possible. You could have a leak in the EGR cooler, oil cooler, or head gasket. If it looks sooty then it could be residue from an oil fill or the EGR cooler. If it's the EGR cooler then you should also see coolant residue in the exhaust and see the coolant level dropping. If it's the oil cooler then the oil and coolant are mixing. You will see milky engine oil. Do not drive the car in this condition, immediately change the oil and have oil and coolant flushed. If it's the head gasket you will notice harder starting, burning coolant, and low compression. You should also notice immediate pressurization of the coolant reservoir on a cold engine. (Pressurization of the reservoir on a warm engine is correct). It's also possible that there's a tiny leak between the oil and coolant head gasket passage and not the cylinder, which will not effect compression. Another possibility is that someone mixed incompatible coolants together. If the oil is contaminated, have it fixed immediately since contaminated oil can cause engine damage. If you only have minor coolant contamination don't worry about driving the car because what's done is already done and nothing will immediately blow up. If you see scales or gummy buildup on the inside of the coolant tank then do not drive - have the system flushed as soon as possible since the contamination could lead to overheating and engine damage. Contaminated coolant might not look dark if you take a small sample but if it isn't pink/ purple/red through the coolant reservoir plastic, then it's probably brown. Pictured below is contaminated coolant. Also note that you should never use radiator stop leak products. Although the TDI turbo is oil cooled only, as good practice, stop leak products can gum up the turbo coolant lines and possibly cause damage to the turbo and engine. Never dispose of used engine antifreeze - coolant onto the ground or into the water! If you can't find a dump, can search for a local waste disposal. Parts Coolant capacity: 6.0 Liters of coolant/distilled water Ratio: anywhere between 60% coolant/40% distilled water and 50% coolant/50 distilled water, higher coolant ratio provides better freezing protection Coolant type: G12 or G13: VW G-012-A8F-M1 (ZVW 237 G12) or Pentosin G12 (pink color) available from or and/or (pink and purple coolant are compatible) VW G-012-A8F-A4 or Pentosin g12+ (G12 plus, purple color) Enough concentrated coolant and distilled water to satisfy the required 6 liters. Make sure to get a little extra to account for any spills. Warning: coolant is poison. Wear waterproof gloves, and take all precautions to avoid skin or eye contact. If some spills on your driveway, rinse it off with water because animals may drink the coolant and become poisoned. If you pollute, at least dilute. Also note all warnings and precautions on the coolant and in the factory service manual. hose clamp remote operated pliers since they can fit into a tight spot and lock the spring clamp open Procedure Draining the coolant If the hose clamps for the hoses you want to remove are in the right spot, just securely park the car. If the hose clamps are in odd locations that require you to get under the car, engage the parking brake, jack up the front of the car using the factory jack points, rest car securely on jack stands, chock the rear wheels, and make sure the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. Remove engine top plastic cover. Since some model years are slightly different, you can modify this to suit your car. The idea is that you want to open a low spot to let the coolant out and refill it as necessary. If your fluid is still pink and clean, you can just open the lower radiator hose and the oil cooler hose and refill as necessary. If your fluid is dirty and contaminated or you want to switch from pink to green coolant or vice versa, see the below section on thoroughly flushing the coolant system. If your radiator doesn't have a drain valve, remove the lower radiator hose to drain the radiator. Open the coolant reservoir cover (pictured below). This is a good time to check for coolant migration, a rare but very serious condition effecting the wiring harness. See for more details. Attach a drain hose to the radiator drain. Open the valve or remove the lower radiator hose to drain the radiator. The drain is plastic so be careful. You can apply low pressure air to the overflow coolant tank to get additional fluid out. This drains coolant out of the radiator and coolant overflow tank. The below picture is looking behind the driver's side bumper. To drain the coolant out of the engine block, remove the oil cooler hoses outlined in green below. These hoses are accessible from the top and are low enough to let most of the coolant drain out. To remove hoses, don't yank on the hose or pry with a screwdriver. Try using pliers to twist the hose and break the seal first, then it will pull off much easier. If you need to thoroughly flush the system, see the section below. Thoroughly flushing the coolant system due to contamination If you want a through flush, leave the lower hoses open and apply low pressure compressed air to the coolant reservoir hoses to push the coolant out. Use your finger to block the other end of the hose to effectively push air out the open hose. There will always be corners where there is lingering coolant but as long as the coolant is not contaminated, don't worry about a little old coolant. Just drain and refill. Skip the paragraphs below and go to To refill coolant. If your coolant is contaminated you need to flush a few times with first water, then radiator flush/water, then distilled water to circulate the cleaner thoroughly. Also drive the car with the water/cleaner mix to open the thermostat and circulate the cleaners. If it's really bad, accept that you'll have to do a flush again when you have time or take it to a professional. They have access to better radiator flush machines and chemicals, it's easy for them to dispose of the used fluids, and it's relatively inexpensive. Just make sure you give them G12 coolant/water and make sure they do not to use anything else. First press a garden hose against the removed oil cooler hose and it will backflush most of the old coolant out. Remember, first twist the hoses at the flange to break the seal first. This will let you pull it off much easier. Remove the hose at the coolant reservoir and flush at the hose there. Also remove one of the heater core hoses on the firewall and push the garden hose against the openings to flush out the heater core. Also remove the coolant flange on the driver's side cylinder head and flush there. There will still be some old coolant lingering in the system so repeat a few times and then on the last flush, use distilled water. If you need to clean oil out, try radiator flush cleaners. Do not use dishwashing soap or regular simple green cleaner because these will foam or corrode aluminum. To refill the engine coolant: For a normal refill, first mix coolant with only distilled water. Tap water contains minerals that will collect on the cooling system, damaging the metal and reducing coolant efficiency. Also note that you cannot mix generic green, orange, or blue coolant with G12 VW coolant! It will turn brown and sludge. Make sure you mix the coolant in a ratio of between 40-50% water and the rest of the solution coolant. Put back and secure any hoses or drains that you loosened earlier. As you add coolant/water to the coolant reservoir, air will slowly come out of the bleed hose that connects to the reservoir at the top of the tank. During this stage, the engine should not be running. Why not just add coolant into the reservoir on an empty coolant system, start the engine, and let it pump itself to gradually bleed out the air? Because that would take longer and the water pump would be starting on a dry system. During start, it would not be lubricated by the coolant and it would also cause lots of air bubbles and cavitation, causing you to misjudge the coolant level and eroding the pump. Believe it or not, air bubbles at the water pump can erode the water pump and cause excess vibration over time, so maintaining proper level of coolant prevents water pump failure, amongst other nasty problems. Once it is full, start the engine, and it should purge out any remaining air. Leaving the heater on hot won't get the coolant out of the heater core since it's always running through. Make sure any hoses or drains that you loosened earlier are secure. Unclamp the hose outlined in green in the picture below and pull that end back. I suggest using this hose because it's small and easy to remove, and it's at a high point of the radiator and engine. You can use any high spot, I just use this hose because it's very easy to reach and it's high in the coolant circuit. As you add coolant/water to the coolant reservoir, air will slowly come out this hose until the liquid reaches that level. Obviously, when liquid starts coming out of the hose, reattach and re-clamp the hose. During this stage, the engine should not be running! If you're in a rush you can remove the hose closer to you, the upper radiator hose, and fill the radiator with a funnel until it's almost full, then use the smaller hose to get more air out. Recheck that the radiator drain and all clamps have been retightened. Check the coolant level. Test drive to normal operating temperature and check the coolant level again. If it didn't go down, you got all the air out. If the level went down, wait until the car is cool and then add coolant/water until the level is between mix/max. If you open the reservoir while the coolant system is hot, scalding coolant could spray out so be very careful opening the coolant system while it's hot and pressurized! Check for any leaks and check the level after a longer normal drive.

Removing or cleaning the intake manifold, EGR of carbon build up (ALH engine VW Jetta TDI, Golf, New Beetle) Introduction The intake manifold must regularly be cleaned of carbon buildup in your TDI engine. This article shows how to remove a clogged intake manifold on your VW Jetta TDI or similar engine. There is no factory replacement interval, it should just be cleaned when there is significant buildup. This carbon buildup is caused by a number of factors, the EGR gasses mixing with oil mist from the crankcase ventilation (CCV) and soot. Newer cars used finer EGR metering and all diesel fuel sold in North America (not Mexico) is now ultra low sulfur diesel (USLD) so clogging problems should be much less. (Some gas stations may not have the USLD sticker and some areas may have some non USLD left in the pipes but all refineries now make only USLD for road use). A thin film or a buildup about 2-3 millimeters thick is normal and isn't something that needs immediate cleaning. If it's greater than 5-10 millimeters I would clean it soon. Some pictures are at the bottom of the article showing bad clogging. This is also a good time to clean the EGR cooler, the round cylinder behind the intake manifold. Some people use a EGR block off plate to greatly reduce any future carbon buildup in the intake. Disabling or reducing the EGR cycling will increase emissions and could cause a check engine light to appear. You could also use an EGR restrictor - a block off plate with a hole drilled in the middle. It could still set a check engine light occasionally but it could be a compromise between intake clogging and emissions. I suggest leaving the EGR system intact for legal reasons and emissions. For more EGR information, see . Excess buildup can also cause the anti-shudder valve to stick in the closed position, cutting off air to the engine and resulting in a no-start condition. It is unlikely that it would stick while driving since the anti-shudder valve is only used during engine shut-off with the ignition key. It can also reduce performance and efficiency or send the car into limp mode. If it were stick, it could also prevent the air cut off safety function. See for more details. Some people prefer to buy a new intake manifold, some clean their old intake manifold because it's much cheaper. A new intake manifold would be cleaner and faster but intake manifolds are just cast metal so there's nothing that can wear out on a used manifold. The best way to reuse an old manifold is to buy a core (a used manifold from someone else) in advance and have it chemically or ultrasonically cleaned. This will save time and a lot of mess the day you remove the manifold. Or you could buy a new manifold and sell yours as a core. Otherwise you have to use a pressure washer and/or brush to scrub it clean. Wear old clothes because they will be stained after you clean the intake manifold. Always wear gloves and eye protection when cleaning the manifold. The carbon is very sticky and a pressure washer or brush alone can't reach the interior corners. Soaking the manifold in carb cleaner, biodiesel, or wood furniture stripper will clean the carbon effectively. I do not recommend bead blasting since improper cleaning could leave tiny particles stuck in the carbon and cause engine damage. Make sure it's thoroughly cleaned, including the interior corners, if you use a bead blaster. There are chemical cleaners that work while the manifold is attached to the engine but I strongly do not recommend this. Dealers used to do this until engines were damaged. In a diesel, the valves are almost touching the pistons due to high compression and once you see how much crud is inside, you won't want that going through the engine with the cleaner You also don't want the gunk to go through the turbo. If the cylinder head is really bad you should remove the head for cleaning. You will also spill a little coolant if you remove the EGR cooler, check the color of your coolant, do not mix green/blue coolant with VW red/purple coolant, refer the article: for more details. Tools 6mm ball end allen wrench or socket pliers and cable hose clamp pliers (optional but suggested) universal joint socket adapter (optional but suggested) mirror to see the back of the engine a brush, degreaser, and a power washer if you want to clean the intake shallow depth EZ outs (pictured below are normal depth EZ outs, these are too thick to fit in the limited space, they are shown as an example only) Parts (click links to compare current prices) EGR gaskets (egr valve to pipe, at least 2) VW# EGR gasket VW# EGR gasket o-ring intake manifold gaskets VW# new intake manifold (optional) VW# new intake manifold bolts (x6 optional) VW# new EGR (optional) VW # Procedure Remove intercooler output hardpipe-intake manifold hose (outlined in yellow) and air intake-turbo hardpipe intake accordion hose (yellow). (2 band clamps each). Tape over the exposed pipes so nothing falls in. New Beetle only - remove the windshield wipers (2x 13mm nuts) and the rubber firewall gasket. Then remove the 10mm nuts holding the plastic cowling to get access. Unplug PCV heating element plug (outlined in green above). Disconnect intake manifold change over valve (behind the intake manifold, 2 allen bolts marked with red circles in pic below). Disconnect anti shudder valve and EGR vacuum lines (purple). The plastic will be brittle with age/heat so be careful. I suggest that you label the various lines and plugs so that they can be easily identified during installation. Caution: make sure you have the vacuum lines going to the anti shudder valve's black vacuum bulb and the EGR valve routed correctly. Swapping them will cause the EGR solenoid to close the anti shudder valve and result in a no start/start and then die. Remove turbo intake hard pipe (pink, behind engine, held by 1 band clamp at turbo and 1 bolt circled in red). Unbolt 3 bolts holding the EGR cooler down (red circles in below pic). Use a mirror to positively identify them. Disconnect EGR cooler intake (2 allen bolts, marked with green) and outlet (2 allen bolts, marked with green). If you choose to clean the EGR, remove coolant hoses (3 hoses, marked with blue). The EGR cooler can now be removed. If you don't want to clean it, just place it to the side and work around it. Here are both sides of the EGR cooler. To finish disconnecting the intake manifold remove the rest of the allen bolts (6x 6mm allen bolts, in red). These may get stripped so I suggest pre-soaking in PB Blaster or another penetrating lubricant. Make sure to tap in the allen bolts to avoid stripping. If they do get stripped, use a shallow depth EZ out to grip the outside of the allen bolt head. This gives a greater diameter surface and greater lever arm to turn the stripped bolt. The EZ outs should be sharp or else they won't bite. If you find halfway through that it's dull, use a dremel to sharpen it. Sears does not warranty the sharpness of their EZ outs. Cleaning The EGR naturally puts exhaust soot into the intake which must be cleaned out. It mixes with oily crankcase vapors from the crankcase ventilation (CCV) and can form a buildup. The introduction of ULSD ultra low sulfur diesel has reportedly decreased the amount of soot buildup. A small amount of buildup is normal. Do NOT use a chemical dissolver or a vacuum cleaner to suck out the carbon while the intake manifold is still attached to the head. Hard pieces of carbon could fall into the engine and possibly damage the valves or turbo. The intake, EGR, and EGR cooler must be removed from the head for cleaning. Below is an example of a lot of clogging by MT_Golf. 2813 The cylinder head is best cleaned while off the car. If you want to clean the cylinder head while on the engine, I suggest removing the camshaft (follow timing belt removal as spec. in your factory service manual or see ) so that all the valves are closed. You can then use a brush to clean. I would avoid using liquid cleaner just in case it were to leak into the engine and cause hydrolock (engine damage). Make sure to follow up with compressed air to blow out all loose carbon particles. Below are some pictures showing a moderately clogged intake. This restriction in air flow hurts engine performance and efficiency. Note that it doesn't look too bad upstream of the EGR but looking downstream of the EGR shows how clogged it really is. The EGR and the anti shudder valve (the throttle-like plate used to help shut off the car by cutting intake air) collect soot and built up carbon can also jam the anti shudder valve, resulting in a no start condition. If this happens, just press the lever on the outside of the valve, connected to the black plastic vacuum bulb to open the anti shudder valve internally. You have to look on the downstream side of the EGR to see the really bad clogging. Obviously you want to make sure it doesn't get to this point. Up to 2 mm of buildup is normal and I would leave that alone. 1 cm or greater is where you should consider cleaning the intake. At this point, you could just buy a new intake manifold because they are not too expensive. Buying a new manifold will let you change it immediately and save car down time. You could sell the old manifold to someone who wants a core so they can clean it in advance for their next cleaning. I used a pressure washer, soaked it in degreaser, scrubbed, and then used the pressure washer again. A hose will NOT clean it, you need a pressure washer! It will cause a big mess, so wear clothes you don't mind getting stained. You can also use chemical cleaners, diesel purge, or soak the manifold in biodiesel. Make sure to get the internal corners and backside as well. Here is the EGR cleaned - much better but it will still undergo one more pressure washing. Here you can see the relationship between the anti shudder valve (black plastic bulb) and the lever and the throttle-like plate . I have a junk table and clamps to prevent the manifold from blowing away. A carwash type electric pressure washer will work but these aren't as powerful as a gas powered pressure washer because they would otherwise damage cars. Pressure washers are not toys - take extreme care of the water jet they make. Another method is to burn the buildup out. It's mostly carbon and unburned fuel and oil turned into glue. Below is a video from a third party site showing this. I strongly recommend that you remove the EGR and all plastic parts off the aluminum manifold before heating it or else the EGR can be damaged. The person who took the video dipped the valve in water but in my opinion it should have been removed. I would not dip the hot manifold in water either because it's possible rapid cooling could damage the manifold. It's also a potentially serious fire hazard so make sure there is nothing flammable nearby, take all precautions to avoid getting burned, let it cool before handling, see the TOS Agreement for the full legal disclaimer. The fumes are also bad for you to inhale and bad for the environment to have raw soot and oil burning off so make sure you take all precautions to prevent inhaling the smoke. oet4qWeZuYA Tip from MT_Golf: I set my intake manifold in a tub filled with 2 gallons of parts cleaner, then let it sit overnight. The tub needs to be small enough and have enough parts cleaner in it to completely cover the manifold. Next morning I put it in a garbage bag, took it to the local do-it-yourself car wash, and used their pressure washer to clean it (on the no/low pressure setting most of the time). Then I brought it back home, put it back in the tub for a few hours, gave it a gentle scrub and took it back to the car wash for it's final rinse. $2 total at the car wash, about $60 for the parts cleaner. Using this much parts cleaner can be a problem in that you have to get rid of it somehow. (Before you buy any, ask the store how you can get rid of it.) In my case I knew someone who was more than happy to have 2 gallons of extra-sooty parts cleaner for use in his shop, one gallon of which was 10 years old & given to me by someone else equally happy to get rid of it! Installation tips Installation is the reverse of removal. Use all new gaskets on the EGR, EGR cooler, and intake manifold. The metal gaskets can be reused if they are in good shape, the o-ring should be replaced. You may find that your torque wrench will not fit into the limited space behind the cylinder head. The cylinder head is aluminum so don't kill the allen bolts. Caution: make sure you have the vacuum lines going to the anti shudder valve's black vacuum bulb and the EGR valve routed correctly. Swapping them will cause the EGR solenoid to close the anti shudder valve and result in a no start/start and then die. Tip from fredmeissner: I mistakenly installed the intake manifold and EGR cooler before the EGR valve. This resulted in me not being able to reach (1) of the (3) allen bolts on the EGR valve as the EGR cooler flange was in the way. The EGR cooler pipe can be bent out of the way to allow installation on the third bolt, but is very difficult to push the flange back to contact the EGR valve, especially with the gasket on it. As the DIY says, make sure to install reverse of removal; attach the EGR valve to the intake manifold before re-installing the EGR cooler. Torque specs:

Cylinder head removal for New beetle, Golf, Jetta Mk4 A4 body ALH engine (and what to do after your timing belt snapped or slipped) To see how to remove the turbo only, see and (mirrored link from TDIinnovations of TX) Introduction This article shows how to replace and remove the cylinder head in your VW Jetta TDI with ALH engine 1998-2003 or similar models. The most common cause is because the timing belt slipped or broke. Don't be discouraged by the 4/5 rating- you have to remove the timing belt so that makes it a 3/5 minimum. This project is not technically difficult if you have the proper tools. Add the extra time and complications such as needing parts halfway through the job and rusty/stripped bolts and you have a 4/5 difficult. If the head comes off you will also want to clean the carbon off the intake which also adds time. Cylinder head removal is easier compared to many cars since there's plenty of room in the engine bay. Plan on having the car down for a week if this is your first time, after accounting for complications, finding missing parts, and cleaning the intake. A proper garage could remove and replace the cylinder head in 1 day but machine shop work normally takes a while. Because this is a more advanced procedure, it is assumed that you have the Bentley VW service manual, at least basic mechanic tools, VW timing belt tools, and if you are replacing the head, a competent machine shop or new head. If you find the tips on this page helpful, please use the donation button at the top so that I can continue to keep publishing great articles for free! The Bentley service manual is about $80 vs. this page with more pictures, color pictures, and greater detail. Thanks in advance! If you are just changing your ALH TDI head gasket, reuse the old head but I suggest on the head of carbon. If the timing belt broke on your VW TDI There are two basic possibilities with a broken or slipped timing belt: the camshaft and crankshaft are still synchronized in time so there's no damage or they are out of time so the cylinder head is damaged. It's possible that the timing belt slipped at the injection pump sprocket. If this happens, fuel delivery will be interrupted and the engine will stall. Do not try to continue starting the engine or the camshaft/crankshaft can go out of time! Carefully rotate the engine by hand to TDC. If the timing belt indexing tools fit on the crankshaft and camshaft but not at the injection pump it's probable there was no valve/piston contact. Inspect the lifters and replace the timing belt. If they are all OK then you got lucky. If the teeth stripped at the camshaft or crankshaft, you'll see it. Below are two pictures showing stripped teeth at the crankshaft. If you see this you know there was valve-piston contact because the crank is no longer aligned with the camshaft. If the camshaft and crankshaft are not aligned, there is at least one valve damaged through valve - piston contact. When the camshaft valve cover is off to check for time, carefully examine the valve lifters. Take off the camshaft (see for more details) and remove the lifters. The lifters should appear smooth on the top (mirror like- halo mini scratches in an even circular pattern on the top from the camshaft is normal) and your fingernail should not catch on the fine scratches. The reason why the scratches are in a round pattern is because the camshaft rotates the lifter as it moves across it. If the lifter does not rotate freely, it's binding somewhere or somehow. If you see a round valve stem shaped dimple on the bottom or spider mark cracks on the surface of the lifters, this is a 100% sign that the valves hit the pistons because the top of the valve was driven into the lifter and left a mark. Below are some thumbnail pictures of cracked lifters from valve/piston contact, some from far cry . They show definite damage and valve impressions. SOHC TDI valves go straight up and down and if they hit the pistons they can be forced up and deform and/or break the lifters and leave these impressions. Click them for a larger view. 2384 2385 2386 2391 Here are some more pictures of head damage from user jfettig. They are thumbnails, click to enlarge. 2387 2392 2390 2389 2388 Even though the VW manual states that the head cannot be repaired, there are people out there who can repair even a gouged and damaged aluminum head to like new specs. A member named Franko6 is experienced with rebuilding these heads, you can at least Without professional examination and testing, it is impossible to determine if the head can be re-used with some old components, if the head has to be completely rebuilt, or if the head has to be discarded. Be careful because sometimes the valves can bend slightly, get re-bent into the normal position, and then snap off later due to weakening at the bend. The TDI valves are pointing straight down so they oftentimes get mushroomed from piston contact which leads to later failure (instead of getting bent). According to Franko6 ...if a valve is straight and has a good valve seat, why replace it? I've seen valves that are good in a head with 600,000 miles. That same engine with it's rebuilt head now has another 100k on it. Why am I replacing good components? Just to be 'safe'? That's thowing money at a solution. The cam follower mushroom up when the valves hit pistons at starter speed. Usually, the valve stem bends above the valve guide if you have mushroomed lifters. You replace valve with bent stems. Cam followers that are dented downward usually corkscrew the valve stem below the valve guide. That is why measuring the valve stem will indicate a shortened valve length. Replace corkscrewed valves. But stuck lifters, mushroomed lifters, the valve might be very close to proper height. Once the cam follower is removed, you can see that they are bent toward the back of the head. If valves under mushroomed lifters will slide smoothly out of the valve guide, they are ok. Once the head is off, inspect the pistons and check piston protrusion to make sure no piston rods were bent. On the ALH and similar engines, the lower end is normally OK but the cylinder head is normally damaged when the timing belt breaks or slips. You will also need a new timing belt kit with all new rollers, tensioners, stretch bolts, and water pump. Some aftermarket head gaskets have slightly different and smaller coolant holes. This was done to retrict flow and improve coolant performance. As long as you have the correct gasket, it's OK. Here is a .pdf from elring. and Parts (click links to check current pricing) Caution - I would not buy the or any other of this seller's copycat websites heads. These are almost certainly low quality copycat parts! It's not worth saving $75 when it can result in thousands in engine damage and labor! In my experience, he sells poor quality parts, has bad customer service, and lies about product descriptions. I had a bad experience with this seller and many others report the same, so never again. VW# - new, rebuilt head from , KermaTDI, new head bolts (quantity: 10) VW# Head gasket VW # 038103383 (check suffix for different variants) new gasket set - note - check the number of holes punched in the head gasket, it must either match the old gasket or you must measure piston protrusion and order the respective number of holes gasket. An incorrect gasket will change your compression. See your Bentley manual for more details. Because the gaskets have different part numbers they are not listed here. If you shave the cylinder head during a rebuild it doesn't change the compression or piston protrusion since the head is flat. The valves must keep the same relationship to the pistons and check valve seating and relief. new turbo oil feed line VW# Full metric tool set, sockets, wrenches, etc. , see for part numbers and detailed procedures (as needed) and valves, , , (as needed) misc intake and exhaust gaskets PB Blaster or Liquid Wrench - penetrating lubricants that helps loosen rust - they're not WD-40 Procedure Feel free to sign up and ask a question about this article at the forums linked at the top. Secure rear wheels with chocks, , and make sure the front of the car is safe and secure before doing anything else. Remove the engine bay lower belly shield/skid plate, upper engine cover, and engine lower side shields, both driver and passenger side. Disconnect and remove the battery. Note - in very rare cases this causes the immobilizer light to come on. The immobilizer is an anti theft device that won't let your engine stay running. If it's tripped then you might need to go to the dealer unless you have the proper tools and SKC. See the immobilizer FAQ for more details. You can use a 12V battery tender in the cig lighter outlet to prevent disturbing the system but it should not come on. Because you will spend some time under the car and the engine bay is probably dirty, take this opportunity to clean the engine bay. It will help prevent dirt from falling into your face and eyes while working under the car. Always wear eye protection when working on your car, especially when under your car. To clean the engine bay, remove the battery and cover all major electrical switches and the alternator, air filters, etc. Make sure that you do not get water into the intake tract. Clean with water, degreaser, etc, as necessary. Do not get degreaser on the alternator. Always blow dry all electrical switches and anywhere there may be water. The TDI engine stands up well to washing because there are gaskets that protect the electrical plugs but it's still best to blow dry spots of standing water. Remove driver's side plastic cover blocking access to battery tie down (2 phillps screws) and remove battery tie down bracket (top red circle, may be 13mm) Remove battery box (5 bolts, other red circles) Cover the alternator with a plastic bag if you have not done so yet. Spray oily areas with degreaser, brush as necessary, and let soak. Rinse off with water thoroughly. Make sure to clean the undercarriage and any areas where dirt may be hidden. Use compressed air to dry, pay attention to electrical connectors and areas of standing water. While you are under the car, you will be glad that you cleaned most of the dirt off. Under the car, remove white plastic inner CV boot heat shield (2 bolts circled in red). Spray PB blaster on the 3x 13mm turbo exhaust downpipe nuts (2 nuts marked by solid yellow arrows, 1 is hidden, marked by dashed yellow arrow) and turbo oil supply union/line (hidden on top, marked by red arrow), let soak, you will loosen them later. Wear safety goggles at all times. The turbo oil supply line may get twisted during removal, I suggest having a replacement if you want to minimize car down time. If it gets twisted at all, do not reuse it. The best way to avoid twisting it is PB Blaster on the union and counterholding it while loosening the line. Here is another view after turbo removal. Spray PB blaster on turbo oil return line (outlined in red) and turbo support bracket bolt (outlined in yellow), let soak, you will loosen these later. Wear safety goggles at all times. Here is another angle - this oil return line is different because it sits under the turbo bracket. If you have this style of return line, loosen it as much as possible. When you start to pull off the exhaust manifold, you will have enough clearance to loosen the return line all the way and remove it. If you want to remove the intake or exhaust manifold separately, spray everything with PB blaster. The intake and exhaust manifolds can be removed with allen and regular sockets, see the intake removal and turbo removal DIY articles for detailed pictures. Some of them may be damaged or get stripped, have some EZ-out/bolt-out tools handy in case. It can be easier to remove the head with intake and exhaust manifolds attached. Above the car: Remove air intake box and it's accordion hose, vacuum ball, vacuum lines, fuel injector lines (17mm) , glow plug harness, etc. I suggest a touch of PB blaster on the fuel injector line unions. If you don't have a 17mm flare wrench, you can take a cheap wrench and cut a groove in it to get around the fuel line. Drain coolant, see: Drain oil, see The next steps are identical to timing belt removal part 1. You have to remove the timing belt or at least remove the belt from the camshaft sprocket. Refer to the ALH engine timing belt removal article for more details. You may not have to remove the motor mount and support the engine if the belt is not coming fully off. Most of the time, a bad cylinder head is from a broken timing belt, in which case you would have to remove the motor mount. Make sure the tensioner is removed or else there won't be clearance to remove the head. You can also choose to remove the tensioner stud to check for straightness. If you don't have a stud remover, use 2 nuts tightened against each other and use a socket to turn the nuts. Unbolt exhaust downpipe from turbo (10mm x3 bolts). This is where the PB blaster was needed. An air wrench will come in very handy here for quick removal of those bolts. If you didn't clean the engine bay earlier, there will be lots of dirt and rust chips flying down from the air wrench. Always wear safety eye goggles. Remove turbo oil return line and turbo support bracket as pictured before. If your car has very high miles replacement of the oil return line is optional. It's unlikely to break but sometimes it does happen because it's a flex line. Disconnect EGR cooler hoses and other coolant hoses. See for more details. Make sure to label them for fast identification later. Disconnect all remaining lines to cylinder head - electrical wires, glow plug wires, fuel supply/return lines to the injector pump. You should now have adequate access to remove the turbo oil supply line. Although the service manual says to replace the oil feed line each time, it's possible to reuse it if it's clean and clear. If the insides have buildup or if it gets twisted at all during removal, do not reuse the oil feed line. Do not try to untwist it because once it's bent it's not possible to unbend it without having an internal restriction. The journal bearings in the turbo must ride on a layer of pressurized engine oil. It goes from the banjo fitting on the oil filter housing, counter clockwise around the engine, then down into the turbo, held with a union. Use a mirror to examine the line before trying to remove it. If it gets twisted, just bend it and cut it behind the bend (to prevent metal shavings from entering the oil line), to make it easier to remove. In the below picture, after I removed the oil supply line, I put a piece of plastic under the union and tightened it a few turns to hold the plastic in place. This will also help keep dirt out of the turbo bearings and oil line. Note the labels on the various hoses, lines, etc - after a week of sitting you'll forget which line goes where. Below left is a thumbnail, click for a larger view. Below is a new oil line, The white plastic thing on the end is to hold the washers in place until it's installed. Use a stubby 17mm wrench on the oil line nut while counterholding the oil union. There isn't enough clearance for a normal wrench to counterhold so Herm TDI found you can cut a notch in a 12 point head wrench (so it can go around the oil line, like a flare wrench). This method is the least likely to twist the oil line. eddie1 found that if your wrench is short enough it may fit (shown right). While you could use a 7mm allen wrench or square punch wedged between the oil union and turbo exhaust housing side to jam the oil union, it only holds 1 side and could strip the union if it's rusty or too tight. If using a allen wrench I suggest placing it on the cast iron exhaust side and not the aluminum side. A stubby wrench or a crow's foot wrench on an extension (shown right) can reach the upper 17mm oil line nut . Again, if the oil line gets twisted it's no longer usable. Just cut it off for easy removal and cap the end so dirt doesn't fall into the turbo oil line. After the oil line is removed wad some plastic or a paper towel into the oil union to keep the insides clean. Also remove the oil line banjo bolt at the oil filter (1x 17mm) and the 2 brackets holding the oil line (1x 10mm bolt on each bracket). If the oil line is still good, just loosen the bolt, pivot the oil line out of the way, and hand tighten it to hold the line. Above the exhaust manifold: Remove valve cover (7 allen bolts, marked in yellow below.) To avoid damaging the camshaft, slightly loosen the camshaft cap bolts (10 bolts marked in blue below) in the suggested order of: 1, 5, 3, 2, 4, and gradually in stages before you loosen them completely. Remove the caps and then the camshaft. Make sure to label which cap goes to which spot! They must go back in the same spot. You can use a sharpie permanent marker for this. The reason for removing the camshaft is so that all the valves are closed during head removal. This prevents any damage to the valves or from them catching somewhere during removal. It also gives a little more room to maneuver the head them since the valves will be closed and the cam out of the way. It is optional but recommended. (Thanks for the tip Growler!) Loosen the head bolts in sequence and in stages - they are stretch bolts and are not reusable. Bolt removal order is different from the bolt reinstallation order. Loosen each bolt slightly first before loosening them all to avoid warping the head. Loosen and tighten all the head/cam bolts in stages! Lift off the head. If any coolant or dirt is present, clean it off. Cover the exposed head with a piece of plastic and tape down to keep it clean. If you leave the head exposed for a while, coat the exposed surfaces with some light oil to prevent rusting. Cylinder head installation Clean the exposed surfaces. Make sure that there is no fluid in the head bolt holes - fluid pooling in the bolt holes could hydrolock and crack the block when you torque down the head bolts! No gasket sealer should be used on the head gasket. The gasket letters and numbers should face up. Which head gasket you need is determined by piston protrusion above the block. The Bentley manual says that you only need to measure piston height if you change the crank, pistons, rods, block, or bearings, etc. but it couldn't hurt to check the piston height anyways. If your timing belt broke you definitely want to do this measurement to make sure the engine didn't bend a rod. Use a dial gauge or at least some feeler gauges to compare them at the same spots on the piston face. Make sure to clean any carbon off so that it doesn't change the measurements. If you're sure it's fine, count the punch holes in the gasket and get another one with the same hole count. On the ALH gasket, there is an oblong hole and some circular holes, only count the circular holes on the ALH engine. When you get the new gasket the holes will look the same. Not having the correct thickness head gasket (indicated by the number of punch holes you have in the gasket) will change how high the head sits and change compression. Here are the measurements for piston protrusion and head gasket thickness for an ALH engine. 0.91-1.00 mm (.0358-.0394 in) = 1 hole gasket, 1.55 mm (.0610 in) thick 1.01-1.10 mm (.0398-.0433 in) = 2 hole gasket, 1.63 mm (.0642 in) thick 1.11-1.20 mm (.0437-.0472 in) = 3 hole gasket, 1.71 mm (.0673 in) thick When you torque the bolts, tighten them hand tight, then tighten them gradually in the order suggested above by 30 ft lbs each, then 44 ft lbs each, then each 1/4 turn (90o). Then turn 1/4 turn again for the final torque (90o). Tighten in stages and in order to prevent head warping. I've heard of very lightly oiling the head bolts and washers by dipping them in oil and letting drip dry to get the proper torques but I can't find it in the service manual so I would assume they are dry. See for some tips on torque wrench use. VW uses a special tool to guide the head onto position, you can use old head bolts with the bolt head cut off. Wood dowels as guides will also work. Jfettig looped some rope around the lift point and exhaust stud to make it easier to handle. If you have to replace only one bolt for whatever reason, you can loosen that one bolt only, it won't warp the head. If you have to remove more than one bolt, make sure the others are tightened while you work on one bolt at a time only. Again, the bolts are not reusable after tightening them to their final torque. If you have to loosen the head bolts or remove the head again, do not reuse the new headgasket, get a new gasket every time the head comes off. Install timing belt, , , and . Make sure you put copper crush washers on the turbo oil line unions. When installing the oil line, snug up the union first but don't counterhold it when tightening the oil line nut. Just tighten the nut and it will tighten the union. You only have to counterhold the union when loosening the oil line. This assumes that the union can move freely and isn't rusted. The rest of installation is the reverse of removal. Torque specs:

Glow plug recall related cold start problems on VW TDI pumpe duse engines

Introduction

This article discusses the glow plug recall for 2004-2006 Volkswagen TDI and how it causes cold start problems.

Final update as of December 2010 - VW extended the warranty on the glow plug system only for cars that had the glow plug recall done. See the bottom for details. This does not apply to TDI model year 2003 and earlier. Some information and the videos by jsrmonster aka rocketchip.com . If you are having cold start problems, please vote in an informal poll on this forum topic: In mid 2009, VW issued recall emissions service action 28E6 R8 to change out the original ceramic glow plugs on cars with pumpe duse engines with steel glow plugs for all pumpe duse engines with Bosch glow plugs. NGK plugs were not included in the recall. Models with pumpe duse engines were the Jetta, Golf, New Beetle, Passat, and Touareg TDI. The dealer also had to do a computer flash to change glow plug voltage from 7V to 5V for the new glow plugs. The computer program controls glow plug voltage by pulsing voltage to the glow plug relay. The problem is that once winter came around, many people who had the recall done found that their cars had a hard cold start or wouldn't start at all! Therefore, VW suspended the recall and began working on another computer flash. In July 2010, they started to test revised programming. In No